This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
G Aguilera (1994). Regulation of pituitary ACTH secretion during chronic stress. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 15, 321–350.
RH Aseltine Jr., SL Gore (2000). The variable effects of stress on alcohol use from adolescence to early adulthood. Substance Use and Misuse 35, 643–668.
D Blomeyer , J Treutlein , G Esser , MH Schmidt , (2008). Interaction between CRHR1 gene and stressful life events predicts adolescent heavy alcohol use. Biological Psychiatry 63, 146–151.
RG Bradley , EB Binder , MP Epstein , Y Tang , (2008). Influence of child abuse on adult depression: moderation by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 190–200.
ML Cooper , MR Frone , M Russell , P Mudar (1995). Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: a motivational model of alcohol use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69, 990–1005.
JP Dahl , GA Doyle , DW Oslin , RJ Buono , (2005). Lack of association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene and alcohol dependence. Journal of Psychiatric Research 39, 475–479.
DA Dawson , BF Grant , WJ Ruan (2005). The association between stress and drinking: modifying effects of gender and vulnerability. Alcohol and Alcoholism 40, 453–460.
C Delmo , O Weiffenbach , M Gabriel , F Poustka (2000). Diagnostic Interview Kiddie–Sads–Present and Lifetime-Version (K-SADS-PL), 3rd edn, German Version. Frankfurt: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy.
JE Donovan (2004). Adolescent alcohol initiation: a review of psychosocial risk factors. Journal of Adolescent Health 35, 529.e7–18.
SR Dube , JW Miller , DW Brown , WH Giles , (2006). Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health 38, 444.e1–10.
G Esser , B Blanz , B Geisel , M Laucht (1989). Mannheim Parent Interview – Structured interview for child psychiatric disorders [in German]. Weinheim: Beltz.
BF Grant , DA Dawson (1997). Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse 9, 103–110.
BF Grant , FS Stinson , T Harford (2001 a). The 5-year course of alcohol abuse among young adults. Journal of Substance Abuse 13, 229–238.
BF Grant , FS Stinson , TC Harford (2001 b). Age at onset of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: a 12-year follow-up. Journal of Substance Abuse 13, 493–504.
AC Hansson , A Cippitelli , WH Sommer , R Ciccocioppo , M Heilig (2007). Region-specific down-regulation of Crhr1 gene expression in alcohol-preferring msP rats following ad lib access to alcohol. Addiction Biology 12, 30–34.
AC Hansson , A Cippitelli , WH Sommer , A Fedeli , (2006). Variation at the rat Crhr1 locus and sensitivity to relapse into alcohol seeking induced by environmental stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103, 15236–15241.
SC Heinrichs , GF Koob (2004). Corticotropin-releasing factor in brain: a role in activation, arousal, and affect regulation. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 311, 427–440.
RW Hingson , T Heeren , MR Winter (2006). Age at drinking onset and alcohol dependence: age at onset, duration, and severity. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 160, 739–746.
CJ Hopfer , TJ Crowley , JK Hewitt (2003). Review of twin and adoption studies of adolescent substance use. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42, 710–719.
AD Johnson , RE Handsaker , SL Pulit , MM Nizzari , (2008). SNAP: a web-based tool for identification and annotation of proxy SNPs using HapMap. Bioinformatics 24, 2938–2939.
M Laucht , G Esser , L Baving , M Gerhold , (2000). Behavioral sequelae of perinatal insults and early family adversity at 8 years of age. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39, 1229–1237.
M Laucht , G Esser , MH Schmidt (1997). Developmental outcome of infants born with biological and psychosocial risks. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38, 843–853.
S Makino , K Hashimoto , PW Gold (2002). Multiple feedback mechanisms activating corticotropin-releasing hormone system in the brain during stress. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 73, 147–158.
S Makino , T Shibasaki , N Yamauchi , T Nishioka , (1999). Psychological stress increased corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA and content in the central nucleus of the amygdala but not in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in the rat. Brain Research 850, 136–143.
M McGue , WG Iacono , LN Legrand , S Malone , I Elkins (2001). Origins and consequences of age at first drink. I. Associations with substance-use disorders, disinhibitory behavior and psychopathology, and P3 amplitude. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 25, 1156–1165.
JL Pagan , RJ Rose , RJ Viken , L Pulkkinen , (2006). Genetic and environmental influences on stages of alcohol use across adolescence and into young adulthood. Behavior Genetics 36, 483–497.
CL Park , S Armeli , H Tennen (2004). The daily stress and coping process and alcohol use among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 65, 126–135.
CL Park , MR Levenson (2002). Drinking to cope among college students: prevalence, problems and coping processes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 63, 486–497.
HW Perkins (1999). Stress-motivated drinking in collegiate and postcollegiate young adulthood: life course and gender patterns. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 60, 219–227.
R Plomin , MJ Owen , P McGuffin (1994). The genetic basis of complex human behaviors. Science 264, 1733–1739.
SH Rhee , JK Hewitt , SE Young , RP Corley , (2003). Genetic and environmental influences on substance initiation, use, and problem use in adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 1256–1264.
RJ Rose , DM Dick , RJ Viken , L Pulkkinen , J Kaprio (2004). Genetic and environmental effects on conduct disorder and alcohol dependence symptoms and their covariation at age 14. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 28, 1541–1548.
PC Rutledge , KJ Sher (2001). Heavy drinking from the freshman year into early young adulthood: the roles of stress, tension-reduction drinking motives, gender and personality. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 62, 457–466.
CE Sartor , MT Lynskey , AC Heath , T Jacob , W True (2007). The role of childhood risk factors in initiation of alcohol use and progression to alcohol dependence. Addiction 102, 216–225.
I Sillaber , G Rammes , S Zimmermann , B Mahal , (2002). Enhanced and delayed stress-induced alcohol drinking in mice lacking functional CRH1 receptors. Science 296, 931–933.
LC Sobell , MB Sobell , GI Leo , A Cancilla (1988). Reliability of a timeline method: assessing normal drinkers' reports of recent drinking and a comparative evaluation across several populations. British Journal of Addiction 83, 393–402.
WH Sommer , R Rimondini , AC Hansson , PA Hipskind , (2008). Upregulation of voluntary alcohol intake, behavioral sensitivity to stress, and amygdala Crhr1 expression following a history of dependence. Biological Psychiatry 63, 139–145.
M Soyka , UW Preuss , G Koller , P Zill , (2004). No association of CRH1 receptor polymorphism haplotypes, harm avoidance and other personality dimensions in alcohol dependence: results from the Munich gene bank project for alcoholism. Addiction Biology 9, 73–79.
R Spanagel , A Montkowski , K Allingham , T Stohr , (1995). Anxiety: a potential predictor of vulnerability to the initiation of ethanol self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 122, 369–373.
KG Tantisira , R Lazarus , AA Litonjua , B Klanderman , ST Weiss (2008). Chromosome 17: association of a large inversion polymorphism with corticosteroid response in asthma. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 18, 733–737.
J Treutlein , C Kissling , J Frank , S Wiemann , (2006). Genetic association of the human corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) with binge drinking and alcohol intake patterns in two independent samples. Molecular Psychiatry 11, 594–602.
MY Veenstra , PH Lemmens , IH Friesema , HF Garretsen , (2006). A literature overview of the relationship between life-events and alcohol use in the general population. Alcohol and Alcoholism 41, 455–463.
TA Wills , M Filer (1996). Stress-coping model of adolescent substance use. In: TH Ollendick , RJ Prinz (Eds), Advances in Clinical Child Psychology (pp. 91–132). New York: Plenum Press.
HU Wittchen , CA Essau , H Hecht , W Teder , H Pfister (1989). Reliability of life event assessments: test-retest reliability and fall-off effects of the Munich Interview for the Assessment of Life Events and Conditions. Journal of Affective Disorders 16, 77–91.
HU Wittchen , M Zaudig , T Fydrich (1997). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I and II – SCID [in German]. Hogrefe: Göttingen.
US Zimmermann , D Blomeyer , M Laucht , KF Mann (2007). How gene-stress-behavior interactions can promote adolescent alcohol use: The roles of predrinking allostatic load and childhood behavior disorders. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 86, 246–262.