1Bogren, M, Mattisson, C, Isberg, PE, Nettelbladt, P. How common are psychotic and bipolar disorders? A 50-year follow-up of the Lundby population. Nord J Psychiatry 2009; 63: 336–46.
2Iyegbe, C, Campbell, D, Butler, A, Ajnakina, O, Sham, P. The emerging molecular architecture of schizophrenia, polygenic risk scores and the clinical implications for GxE research. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2014; 49: 169–82.
3Gratten, J, Wray, NR, Keller, MC, Visscher, PM. Large-scale genomics unveils the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders. Nat Neurosci 2014; 17: 782–90.
4Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature 2014; 511: 421–7.
5Sklar, P, Ripke, S, Scott, L, Andreassen, O, Cichon, S. Large-scale genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder identifies a new susceptibility locus near ODZ4. Nat Genet 2011; 43: 977–83.
6Lichtenstein, P, Yip, BH, Björk, C, Pawitan, Y, Cannon, TD, Sullivan, PF, et al. Common genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Swedish families: a population-based study. Lancet 2009; 373: 234–9.
7Ruderfer, DM, Fanous, AH, Ripke, S, McQuillin, A, Amdur, RL, Gejman, PV, et al. Polygenic dissection of diagnosis and clinical dimensions of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 2014; 19: 1017–24.
8Purcell, SM, Wray, NR, Stone, JL, Visscher, PM, O'Donovan, MC, Sullivan, PF, et al. Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nature 2009; 460: 748–52.
9Bramon, E, Pirinen, M, Strange, A, Lin, K, Freeman, C, Bellenguez, C, et al. A genome-wide association analysis of a broad psychosis phenotype identifies three loci for further investigation. Biol Psychiatry 2014; 75: 386–97.
10Neale, BM, Sklar, P. Genetic analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder reveals polygenicity but also suggests new directions for molecular interrogation. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2015; 30: 131–8.
11Cardno, AG, Owen, MJ. Genetic relationships between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. Schizophr Bull 2014; 40: 504–15.
12Harrison, PJ. Recent genetic findings in schizophrenia and their therapeutic relevance. J Psychopharmacol 2015; 29: 85–96.
13Geschwind, DH, Flint, J. Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease. Science 2015; 349: 1489–94.
14Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. Lancet 2013; 381: 1371–9.
15Derks, EM, Vorstman, JAS, Ripke, S, Kahn, RS, Ophoff, RA. Investigation of the genetic association between quantitative measures of psychosis and schizophrenia: a polygenic risk score analysis. PLoS One 2012; 7: e37852.
16Yu, D, Mathews, CA, Scharf, JM, Neale, BM, Davis, LK, Gamazon, ER, et al. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD. Am J Psychiatry 2015; 172: 82–93.
17Wray, NR, Lee, SH, Mehta, D, Vinkhuyzen, AAE, Dudbridge, F, Middeldorp, CM. Research review: polygenic methods and their application to psychiatric traits. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2014; 55: 1068–87.
18Dudbridge, F. Power and predictive accuracy of polygenic risk scores. PLoS Genet 2013; 9: e1003348.
19Wray, NR, Visscher, PM. Narrowing the boundaries of the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2010; 36: 14–23.
20Vassos, E, Di Forti, M, Coleman, J, Iyegbe, C, Prata, D, Euesden, J, et al. An examination of polygenic score risk prediction in individuals with first episode psychosis. Biol Psychiatry 2017; 81: 470–7.
21Ripke, S, O'Dushlaine, C, Chambert, K, Moran, JL, Kähler, AK, Akterin, S, et al. Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia. Nat Genet 2013; 45: 1150–9.
22American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM-IV). American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
23Wing, JK, Babor, T, Brugha, T, Burke, J, Cooper, JE, Giel, R, et al. SCAN. Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47: 589–93.
24Endicott, J, Spitzer, RL. A diagnostic interview: the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978; 35: 837–44.
25Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB, Gibbon, M, First, MB. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). I: history, rationale, and description. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49: 624–9.
26Patterson, N, Price, AL, Reich, D. Population structure and eigenanalysis. PLoS Genet 2006; 2: 2074–93.
27Price, AL, Patterson, NJ, Plenge, RM, Weinblatt, ME, Shadick, NA, Reich, D. Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet 2006; 38: 904–9.
28Euesden, J, Lewis, CM, O'Reilly, PF. PRSice: polygenic Risk Score software. Bioinformatics 2014; 31: 1466–8.
29Evans, DM, Visscher, PM, Wray, NR. Harnessing the information contained within genome-wide association studies to improve individual prediction of complex disease risk. Hum Mol Genet 2009; 18: 3525–31.
30Robin, X, Turck, N, Hainard, A, Tiberti, N, Lisacek, F, Sanchez, J-C, et al. pROC: an open-source package for R and S+ to analyze and compare ROC curves. BMC Bioinformatics 2011; 12: 77.
31Kendler, KS, Walsh, D. Schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified: clinical features, outcome and familial psychopathology. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1995; 91: 370–8.
32Ivleva, EI, Morris, DW, Moates, AF, Suppes, T, Thaker, GK, Tamminga, CA. Genetics and intermediate phenotypes of the schizophrenia-bipolar disorder boundary. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010; 34: 897–921.
33Allardyce, J, Leonenko, G, Hamshere, M, Pardiñas, AF, Forty, L, Knott, S, et al. Association between schizophrenia-related polygenic liability and the occurrence and level of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 2018; 75: 28–35.
34Doherty, JL, Owen, MJ. Genomic insights into the overlap between psychiatric disorders: implications for research and clinical practice. Genome Med 2014; 6: 29.
35Bigdeli, TB, Ripke, S, Bacanu, SA, Lee, SH, Wray, NR, Gejman, PV, et al. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness. Am J Med Genet Part B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2016; 171: 276–89.
36Bigdeli, TB, Bacanu, S-A, Webb, BT, Walsh, D, O'Neill, FA, Fanous, AH, et al. Molecular validation of the schizophrenia spectrum. Schizophr Bull 2014; 40: 60–5.
37Zou, KH, O'Malley, AJ, Mauri, L. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. Circulation 2007; 115: 654–7.
38Hajian-Tilaki, K. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for medical diagnostic test evaluation. Casp J Intern Med 2013; 4: 627–35.
39Grzybowski, M, Younger, JG. Statistical methodology: III. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Acad Emerg Med 1997; 4: 818–26.
40Swets, JA. Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science 1988; 240: 1285–93.
41Cook, NR. Statistical evaluation of prognostic versus diagnostic models: beyond the ROC curve. Clin Chem 2008; 54: 17–23.
42Harrison, SL, Ding, J, Tang, EYH, Siervo, M, Robinson, L, Jagger, C, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognition: a systematic review. PLoS One 2014; 9: e.0114431.
43Purcell, SM, Moran, JL, Fromer, M, Ruderfer, D, Solovieff, N, Roussos, P, et al. A polygenic burden of rare disruptive mutations in schizophrenia. Nature 2014; 506: 185–90.
44Piepoli, MF, Hoes, AW, Agewall, S, Albus, C, Brotons, C, Catapano, AL, et al. 2016 European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 2315–81.
45Mak, TSH, Kwan, JSH, Campbell, DD, Sham, PC. Local true discovery rate weighted polygenic scores using GWAS summary data. Behav Genet 2016; 46: 573–82.
46Kirkbride, JB. The emerging molecular architecture of schizophrenia, polygenic risk scores and the clinical implications for gXe research. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2014; 49: 1531–4.
47Marconi, A, Di Forti, M, Lewis, CM, Murray, RM, Vassos, E. Meta-analysis of the association between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis. Schizophr Bull 2016; 42: 1262–9.
48Morgan, C, Charalambides, M, Hutchinson, G, Murray, RM. Migration, ethnicity, and psychosis: toward a sociodevelopmental model. Schizophr Bull 2010; 36: 655–64.
49van Os, J, Rutten, BP, Myin-Germeys, I, Delespaul, P, Viechtbauer, W, van Zelst, C et al. Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations. Schizophr Bull 2014; 40: 729–36.
50Agerbo, E, Sullivan, PF, Vilhjálmsson, BJ, Pedersen, CB, Mors, O, Børglum, AD, et al. Polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, family history of psychiatric disorders, and the risk for schizophrenia: a Danish population-based study and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 2015; 72: 635–41.
51Mcgrath, JJ, Mortensen, PB, Visscher, PM, Wray, NR. Where GWAS and epidemiology meet: opportunities for the simultaneous study of genetic and environmental risk factors in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2013; 39: 955–9.
52Tzeng, JY, Zhang, D, Pongpanich, M, Smith, C, McCarthy, MI, Sale, MM, et al. Studying gene and gene-environment effects of uncommon and common variants on continuous traits: a marker-set approach using gene-trait similarity regression. Am J Hum Genet 2011; 89: 277–88.
53Vinkhuyzen, AAE, Wray, NR. Novel directions for G × E analysis in psychiatry. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2015; 24: 12–9.