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  • The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 5, Issue 1
  • March 2002, pp. 73-103

Neuropsychiatric applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation: a meta analysis

  • Tal Burt (a1) (a2) (a3), Sarah H. Lisanby (a1) (a2) and Harold A. Sackeim (a1) (a2) (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2002

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technology that allows for non-invasive modulation of the excitability and function of discrete brain cortical areas. TMS uses alternating magnetic fields to induce electric currents in cortical tissue. In psychiatry, TMS has been studied primarily as a potential treatment for major depression. Most studies indicate that slow-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) and higher frequency rTMS have antidepressant properties. A meta-analysis of controlled studies indicates that this effect is fairly robust from a statistical viewpoint. However, effect sizes are heterogeneous, and few studies have shown that rTMS results in substantial rates of clinical response or remission, and the durability of antidepressant effects is largely unknown. We review in detail rTMS studies in the treatment of depression, as well as summarize treatment studies of mania, obsessive–compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia. We also review the application of TMS in the study of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and summarize studies of the safety of TMS in human subjects.

Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Dr T. Burt, Department of Biological Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Unit 126, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. Tel.: 212 733-2308 Fax: 212 309-4280 E-mail:
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The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • ISSN: 1461-1457
  • EISSN: 1469-5111
  • URL: /core/journals/the-international-journal-of-neuropsychopharmacology
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