This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
M Adamou , S Puchalska , W Plummer , AS Hale (2007). Valproate in the treatment of PTSD: systematic review and meta analysis. Current Medical Research and Opinion 23, 1285–1291.
DG Baker , BI Diamond , G Gillette , M Hamner , (1995). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center study of brofaromine in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 122, 386–389.
B Bandelow , J Zohar , E Hollander , S Kasper , (2008). World federation of societies of biological psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders – first revision. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 9, 248–312.
G Bartzokis , PH Lu , J Turner , J Mintz , (2005). Adjunctive risperidone in the treatment of chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 57, 474–479.
DD Blake , FW Weathers , LM Nagy , DG Kaloupek , (1995). The development of a clinician-Administered PTSD scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress 8, 75–90.
K Brady , T Pearlstein , GM Asnis , D Baker , (2000). Efficacy and safety of sertraline treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 1837–1844.
KT Brady , S Sonne , RF Anton , CL Randall , (2005). Sertraline in the treatment of co-occurring alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 29, 395–401.
N Breslau , RC Kessler , HD Chilcoat , LR Schultz , (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 detroit area survey of trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 626–632.
N Brunello , JR Davidson , M Deahl , RC Kessler , (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder: diagnosis and epidemiology, comorbidity and social consequences, biology and treatment. Neuropsychobiology 43, 150–162.
MI Butterfield , ME Becker , KM Connor , S Sutherland , (2001). Olanzapine in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16, 197–203.
J-M Cloos , V Ferreira (2009). Current use of benzodiazepines in anxiety disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 22, 90–95.
KM Connor , JR Davidson (1999). Further psychometric assessment of the TOP-8: a brief interview-based measure of PTSD. Depression and Anxiety 9, 135–137.
KM Connor , JR Davidson , RH Weisler , W Zhang , (2006). Tiagabine for posttraumatic stress disorder: effects of open-label and double-blind discontinuation treatment. Psychopharmacology 184, 21–25.
KM Connor , SM Sutherland , LA Tupler , ML Malik , (1999). Fluoxetine in post-traumatic stress disorder. randomised, double-blind study. British Journal of Psychiatry 175, 17–22.
J Davidson , D Baldwin , DJ Stein , E Kuper , (2006 a). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with venlafaxine extended release: a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 1158–1165.
J Davidson , H Kudler , R Smith , SL Mahorney , (1990). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with amitriptyline and placebo. Archives of General Psychiatry 47, 259–266.
J Davidson , T Pearlstein , P Londborg , KT Brady , (2001 a). Efficacy of sertraline in preventing relapse of posttraumatic stress disorder: results of a 28-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 1974–1981.
J Davidson , BO Rothbaum , P Tucker , G Asnis , (2006 b). Venlafaxine extended release in posttraumatic stress disorder: a sertraline- and placebo-controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 26, 259–267.
JR Davidson , SW Book , JT Colket , LA Tupler , (1997). Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine 27, 153–160.
JR Davidson , KM Connor , MA Hertzberg , RH Weisler , (2005). Maintenance therapy with fluoxetine in posttraumatic stress disorder: a placebo-controlled discontinuation study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 25, 166–169.
JR Davidson , BO Rothbaum , BA van der Kolk , CR Sikes , (2001 b). Multicenter, double-blind comparison of sertraline and placebo in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 485–492.
JR Davidson , RH Weisler , MI Butterfield , CD Casat , (2003). Mirtazapine vs. placebo in posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot trial. Biological Psychiatry 53, 188–191.
JRT Davidson , K Brady , TA Mellman , MB Stein , (2007). The efficacy and tolerability of tiagabine in adult patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 27, 85–88.
LL Davis , JR Davidson , LC Ward , A Bartolucci , (2008). Divalproex in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in a veteran population. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 28, 84–88.
LL Davis , ME Jewell , S Ambrose , J Farley , (2004). A placebo-controlled study of nefazodone for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 24, 291–297.
J Deeks , D Altman , M Bradburn (2001). Statistical methods for examining heterogeneity and combining results from several studies in meta-analysis. In: M Egger , SG Davey , DG Altman (Eds), Systematic Reviews in Health Care: Meta-Analysis in Context (pp. 285–312). London: BMJ Publication Group.
R DerSimonian , N Laird (1986). Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clinical Trials 7, 177–188.
M Egger , GD Smith , M Schneider , C Minder (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. British Medical Journal 315, 629–634.
O Frans , P-A Rimmö , L Aberg , M Fredrikson (2005). Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder in the general population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 111, 291–299.
MJ Friedman , CR Marmar , DG Baker , CR Sikes , (2007). Randomized, double-blind comparison of sertraline and placebo for posttraumatic stress disorder in a department of veterans affairs setting. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68, 711–720.
MB Hamner , RA Faldowski , HG Ulmer , BC Frueh , (2003). Adjunctive risperidone treatment in post-traumatic stress disorder: a preliminary controlled trial of effects on comorbid psychotic symptoms. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 18, 1–8.
MA Hertzberg , MI Butterfield , ME Feldman , JC Beckham , (1999). A preliminary study of lamotrigine for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 45, 1226–1229.
MA Hertzberg , ME Feldman , JC Beckham , HS Kudler , (2000). Lack of efficacy for fluoxetine in PTSD: a placebo controlled trial in combat veterans. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 12, 101–105.
JC Ipser , P Carey , Y Dhansay , N Fakier , (2006). Pharmacotherapy augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue No. 4. Art. No. CD005473.
Z Kaplan , M Amir , M Swartz , J Levine (1996). Inositol treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Anxiety 2, 51–52.
RJ Katz , MH Lott , P Arbus , L Crocq , (1994). Pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder with a novel psychotropic. Anxiety 1, 169–174.
RC Kessler , P Berglund , O Demler , R Jin , (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 593–602.
TR Kosten , JB Frank , E Dan , CJ McDougle , (1991). Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder using phenelzine or imipramine. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 179, 366–370.
PD Londborg , MT Hegel , S Goldstein , D Goldstein , (2001). Sertraline treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: results of 24 weeks of open-label continuation treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62, 325–331.
RD Marshall , KL Beebe , M Oldham , R Zaninelli (2001). Efficacy and safety of paroxetine treatment for chronic PTSD: a fixed-dose, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 1982–1988.
RD Marshall , R Lewis-Fernandez , C Blanco , HB Simpson , (2007). A controlled trial of paroxetine for chronic PTSD, dissociation, and interpersonal problems in mostly minority adults. Depression and Anxiety 24, 77–84.
F Martenyi , EB Brown , CD Caldwell (2007). Failed efficacy of fluoxetine in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: results of a fixed-dose, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 27, 166–170.
F Martenyi , EB Brown , H Zhang , SC Koke , (2002 a). Fluoxetine v. placebo in prevention of relapse in post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 181, 315–320.
F Martenyi , EB Brown , H Zhang , A Prakash , (2002 b). Fluoxetine vs. placebo in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63, 199–206.
PR Padala , J Madison , M Monnahan , W Marcil , (2006). Risperidone monotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder related to sexual assault and domestic abuse in women. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 21, 275–280.
SJ Penava , MW Otto , MH Pollack , JF Rosenbaum (1996). Current status of pharmacotherapy for PTSD: an effect size analysis of controlled studies. Depression and Anxiety 4, 240–242.
RM Post , E Chalecka-Franaszek , CJ Hough (2003). Mechanisms of action of anticonvulsants and new mood stablizers. In: JC Soares , S Gershon (Eds), Handbook of Medical Psychiatry (pp. 767–791). New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
MA Raskind , ER Peskind , ED Kanter , EC Petrie , (2003). Reduction of nightmares and other PTSD symptoms in combat veterans by prazosin: a placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 371–373.
DB Reich , S Winternitz , J Hennen , T Watts , (2004). A preliminary study of risperidone in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse in women. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65, 1601–1606.
BO Rothbaum , TK Killeen , JR Davidson , KT Brady , (2008). Placebo-controlled trial of risperidone augmentation for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-resistant civilian posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69, 520–525.
S Seedat , MB Stein , PP Oosthuizen , RA Emsley , (2003). Linking posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosis: a look at epidemiology, phenomenology, and treatment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191, 675–681.
M Shestatzky , D Greenberg , B Lerer (1988). A controlled trial of phenelzine in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research 24, 149–155.
SM Stahl , MM Grady , C Moret , M Briley (2005). SNRIs: the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and tolerability in comparison with other classes of antidepressants. CNS Spectrums 10, 732–747.
DJ Stein , JC Ipser , S Seedat (2006). Pharmacotherapy for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue No. 1. Art. No. CD002795.
MB Stein , NA Kline , JL Matloff (2002). Adjunctive olanzapine for SSRI-resistant combat-related PTSD: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 1777–1779.
C Stewart , T Wrobel (2009). Evaluation of the efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in treatment of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analytic review of outcome studies. Military Medicine 174, 460–469.
FB Taylor , P Martin , C Thompson , J Williams , (2008). Prazosin effects on objective sleep measures and clinical symptoms in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder: a placebo-controlled study 22. Biological Psychiatry 63, 629–632.
P Tucker , RP Trautman , DB Wyatt , J Thompson , (2007). Efficacy and safety of topiramate monotherapy in civilian posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68, 201–206.
P Tucker , R Zaninelli , R Yehuda , L Ruggiero , (2001). Paroxetine in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: results of a placebo-controlled, flexible-dosage trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62, 860–868.
BA van der Kolk , D Dreyfuss , M Michaels , D Shera , (1994). Fluoxetine in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 55, 517–522.
BA van der Kolk , J Spinazzola , ME Blaustein , JW Hopper , (2007). A randomized clinical trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), fluoxetine, and pill placebo in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: treatment effects and long-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68, 37–46.
ML Van Etten , S Taylor (1998). Comparative efficacy of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-Analysis. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 5, 126–144.
W Viechtbauer (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software 36, 1–48.
J Zohar , D Amital , C Miodownik , M Kotler , (2002). Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sertraline in military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 22, 190–195.