This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
G Addonizio (1985). Rapid induction of extrapyramidal side effects with combined use of lithium and neuroleptics. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 5, 296–298.
RO Addy , RH Foliart , AS Saran , DS Schubert (1986). EEG observations during combined haloperidol-lithium treatment. Biological Psychiatry 21, 170–176.
Adityanjee (1989). The syndrome of irreversible lithium-effectuated neurotoxicity (SILENT). Pharmacopsychiatry 22, 81–83.
Adityanjee, KR Munshi , A Thampy (2005). The syndrome of irreversible lithium-effectuated neurotoxicity. Clinical Neuropharmacology 28, 38–49.
G Alvarez , JR Munoz-Montano , J Satrustegui , J Avila , E Bogonez , J Diaz-Nido (1999). Lithium protects cultured neurons against beta-amyloid-induced neurodegeneration. FEBS Letters 453, 260–264.
G Alvarez , JR Munoz-Montano , J Satrustegui , J Avila , E Bogonez , J Diaz-Nido (2002). Regulation of tau phosphorylation and protection against beta-amyloid-induced neurodegeneration by lithium. Possible implications for Alzheimer's disease. Bipolar Disorder 4, 153–165.
T Arendt , K Lehmann , G Seeger , U Gartner (1999). Synergistic effects of tetrahydroaminoacridine and lithium on cholinergic function after excitotoxic basal forebrain lesions in rat. Pharmacopsychiatry 32, 242–247.
DK Arya (1996). Lithium-induced neurotoxicity at serum lithium levels within the therapeutic range. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 30, 871–873.
R Axelsson , A Nilsson (1991). On the pathogenesis of abnormal involuntary movements in lithium-treated patients with major affective disorder. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 241, 1–7.
G Bagetta , AM Paoletti , A Leta , Duca C Del , R Nistico , D Rotiroti , MT Corasaniti (2002). Abnormal expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase triggers limbic seizures and hippocampal damage in rat. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 291, 255–260.
P Bech (2006). The full story of lithium. A tribute to Mogens Schou (1918–2005). Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 75, 265–269.
P Bech , PB Vendsborg , OJ Rafaelsen (1976). Lithium maintenance treatment of manic-melancholic patients: its role in the daily routine. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 53, 70–81.
AJ Bell , A Cole , D Eccleston , IN Ferrier (1993). Lithium neurotoxicity at normal therapeutic levels. British Journal of Psychiatry 162, 689–692.
E Beurel , M Kornprobst , MJ Blivet-Van Eggelpoel , C Ruiz-Ruiz , A Cadoret , J Capeau , C Desbois-Mouthon (2004). GSK-3beta inhibition by lithium confers resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis through the repression of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) expression. Experimental Cell Research 300, 354–364.
JL Beyer , M Kuchibhatla , ME Payne , M Moo-Young , F Cassidy , J Macfall , KR Krishnan (2004). Hippocampal volume measurement in older adults with Bipolar Disorder. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12, 613–620.
GN Bijur , P De Sarno , RS Jope (2000). Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta facilitates staurosporine- and heat shock-induced apoptosis. Protection by lithium. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 7583–7590.
A Bocchetta (2003). Psychotic mania in glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient subjects. Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry 2, 6.
CD Bown , JF Wang , LT Young (2003). Attenuation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated cytoplasmic vacuolization in primary rat hippocampal neurons by mood stabilizers. Neuroscience 117, 949–955.
P Brambilla , JA Stanley , RB Sassi , MA Nicoletti , AG Mallinger , MS Keshavan , JC Soares (2004). 1H MRS study of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in healthy individuals before and after lithium administration. Neuropsychopharmacology 29, 1918–1924.
E Broussolle , A Setiey , Y Moene , M Trielett , G Chazot (1989). Reversible Creutzfeldt-Jakob like syndrome induced by lithium plus levodopa treatment. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 52, 686–687.
AS Brown , J Rosen (1992). Lithium-induced delirium with therapeutic serum lithium levels: a case report. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 5, 53–55.
AL Bush , RL Hyson (2006). Lithium increases Bcl-2 expression in chick cochlear nucleus and protects against deafferentation-induced cell death. Neuroscience 138, 1341–1349.
DW Cadotte , B Xu , RJ Racine , GM MacQueen , JF Wang , B McEwen , LT Young (2003). Chronic lithium treatment inhibits pilocarpine-induced mossy fiber sprouting in rat hippocampus. Neuropsychopharmacology 28, 1448–1453.
JR Calabrese , JF Goldberg , TA Ketter , T Suppes , M Frye , R White , A Deveaugh-Geiss , TR Thompson (2006). Recurrence in bipolar I disorder: a post hoc analysis excluding relapses in two double-blind maintenance studies. Biological Psychiatry 59, 1061–1064.
B Casanova , M de Entrambasaguas , C Perla , E Gomez-Siurana , A Beneto , JA Burguera (1996). Lithium-induced Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome. Clinical Neuropharmacology 19, 356–359.
E Celano , E Tiraboschi , E Consogno , G D'Urso , MP Mbakop , M Gennarelli , A de Bartolomeis , G Racagni , M Popoli (2003). Selective regulation of presynaptic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by psychotropic drugs. Biological Psychiatry 53, 442–449.
F Centeno , A Mora , JM Fuentes , G Soler , E Claro (1998). Partial lithium-associated protection against apoptosis induced by C2-ceramide in cerebellar granule neurons. Neuroreport 9, 4199–4203.
E Chalecka-Franaszek , DM Chuang (1999). Lithium activates the serine/threonine kinase Akt-1 and suppresses glutamate-induced inhibition of Akt-1 activity in neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96, 8745–8750.
YC Chang , HN Lin , HC Deng (1990). Subclinical lithium neurotoxicity: correlation of neural conduction abnormalities and serum lithium level in manic-depressive patients with lithium treatment. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 82, 82–86.
G Chen , G Rajkowska , F Du , N Seraji-Bozorgzad , HK Manji (2000). Enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis by lithium. Journal of Neurochemistry 75, 1729–1734.
G Chen , WZ Zeng , PX Yuan , LD Huang , YM Jiang , ZH Zhao , HK Manji (1999). The mood-stabilizing agents lithium and valproate robustly increase the levels of the neuroprotective protein bcl-2 in the CNS. Journal of Neurochemistry 72, 879–882.
RW Chen , DM Chuang (1999). Long term lithium treatment suppresses p53 and Bax expression but increases Bcl-2 expression. A prominent role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 6039–6042.
RW Chen , ZH Qin , M Ren , H Kanai , E Chalecka-Franaszek , P Leeds , DM Chuang (2003). Regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 kinase and AP-1 DNA binding in cultured brain neurons: roles in glutamate excitotoxicity and lithium neuroprotection. Journal of Neurochemistry 84, 566–575.
DM Chuang (2004). Neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of the mood stabilizer lithium: can it be used to treat neurodegenerative diseases? Critical Reviews in Neurobiology 16, 83–90.
DM Chuang (2005). The antiapoptotic actions of mood stabilizers: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potentials. Annals of the NY Academy of Science 1053, 195–204.
DM Chuang , RW Chen , E Chalecka-Franaszek , M Ren , R Hashimoto , V Senatorov , H Kanai , C Hough , T Hiroi , P Leeds (2002). Neuroprotective effects of lithium in cultured cells and animal models of diseases. Bipolar Disorder 4, 129–136.
H Cimarosti , R Rodnight , A Tavares , R Paiva , L Valentim , E Rocha , C Salbego (2001). An investigation of the neuroprotective effect of lithium in organotypic slice cultures of rat hippocampus exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation. Neuroscience Letters 315, 33–36.
A Cipriani , H Pretty , K Hawton , JR Geddes (2005). Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior and all-cause mortality in patients with mood disorders: a systematic review of randomized trials. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1805–1819.
NA Clarke , AW Procter , MT Webster , PT Francis , AD Hodgkiss , DM Bowen (1993). Effect of Li+ therapy and site of origin on cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid precursor protein derivatives. Biochemical Society Transactions 21, 242S.
BJ Connemann (2006). Lithium and suicidality revisited. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 550 (author reply 550–551).
LL Cook (1999). Ventricular enlargement and the lithium/pilocarpine seizure model: possible explanation for agonistic behaviour. International Journal of Neuroscience 100, 117–123.
GV De Ferrari , MA Chacon , MI Barria , JL Garrido , JA Godoy , G Olivares , AE Reyes , A Alvarez , M Bronfman , NC Inestrosa (2003). Activation of Wnt signaling rescues neurodegeneration and behavioral impairments induced by beta-amyloid fibrils. Molecular Psychiatry 8, 195–208.
E Di Daniel , AW Mudge , PR Maycox (2005). Comparative analysis of the effects of four mood stabilizers in SH-SY5Y cells and in primary neurons. Bipolar Disorder 7, 33–41.
TG Dinan , D Kohen (1989). Tardive dyskinesia in bipolar affective disorder: relationship to lithium therapy. British Journal of Psychiatry 155, 55–57.
H Dou , B Ellison , J Bradley , A Kasiyanov , LY Poluektova , H Xiong , S Maggirwar , S Dewhurst , HA Gelbard , HE Gendelman (2005). Neuroprotective mechanisms of lithium in murine human immunodeficiency virus-1 encephalitis. Journal of Neuroscience 25, 8375–8385.
N Dunn , C Holmes , M Mullee (2005). Does lithium therapy protect against the onset of dementia? Alzheimer's Disease and Associated Disorders 19, 20–22.
A Elizur , A Yeret , Z Segal , E Graff (1982). Lithium and electrolytes plasma/RBC ratio and paradoxical lithium neurotoxicity. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 6, 235–241.
IP Everall , C Bell , M Mallory , D Langford , A Adame , E Rockestein , E Masliah (2002). Lithium ameliorates HIV-gp120-mediated neurotoxicity. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 21, 493–501.
C Faravelli , M Di Bernardo , V Ricca , P Benvenuti , M Bartelli , O Ronchi (1999). Effects of chronic lithium treatment on the peripheral nervous system. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 60, 306–310.
A Flint (1993). Ageing as a risk factor for lithium neurotoxicity at therapeutic serum levels. British Journal of Psychiatry 163, 555–556.
KN Fountoulakis , E Vieta , J Sanchez-Moreno , SG Kaprinis , JM Goikolea , GS Kaprinis (2005). Treatment guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: a critical review. Journal of Affective Disorders 86, 1–10.
DG Fujikawa (1995). Neuroprotective effect of ketamine administered after status epilepticus onset. Epilepsia 36, 186–195.
DH Gabuzda , FR Frankenburg (1987). Fever caused by lithium in a patient with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 7, 283–284.
XM Gao , F Fukamauchi , DM Chuang (1993). Long-term biphasic effects of lithium treatment on phospholipase C-coupled M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Neurochemistry International 22, 395–403.
JR Geddes , S Burgess , K Hawton , K Jamison , GM Goodwin (2004). Long-term lithium therapy for Bipolar Disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 217–222.
O Ghribi , MM Herman , NK Spaulding , J Savory (2002). Lithium inhibits aluminum-induced apoptosis in rabbit hippocampus, by preventing cytochrome c translocation, Bcl-2 decrease, Bax elevation and caspase-3 activation. Journal of Neurochemistry 82, 137–145.
O Ghribi , P Prammonjago , MM Herman , NK Spaulding , J Savory (2003). Abeta(1-42)-induced JNK and ERK activation in rabbit hippocampus is differentially regulated by lithium but is not involved in the phosphorylation of tau. Brain Research: Molecular Brain Research 119, 201–206.
SA Goldman (1996a). Lithium and neuroleptics in combination: is there enhancement of neurotoxicity leading to permanent sequelae? Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 36, 951–962.
FK Goodwin , B Fireman , GE Simon , EM Hunkeler , J Lee , D Revicki (2003). Suicide risk in Bipolar Disorder during treatment with lithium and divalproex. Journal of the American Medical Association 290, 1467–1473.
G Goodwin , E Vieta (2005). Effective maintenance treatment – breaking the cycle of Bipolar Disorder. European Psychiatry 20, 365–371.
GM Goodwin , CL Bowden , JR Calabrese , H Grunze , S Kasper , R White , P Greene , R Leadbetter (2004). A pooled analysis of 2 placebo-controlled 18-month trials of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance in bipolar I disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65, 432–441.
TD Gould , HK Manji (2002). The Wnt signaling pathway in Bipolar Disorder. Neuroscientist 8, 497–511.
CA Grimes , RS Jope (2001). The multifaceted roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in cellular signaling. Progress in Neurobiology 65, 391–426.
M Gruenthal (1984). Lithium attenuates the development of lesion-induced behavioral supersensitivity to apomorphine. Brain Research 306, 189–196.
PJ Harrison (1999). The neuropathological effects of antipsychotic drugs. Schizophrenia Research 40, 87–99.
R Hashimoto , C Hough , T Nakazawa , T Yamamoto , DM Chuang (2002a). Lithium protection against glutamate excitotoxicity in rat cerebral cortical neurons: involvement of NMDA receptor inhibition possibly by decreasing NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation. Journal of Neurochemistry 80, 589–597.
R Hashimoto , N Takei , K Shimazu , L Christ , B Lu , DM Chuang (2002b). Lithium induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activates TrkB in rodent cortical neurons: an essential step for neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity. Neuropharmacology 43, 1173–1179.
R Hellweg , UE Lang , M Nagel , A Baumgartner (2002). Subchronic treatment with lithium increases nerve growth factor content in distinct brain regions of adult rats. Molecular Psychiatry 7, 604–608.
B Hellwig , B Hesslinger , J Walden (1996). Acute brain syndrome after tapering off clozapine in clozapine-lithium combination. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 20, 179–183.
JP Hennion , MA el-Masri , MO Huff , RS el-Mailakh (2002). Evaluation of neuroprotection by lithium and valproic acid against ouabain-induced cell damage. Bipolar Disorder 4, 201–206.
M Hong , DC Chen , PS Klein , VM Lee (1997). Lithium reduces tau phosphorylation by inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 25326–25332.
V Hongisto , N Smeds , S Brecht , T Herdegen , MJ Courtney , ET Coffey (2003). Lithium blocks the c-Jun stress response and protects neurons via its action on glycogen synthase kinase 3. Molecular and Cellular Biology 23, 6027–6036.
JF James , E Reilly (1971). The electroencephalographic recording of short- and long-term lithium effect. South Medical Journal 64, 1322–1327.
N Jin , AD Kovacs , Z Sui , S Dewhurst , SB Maggirwar (2005). Opposite effects of lithium and valproic acid on trophic factor deprivation-induced glycogen synthase kinase-3 activation, c-Jun expression and neuronal cell death. Neuropharmacology 48, 576–583.
GF Johnson (1976). Lithium neurotoxicity. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 10, 33–38.
RS Jope (1999). Anti-bipolar therapy: mechanism of action of lithium. Molecular Psychiatry 4, 117–128.
RS Jope , GN Bijur (2002). Mood stabilizers, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and cell survival. Molecular Psychiatry 7 (Suppl. 1), S35–45.
EG Jorda , E Verdaguer , AM Canudas , A Jimenez , S Garcia de Arriba , C Allgaier , M Pallas , A Camins (2005). Implication of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in the neuroprotective properties of lithium. Neuroscience 134, 1001–1011.
EG Jorda , E Verdaguer , A Morano , A Jimenez , AM Canudas , A Camins , M Pallas (2004). Lithium prevents colchicine-induced apoptosis in rat cerebellar granule neurons. Bipolar Disorder 6, 144–149.
HJ Kang , JS Noh , YS Bae , BJ Gwag (2003). Calcium-dependent prevention of neuronal apoptosis by lithium ion: essential role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase Cgamma. Molecular Pharmacology 64, 228–234.
GI Keitner , S Rahman (1984). Reversible neurotoxicity with combined lithium-haloperidol administration. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 4, 104–105.
CJ Kemperman , JH Gerdes , J De Rooij , LM Vencken (1989). Reversible lithium neurotoxicity at normal serum level may refer to intracranial pathology. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 52, 679–680.
CJ Kemperman , SL Notermans (1989). Creutzfeld-Jacob like syndrome due to lithium toxicity. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 52, 291.
H Kikyo , T Furukawa (1999). Creutzfeldt-Jakob-like syndrome induced by lithium, levomepromazine, and phenobarbitone. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 66, 802–803.
KL Kopnisky , E Chalecka-Franaszek , M Gonzalez-Zulueta , DM Chuang (2003). Chronic lithium treatment antagonizes glutamate-induced decrease of phosphorylated CREB in neurons via reducing protein phosphatase 1 and increasing MEK activities. Neuroscience 116, 425–435.
MR Kozlowski , KA Neve , JE Grisham , JF Marshall (1983). Chronic lithium administration alters behavioral recovery from nigrostriatal injury: effects on neostriatal [3H]spiroperidol binding sites. Brain Research 267, 301–311.
DC Lagace , AJ Eisch (2005). Mood-stabilizing drugs: are their neuroprotective aspects clinically relevant? Psychiatric Clinics of North America 28, 399–414.
E Lambreva , M Vecellio , HG Wieser , C Buddeberg (2005). Neurotoxic encephalopathy caused by neuroleptics and lithium [in German]. Nervenarzt 76 (Suppl. 5), 756–759.
EJ Lang , SM Davis (2002). Lithium neurotoxicity: the development of irreversible neurological impairment despite standard monitoring of serum lithium levels. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 9, 308–309.
A Lazarus (1994). Tardive dyskinesia-like syndrome associated with lithium and carbamazepine. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 14, 146–147.
JM Ledoux (2003). Features of the comparative pharmacokinetics of lithium; a potential application of its use in livestock farming. Medical Hypotheses 61, 278–281.
R Li , RS El-Mallahk (2000). A novel evidence of different mechanisms of lithium and valproate neuroprotective action on human SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: caspase-3 dependency. Neuroscience Letters 294, 147–150.
X Li , GN Bijur , RS Jope (2002a). Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, mood stabilizers, and neuroprotection. Bipolar Disorder 4, 137–144.
X Li , TA Ketter , MA Frye (2002b). Synaptic, intracellular, and neuroprotective mechanisms of anticonvulsants: are they relevant for the treatment and course of Bipolar Disorders? Journal of Affective Disorders 69, 1–14.
RW Licht , JO Larsen , D Smith , H Braendgaard (1994). Effect of chronic lithium treatment with or without haloperidol on number and sizes of neurons in rat neocortex. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 115, 371–374.
RW Licht , JO Larsen , D Smith , H Braendgaard (2003). Chronic lithium treatment with or without haloperidol fails to affect the morphology of the rat cerebellum. European Neuropsychopharmacology 13, 173–176.
RW Licht , D Smith , H Braendgaard (1997). The effect of chronic lithium treatment on the calibre of axons and nerve fibres in the rat sural nerve. European Neuropsychopharmacology 7, 95–98.
J Lieb (1980). Linoleic acid in the treatment of lithium toxicity and familial tremor. Prostaglandins and Medicine 4, 275–279.
R Lu , L Song , RS Jope (1999). Lithium attenuates p53 levels in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Neuroreport 10, 1123–1125.
J Ma , GY Zhang (2003). Lithium reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A tyrosine phosphorylation and its interactions with Src and Fyn mediated by PSD-95 in rat hippocampus following cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience Letters 348, 185–189.
SB Maggirwar , N Tong , S Ramirez , HA Gelbard , S Dewhurst (1999). HIV-1 Tat-mediated activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta contributes to Tat-mediated neurotoxicity. Journal of Neurochemistry 73, 578–586.
J Mani , SV Tandel , PU Shah DR Karnad (1996). Prolonged neurological sequelae after combination treatment with lithium and antipsychotic drugs. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 60, 350–351.
H Manji , GJ Moore (2001). Bipolar disorder: leads from the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of mood stabilizers. British Journal of Psychiatry 178, (Suppl. 41), S107–119.
HK Manji , GJ Moore , G Chen (1999). Lithium at 50: have the neuroprotective effects of this unique cation been overlooked? Biological Psychiatry 46, 929–940.
HK Manji , GJ Moore , G Rajkowska , G Chen (2000b). Neuroplasticity and cellular resilience in mood disorders. Molecular Psychiatry 5, 578–593.
KD McLaren , LB Marangell (2004). Special considerations in the treatment of patients with Bipolar Disorder and medical co-morbidities. Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry 3, 7.
JR Meinardi , SH Donders (1997). Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a lethargic lithium-treated patient. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine 50, 105–109.
F Miller , J Menninger (1987b). Lithium-neuroleptic neurotoxicity is dose dependent. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 7, 89–91.
F Miller , J Menninger , SM Whitcup (1986). Lithium-neuroleptic neurotoxicity in the elderly bipolar patient. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 6, 176–178.
GJ Moore , JM Bebchuk , K Hasanat , G Chen , N Seraji-Bozorgzad , IB Wilds , MW Faulk , S Koch , DA Glitz , L Jolkovsky , HK Manji (2000a). Lithium increases N-acetyl-aspartate in the human brain: in vivo evidence in support of bcl-2's neurotrophic effects? Biological Psychiatry 48, 1–8.
GJ Moore , JM Bebchuk , IB Wilds , G Chen , HK Manji , HK Menji (2000b). Lithium-induced increase in human brain grey matter. Lancet 356, 1241–1242.
A Mora , RA Gonzalez-Polo , JM Fuentes , G Soler , F Centeno (1999). Different mechanisms of protection against apoptosis by valproate and Li+. European Journal of Biochemistry 266, 886–891.
A Mora , G Sabio , JC Alonso , G Soler , F Centeno (2002a). Different dependence of lithium and valproate on PI3K/PKB pathway. Bipolar Disorder 4, 195–200.
A Mora , G Sabio , AM Risco , A Cuenda , JC Alonso , G Soler , F Centeno (2002b). Lithium blocks the PKB and GSK3 dephosphorylation induced by ceramide through protein phosphatase-2A. Cell Signal 14, 557–562.
H Morgenstern , WM Glazer , LD Gibowski , S Holmberg (1987). Predictors of tardive dyskinesia: results of a cross-sectional study in an outpatient population. Journal of Chronic Disease 40, 319–327.
AM Mortimer , CJ Shepherd , M Rymer , A Burrows (2005). Primary care use of antipsychotic drugs: an audit and intervention study. Annals of General Psychiatry 4, 18.
DG Moscovich (1993). Lithium neurotoxicity at normal therapeutic levels. British Journal of Psychiatry 163, 410–412.
JR Munoz-Montano , FJ Moreno , J Avila , J Diaz-Nido (1997). Lithium inhibits Alzheimer's disease-like tau protein phosphorylation in neurons. FEBS Letters 411, 183–188.
UB Muthane , BN Prasad , A Vasanth , P Satishchandra (2000). Tardive Parkinsonism, orofacial dyskinesia and akathisia following brief exposure to lithium carbonate. Journal of Neurological Science 176, 78–79.
S Nonaka , DM Chuang (1998). Neuroprotective effects of chronic lithium on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Neuroreport 9, 2081–2084.
C Normann , C Brandt , M Berger , J Walden (1998). Delirium and persistent dyskinesia induced by a lithium-neuroleptic interaction. Pharmacopsychiatry 31, 201–204.
PW Oakley , IM Whyte , GL Carter (2001). Lithium toxicity: an iatrogenic problem in susceptible individuals. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 35, 833–840.
JJ Palacino , MP Murphy , O Murayama , K Iwasaki , M Fujiwara , A Takashima , TE Golde , B Wolozin (2001). Presenilin 1 regulates beta-catenin-mediated transcription in a glycogen synthase kinase-3-independent fashion. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 38563–38569.
GN Pandey , I Goel , JM Davis (1979). Effect of neuroleptic drugs on lithium uptake by the human erythrocyte. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 26, 96–102.
AM Paoletti , S Piccirilli , N Costa , D Rotiroti , G Bagetta , G Nistico (1998). Systemic administration of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin reduces the elevation of brain PGE2 content and prevents seizures and hippocampal damage evoked by LiCl and tacrine in rat. Experimental Neurology 149, 349–355.
T Pascual , JL Gonzalez (1995). A protective effect of lithium on rat behaviour altered by ibotenic acid lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Brain Research 695, 289–292.
TL Pazdernik , MR Emerson (2001). Soman-induced seizures: limbic activity, oxidative stress and neuroprotective proteins. Journal of Applied Toxicology 21 (Suppl. 1), S87–94.
MA Persinger , O Peredery , D Desjardins , A Eastman (1998). Ventricular dilation over several weeks following induction of excitotoxic (systemic lithium/pilocarpine) lesions: potential role of damage to the substantia nigra reticulata. International Journal of Neuroscience 94, 63–74.
M Petrini , F Vaglini , G Cervetti , M Cavalletti , F Sartucci , L Murri , GU Corsini (1999). Is lithium able to reverse neurological damage induced by vinca alkaloids? (Short communication). Journal of Neural Transmission 106, 569–575.
CJ Phiel , CA Wilson , VM Lee , PS Klein (2003). GSK-3alpha regulates production of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides. Nature 423, 435–439.
R Prakash , S Kelwala , TA Ban (1982a). Neurotoxicity in patients with schizophrenia during lithium therapy. Comprehensive Psychiatry 23, 271–273.
R Prakash , S Kelwala , TA Ban (1982b). Neurotoxicity with combined administration of lithium and a neuroleptic. Comprehensive Psychiatry 23, 567–571.
R Prettyman (1994). Lithium neurotoxicity at subtherapeutic serum levels. British Journal of Psychiatry 164, 123.
WA Price , AJ Giannini (1986). Neurotoxicity caused by lithium-verapamil synergism. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26, 717–719.
A Primavera , G Brusa , MG Poeta (1989). A Creutzfeldt-Jakob like syndrome due to lithium toxicity. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 52, 423.
M Ren , VV Senatorov , RW Chen , DM Chuang (2003). Postinsult treatment with lithium reduces brain damage and facilitates neurological recovery in a rat ischemia/reperfusion model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 100, 6210–6215.
MA Rigoulot , E Koning , A Ferrandon , A Nehlig (2004). Neuroprotective effect of topiramate in the lithium- pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 308, 787–795.
MA Rigoulot , C Leroy , E Koning , A Ferrandon , A Nehlig (2003). Prolonged low-dose caffeine exposure protects against hippocampal damage but not against the occurrence of epilepsy in the lithium-pilocarpine model in the rat. Epilepsia 44, 529–535.
C Roch , C Leroy , A Nehlig , IJ Namer (2002). Magnetic resonance imaging in the study of the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in adult rats. Epilepsia 43, 325–335.
E Rocha , M Achaval , P Santos , R Rodnight (1998). Lithium treatment causes gliosis and modifies the morphology of hippocampal astrocytes in rats. Neuroreport 9, 3971–3974.
E Rocha , R Rodnight (1994). Chronic administration of lithium chloride increases immunodetectable glial fibrillary acidic protein in the rat hippocampus. Journal of Neurochemistry 63, 1582–1584.
J Rush , J Mendels (1975). Effects of lithium chloride on muricidal behavior in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 3, 795–797.
SA Santi , LL Cook , MA Persinger , RP O'Connor (2001). Normal spatial memory following postseizure treatment with ketamine: selective damage attenuates memory deficits in brain-damaged rodents. International Journal of Neuroscience 107, 63–75.
A Saran , O Addy , RH Foliart , DS Schubert , A Halaris (1989). Electroencephalographic changes and other indices of neurotoxicity with haloperidol-lithium therapy. Neuropsychobiology 20, 152–157.
J Savory , MM Herman , O Ghribi (2003). Intracellular mechanisms underlying aluminum-induced apoptosis in rabbit brain. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 97, 151–154.
M Schou (1997). Forty years of lithium treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 54, 9.
VV Senatorov , M Ren , H Kanai , H Wei , DM Chuang (2004). Short-term lithium treatment promotes neuronal survival and proliferation in rat striatum infused with quinolinic acid, an excitotoxic model of Huntington's disease. Molecular Psychiatry 9, 371–385.
F Setta , MU Manto , J Jacquy , J Hildebrand , E Godaux , P Linkowski (1998). Kinematics of fast wrist movements in manic-depressive illness chronically treated with lithium carbonate. Neurological Research 20, 320–326.
L Shao , LT Young , JF Wang (2005). Chronic treatment with mood stabilizers lithium and valproate prevents excitotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress in rat cerebral cortical cells. Biological Psychiatry 58, 879–884.
KI Shulman , K Sykora , S Gill , M Mamdani , S Bronskill , WP Wodchis , G Anderson , P Rochon (2005). Incidence of delirium in older adults newly prescribed lithium or valproate: a population-based cohort study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 66, 424–427.
PH Silverstone , EC Bell , MC Willson , S Dave , AH Wilman (2005). Lithium alters brain activation in Bipolar Disorder in a task- and state-dependent manner: an fMRI study. Annals of General Psychiatry 4, 14.
D Smith , P Keane , J Donovan , K Malone , TJ McKenna (2003). Lithium encephalopathy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96, 590–591.
SJ Smith , RS Kocen (1988). A Creutzfeldt-Jakob like syndrome due to lithium toxicity. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 51, 120–123.
H Sternbach , S Jordan (1990). Lithium-associated tardive dyskinesia. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 10, 143–144.
JT Stewart , LS Williams (2000). A case of lithium-induced asterixis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 48, 457.
WH Stoothoff , GV Johnson (2001). Hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis and tau phosphorylation in human neuroblastoma cells. Journal of Neuroscience Research 65, 573–582.
Y Su , J Ryder , B Li , X Wu , N Fox , P Solenberg , K Brune , S Paul , Y Zhou , F Liu , B Ni (2004). Lithium, a common drug for Bipolar Disorder treatment, regulates amyloid-beta precursor protein processing. Biochemistry 43, 6899–6908.
CM Swartz (2001). Olanzapine-lithium encephalopathy. Psychosomatics 42, 370.
WP Tseng , SY Lin-Shiau (2002). Long-term lithium treatment prevents neurotoxic effects of beta-bungarotoxin in primary cultured neurons. Journal of Neuroscience Research 69, 633–641.
H Verdoux , ML Bourgeois (1990). A case of lithium neurotoxicity with irreversible cerebellar syndrome. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 178, 761–762.
A Wada , H Yokoo , T Yanagita , H Kobayashi (2005). Lithium: potential therapeutics against acute brain injuries and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Journal of Pharmacological Science 99, 307–321.
NY Walton , DM Treiman (1991). Motor and electroencephalographic response of refractory experimental status epilepticus in rats to treatment with MK-801, diazepam, or MK-801 plus diazepam. Brain Research 553, 97–104.
H Wei , PR Leeds , Y Qian , W Wei , R Chen , D Chuang (2000). beta-amyloid peptide-induced death of PC 12 cells and cerebellar granule cell neurons is inhibited by long-term lithium treatment. European Journal of Pharmacology 392, 117–123.
H Wei , ZH Qin , VV Senatorov , W Wei , Y Wang , Y Qian , DM Chuang (2001). Lithium suppresses excitotoxicity-induced striatal lesions in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Neuroscience 106, 603–612.
NL Wilczynski , RB Haynes (2006). Optimal search strategies for identifying mental health content in MEDLINE: an analytic survey. Annals of General Psychiatry 5, 4.
LC Wilot , RS Da Silva , OJ Ferreira , CD Bonan , JJ Sarkis , E Rocha , AM Battastini (2004). Chronic treatment with lithium increases the ecto-nucleotidase activities in rat hippocampal synatosomes. Neuroscience Letters 368, 167–170.
G Wood , L Young (2004). Stress-induced structural remodeling in hippocampus: prevention by lithium treatment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101, 3973–3978.
BA Wright , DB Jarrett (1991). Lithium and calcium channel blockers: possible neurotoxicity. Biological Psychiatry 30, 635–636.
RH Wu , T O'Donnell , M Ulrich , SJ Asghar , CC Hanstock , PH Silverstone (2004). Brain choline concentrations may not be altered in euthymic Bipolar Disorder patients chronically treated with either lithium or sodium valproate. Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry 3, 13.
J Xu , J Culman , A Blume , S Brecht , P Gohlke (2003). Chronic treatment with a low dose of lithium protects the brain against ischemic injury by reducing apoptotic death. Stroke 34, 1287–1292.
MB Youdim , Z Arraf (2004). Prevention of MPTP (N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice by chronic lithium: involvements of Bcl-2 and Bax. Neuropharmacology 46, 1130–1140.