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  • The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 11, Issue 1
  • February 2008, pp. 131-147

A review of the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a clinical treatment for depression

  • Colleen K. Loo (a1) (a2) (a3), Tara F. McFarquhar (a1) (a3) and Philip B. Mitchell (a1) (a3)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1461145707007717
  • Published online: 20 September 2007
Abstract
Abstract

There is growing interest worldwide in rTMS as a clinical treatment for depression. Apart from efficacy, its safety as a clinical treatment must be considered before its widespread use can be advocated. All published, sham-controlled rTMS depression trials were reviewed for reported side-effects and outcomes of formal neuropsychological testing. In addition, all reports of seizures occurring with rTMS were reviewed. Other safety concerns (effects on hearing; headache, pain, induced currents in electrical circuits, histotoxicity, electromagnetic field exposure, psychiatric complications, safety in pregnancy) are discussed. Common side-effects were of a minor nature, e.g. headache. There was a low incidence of accidental seizures and induced hypomania, both of which were associated with identified risk factors for which subjects should be screened. Long-term effects of repeated rTMS sessions are as yet unknown. When given within recommended guidelines, the overall safety profile of rTMS is good, and supports its further development as a clinical treatment.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Associate Professor C. Loo, Black Dog Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia. Tel.: 61-2-9382 3721Fax: 61-2-9382 8208E-mail: colleen.loo@unsw.edu.au
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