This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
JB Aldenhhoff , DL Gruol , J Rivier , W Vale , GR Siggins (1983). Corticotropin-releasing factor decreases postburst hyperpolarizations and excites hippocampal neurons. Science 221, 875–877.
G Aston-Jones , JD Cohen (2005). An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: adaptive gain and optimal performance. Annual Review of Neuroscience 28, 403–450.
MC Austin , JE Janosky , HA Murphy (2003). Increased corticotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in monoamine-containing pontine nuclei of depressed suicide men. Molecular Psychiatry 8, 324–332.
SG Beck , YZ Pan , AC Akanwa , LG Kirby (2004). Median and dorsal raphe neurons are not electrophysiologically identical. Journal of Neurophysiology 91, 994–1005.
G Bissette , V Klimek , J Pan , C Stockmeier , G Ordway (2003). Elevated concentrations of CRF in the locus coeruleus of depressed subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 28, 1328–1335.
GW Brown , A Bifulco , TO Harris (1987). Life events, vulnerability and onset of depression: some refinements. British Journal of Psychiatry 150, 30–42.
C Caldji , D Francis , S Sharma , PM Plotsky , MJ Meaney (2000). The effects of early rearing environment on the development of GABAA and central benzodiazepine receptor levels and novelty-induced fearfulness in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology 22, 219–229.
DS Charney , AY Deutch , JH Krystal , SM Southwick , M Davis (1993). Psychobiologic mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 294–305.
G Cibelli , P Corsi , G Diana , F Vitiello , G Thiel (2001). Corticotropin-releasing factor triggers neurite outgrowth of a catecholaminergic immortalized neuron via cAMP and MAP kinase signalling pathways. European Journal of Neuroscience 13, 1339–1348.
AL Curtis , NT Bello , KR Connally , RJ Valentino (2002). Corticotropin-releasing factor neurons of the central nucleus of the amygdala mediate locus coeruleus activation by cardiovascular stress. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 14, 667–682.
BA Ellenbroek , PT van den Kroonenberg , AR Cools (1998). The effects of an early stressful life event on sensorimotor gating in adult rats. Schizophrenia Research 30, 251–260.
MJ Essex , MH Klein , E Cho , NH Kalin (2002). Maternal stress beginning in infancy may sensitize children to later stress exposure: effects on cortisol and behavior. Biological Psychiatry 52, 776–784.
J Feldon , I Weiner (1988). Long-term attentional deficit in nonhandled males: possible involvement of the dopaminergic system. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 95, 231–236.
DD Francis , C Caldji , F Champagne , PM Plotsky , MJ Meaney (1999). The role of corticotropin-releasing factor – norepinephrine systems in mediating the effects of early experience on the development of behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Biological Psychiatry 46, 1153–1166.
PW Gold , GP Chrousos (2002). Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: high vs low CRH/NE states. Molecular Psychiatry 7, 254–275.
C Heim , CB Nemeroff (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry 49, 1023–1039.
HP Jedema , AA Grace (2004). Corticotropin-releasing hormone directly activates noradrenergic neurons of the locus ceruleus recorded in vitro. Journal of Neuroscience 24, 9703–9713.
J Kaufman , PM Plotsky , CB Nemeroff , DS Charney (2000). Effects of early adverse experiences on brain structure and function: clinical implications. Biological Psychiatry 48, 778–790.
J Lehmann , T Stohr , J Schuller , A Domeney , (1998). Long-term effects of repeated maternal separation on three different latent inhibition paradigms. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 59, 873–882.
S Levine (1994). The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The influence of maternal factors. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 746, 275–288; discussion 289–293.
BJ Liddell , KJ Brown , AH Kemp , MJ Barton , (2005). A direct brainstem-amygdala-cortical ‘alarm’ system for subliminal signals of fear. Neuroimage 24, 235–243.
M Lippmann , A Bress , CB Nemeroff , PM Plotsky , LM Monteggia (2007). Long-term behavioural and molecular alterations associated with maternal separation in rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 25, 3091–3098.
LJ Luecken , KS Lemery (2004). Early caregiving and physiological stress responses. Clinical Psychology Review 24, 171–191.
MJ Meaney , JB Mitchell , DH Aitken , S Bhatnagar , (1991). The effects of neonatal handling on the development of the adrenocortical response to stress: implications for neuropathology and cognitive deficits in later life. Psychoneuroendocrinology 16, 85–103.
CB Nemeroff , KR Krishnan , D Reed , R Leder , (1992). Adrenal gland enlargement in major depression. A computed tomographic study. Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 384–387.
GA Ordway , V Klimek (2001). Noradrenergic pathology in psychiatric disorders: postmortem studies. CNS Spectrum 6, 697–703.
YZ Pan , DP Li , SR Chen , HL Pan (2002). Activation of delta-opioid receptors excites spinally projecting locus coeruleus neurons through inhibiition of GABAergic inputs. Journal of Neurophysiology 88, 2675–2683.
PM Plotsky , KV Thrivikraman , CB Nemeroff , C Caldji , (2005). Long-term consequences of neonatal rearing on central corticotropin-releasing factor systems in adult male rat offspring. Neuropsychopharmacology 30, 2192–2204.
CR Pryce , J Feldon (2003). Long-term neurobehavioural impact of the postnatal environment in rats: manipulations, effects and mediating mechanisms. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 27, 57–71.
FC Raadsheer , WJ Hoogendijk , FC Stam , FJ Tilders , DF Swaab (1994). Increased numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of depressed patients. Neuroendocrinology 60, 436–444.
RL Repetti , SE Taylor , TE Seeman (2002). Risky families: family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychology Bulletin 128, 330–366.
BA Reyes , K Fox , RJ Valentino , EJ Van Bockstaele (2006). Agonist-induced internalization of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in noradrenergic neurons of the rat locus coeruleus. European Journal of Neuroscience 23, 2991–2998.
MM Sanchez , CO Ladd , PM Plotsky (2001). Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: evidence from rodent and primate models. Developmental Psychopathology 13, 419–449.
SM Southwick , JD Bremner , A Rasmusson , CA Morgan 3rd (1999). Role of norepinephrine in the pathophysiology and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 46, 1192–1204.
V Sterpenich , A D'Argembeau , M Desseilles , E Balteau , (2006). The locus ceruleus is involved in the successful retrieval of emotional memories in humans. Journal of Neuroscience 26, 7416–7423.
JD Swinny , F Metzger , J Ijkema-Paassen , NV Gounko , (2004). Corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin differentially modulate rat Purkinje cell dendritic outgrowth and differentiation in vitro. European Journal of Neuroscience 19, 1749–1758.
JD Swinny , RJ Valentino (2006). Corticotropin-releasing factor promotes growth of brain norepinephrine neuronal processes through Rho GTPase regulators of the actin cytoskeleton in rat. European Journal of Neuroscience 24, 2481–2490.
RJ Valentino , SL Foote , G Aston-Jones (1983). Corticotropin-releasing factor activates noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus. Brain Research 270, 363–367.
RJ Valentino , E Van Bockstaele (2008). Convergent regulation of locus coeruleus activity as an adaptive response to stress. European Journal of Pharmacology 583, 194–203.
EJ Van Bockstaele , EEO Colago , RJ Valentino (1998). Amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor targets locus coeruleus dendrites: substrate for the coordination of emotional and cognitive limbs of the stress response. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 10, 743–757.
EJ Van Bockstaele , J Peoples , RJ Valentino (1999). Differential regulation of the rostrolateral peri-locus coeruleus region by limbic afferents. Biological Psychiatry 46, 1352–1363.
I Weiner , I Schnabel , RE Lubow , J Feldon (1985). The effects of early handling on latent inhibition in male and female rats. Developmental Psychobiology 18, 291–297.
JT Williams , RA North , SA Shefner , S Nishi , TM Egan (1984). Membrane properties of rat locus coeruleus neurons. Neuroscience 13, 137–156.