This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
GC Alexander , SA Gallagher , A Mascola , RM Moloney , RS Stafford (2011) Increasing off-label use of antipsychotic medications in the United States, 1995–2008. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 20:177–184.
SL Andersen , CP Navalta (2011) Annual research review: new frontiers in developmental neuropharmacology: can long-term therapeutic effects of drugs be optimized through carefully timed early intervention? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:476–503.
SL Andersen , M Rutstein , JM Benzo , JC Hostetter , MH Teicher (1997) Sex differences in dopamine receptor overproduction and elimination. Neuroreport 8:1495–1498.
SL Andersen , AT Thompson , M Rutstein , JC Hostetter , MH Teicher (2000) Dopamine receptor pruning in prefrontal cortex during the periadolescent period in rats. Synapse 37:167–169.
BJ Aragona , JJ Day , MF Roitman , NA Cleaveland , RM Wightman , RM Carelli (2009) Regional specificity in the real-time development of phasic dopamine transmission patterns during acquisition of a cue-cocaine association in rats. Eur J Neurosci 30:1889–1899.
EC Azmitia (2001) Modern views on an ancient chemical: serotonin effects on cell proliferation, maturation, and apoptosis. Brain Res Bull 56:413–424.
JC Baron , JL Martinot , H Cambon , JP Boulenger , MF Poirier , V Caillard , J Blin , JD Huret , C Loc'h , B Maziere (1989) Striatal dopamine receptor occupancy during and following withdrawal from neuroleptic treatment: correlative evaluation by positron emission tomography and plasma prolactin levels. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 99:463–472.
AM Bedard , J Maheux , D Levesque , AN Samaha (2011) Continuous, but not intermittent, antipsychotic drug delivery intensifies the pursuit of reward cues. Neuropsychopharmacology 36:1248–1259.
EP Bello , Y Mateo , DM Gelman , D Noain , JH Shin , MJ Low , VA Alvarez , DM Lovinger , M Rubinstein (2011) Cocaine supersensitivity and enhanced motivation for reward in mice lacking dopamine D2 autoreceptors. Nat Neurosci 14:1033–1038.
HC Brenhouse , KC Sonntag , SL Andersen (2008) Transient D1 dopamine receptor expression on prefrontal cortex projection neurons: relationship to enhanced motivational salience of drug cues in adolescence. J Neurosci 28:2375–2382.
FP Bymaster , DO Calligaro , JF Falcone , RD Marsh , NA Moore , NC Tye , P Seeman , DT Wong (1996) Radioreceptor binding profile of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine. Neuropsychopharmacology 14:87–96.
RN Cardinal , JA Parkinson , G Lachenal , KM Halkerston , N Rudarakanchana , J Hall , CH Morrison , SR Howes , TW Robbins , BJ Everitt (2002) Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala on autoshaping performance in rats. Behav Neurosci 116:553–567.
JT Catlow , RD Barton , M Clemens , TA Gillespie , M Goodwin , SP Swanson (1995) Analysis of olanzapine in human plasma utilizing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 668:85–90.
JF Cheer , BJ Aragona , ML Heien , AT Seipel , RM Carelli , RM Wightman (2007) Coordinated accumbal dopamine release and neural activity drive goal-directed behavior. Neuron 54:237–244.
J Cheng-Shannon , JJ McGough , C Pataki , JT McCracken (2004) Second-generation antipsychotic medications in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:372–394.
JJ Day , MF Roitman , RM Wightman , RM Carelli (2007) Associative learning mediates dynamic shifts in dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens. Nat Neurosci 10:1020–1028.
A El-Nabawi , M Quesenberry , K Saito , E Silbergeld , G Vasta , A Eldefrawi (2000) The N-methyl-d-aspartate neurotransmitter receptor is a mammalian brain target for the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida toxin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 169:84–93.
DO Frost , JL Cadet (2000) Effects of drug-induced neurotoxicity on development of neural circuitry: a hypothesis. Br Res Rev 34:103–118.
EL Gardner (2011) Addiction and brain reward and antireward pathways. Adv Psychosom Med 30:22–60.
N Ginovart , AA Wilson , D Hussey , S Houle , S Kapur (2009) D2-receptor upregulation is dependent upon temporal course of D2-occupancy: a longitudinal [11C]-raclopride PET study in cats. Neuropsychopharmacology 34:662–671.
AA Grace , SB Floresco , Y Goto , DJ Lodge (2007) Regulation of firing of dopaminergic neurons and control of goal-directed behaviors. Trends Neurosci 30:220–227.
AJ Gruber , RJ Hussain , P O'Donnell (2009) The nucleus accumbens: a switchboard for goal-directed behaviors. PLoS ONE 4:e5062.
ML Heien , MA Johnson , RM Wightman (2004) Resolving neurotransmitters detected by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Anal Chem 76:5697–5704.
SR Jones , SJ O'Dell , JF Marshall , RM Wightman (1996) Functional and anatomical evidence for different dopamine dynamics in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens in slices of rat brain. Synapse 23:224–231.
S Kapur , SC VanderSpek , BA Brownlee , JN Nobrega (2003) Antipsychotic dosing in preclinical models is often unrepresentative of the clinical condition: a suggested solution based on in vivo occupancy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305:625–631.
GF Koob , ND Volkow (2010) Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:217–238.
D Lecca , V Valentini , F Cacciapaglia , E Acquas , G Di Chiara (2007) Reciprocal effects of response contingent and noncontingent intravenous heroin on in vivo nucleus accumbens shell vs. core dopamine in the rat: a repeated sampling microdialysis study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 194:103–116.
P Levitt , JA Harvey , E Friedman , K Simansky , EH Murphy (1997) New evidence for neurotransmitter influences on brain development. Trends Neurosci 20:269–274.
Y Li , MJ Acerbo , TE Robinson (2004) The induction of behavioural sensitization is associated with cocaine-induced structural plasticity in the core (but not shell) of the nucleus accumbens. Eur J Neurosci 20:1647–1654.
RM Liao (2008) Development of conditioned place preference induced by intra-accumbens infusion of amphetamine is attenuated by co-infusion of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 89:367–373.
A Llorente-Berzal , V Mela , E Borcel , M Valero , M Lopez-Gallardo , MP Viveros , EM Marco (2011) Neurobehavioral and metabolic long-term consequences of neonatal maternal deprivation stress and adolescent olanzapine treatment in male and female rats. Neuropharmacology 62:1332–1341.
JT McCracken , R Suddath , S Chang , S Thakur , J Piacentini (2008) Effectiveness and tolerability of open label olanzapine in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 18:501–508.
RF McKnight , RJ Park (2010) Atypical antipsychotics and anorexia nervosa: a review. Eur Eat Disord Rev 18:10–21.
U Meyer , E Spoerri , BK Yee , MJ Schwarz , J Feldon (2010) Evaluating early preventive antipsychotic and antidepressant drug treatment in an infection-based neurodevelopmental mouse model of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 36:607–623.
MA Morgan , JE LeDoux (1995) Differential contribution of dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex to the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Behav Neurosci 109:681–688.
TF Oberlander , JA Gingrich , MS Ansorge (2009) Sustained neurobehavioral effects of exposure to SSRI antidepressants during development: molecular to clinical evidence. Clin Pharmacol Ther 86:672–677.
E Pappadopulos , JC Macintyre Ii , ML Crismon , RL Findling , RP Malone , A Derivan , N Schooler , L Sikich , L Greenhill , SB Schur , CJ Felton , H Kranzler , DM Rube , J Sverd , M Finnerty , S Ketner , SE Siennick , PS Jensen (2003) Treatment recommendations for the use of antipsychotics for aggressive youth (TRAAY). Part II. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:145–161.
E Pappadopulos , NS Rosato , CU Correll , RL Findling , J Lucas , S Crystal , PS Jensen (2011) Experts’ recommendations for treating maladaptive aggression in youth. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 21:505–515.
JA Parkinson , JW Dalley , RN Cardinal , A Bamford , B Fehnert , G Lachenal , N Rudarakanchana , KM Halkerston , TW Robbins , BJ Everitt (2002) Nucleus accumbens dopamine depletion impairs both acquisition and performance of appetitive Pavlovian approach behaviour: implications for mesoaccumbens dopamine function. Behav Brain Res 137:149–163.
JA Parkinson , PJ Willoughby , TW Robbins , BJ Everitt (2000) Disconnection of the anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens core impairs Pavlovian approach behavior: further evidence for limbic cortical–ventral striatopallidal systems. Behav Neurosci 114:42–63.
E Perez-Costas , P Guidetti , M Melendez-Ferro , JJ Kelley , RC Roberts (2008) Neuroleptics and animal models: feasibility of oral treatment monitored by plasma levels and receptor occupancy assays. J Neural Transm 115:745–753.
Z Petanjek , M Judas , G Simic , MR Rasin , HB Uylings , P Rakic , I Kostovic (2011) Extraordinary neoteny of synaptic spines in the human prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:13281–13286.
J Peters , PW Kalivas , GJ Quirk (2009) Extinction circuits for fear and addiction overlap in prefrontal cortex. Learn Mem 16:279–288.
Y Piontkewitz , M Arad , I Weiner (2011) Risperidone administered during asymptomatic period of adolescence prevents the emergence of brain structural pathology and behavioral abnormalities in an animal model of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 37:1257–1269.
Y Piontkewitz , Y Assaf , I Weiner (2009) Clozapine administration in adolescence prevents postpubertal emergence of brain structural pathology in an animal model of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 66:1038–1046.
G Remington , S Kapur (2010) Antipsychotic dosing: how much but also how often? Schizophr Bull 36:900–903.
NM Richtand , R Ahlbrand , P Horn , K Stanford , SL Bronson , RK McNamara (2011) Effects of risperidone and paliperidone pre-treatment on locomotor response following prenatal immune activation. J Psychiatr Res 45:1194–1201.
NM Richtand , R Ahlbrand , P Horn , R Tambyraja , M Grainger , SL Bronson , RK McNamara (2012) Fluoxetine and aripiprazole treatment following prenatal immune activation exert longstanding effects on rat locomotor response. Physiol Behav 106:171–177.
AN Samaha , P Seeman , J Stewart , H Rajabi , S Kapur (2007) ‘Breakthrough’ dopamine supersensitivity during ongoing antipsychotic treatment leads to treatment failure over time. J Neurosci 27:2979–2986.
S Silvestri , MV Seeman , JC Negrete , S Houle , CM Shammi , GJ Remington , S Kapur , RB Zipursky , AA Wilson , BK Christensen , P Seeman (2000) Increased dopamine D2 receptor binding after long-term treatment with antipsychotics in humans: a clinical PET study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 152:174–180.
KL Simpson , KJ Weaver , E de Villers-Sidani , JY Lu , Z Cai , Y Pang , F Rodriguez-Porcel , IA Paul , M Merzenich , RC Lin (2011) Perinatal antidepressant exposure alters cortical network function in rodents. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:18465–18470.
JR Strawn , MP Delbello (2008) Olanzapine for the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Expert Opin Pharmacother 9:467–474.
M Suzuki , K Hatano , Y Sakiyama , Y Kawasumi , T Kato , K Ito (2001) Age-related changes of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor binding in the F344/N rat striatum revealed by positron emission tomography and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Synapse 41:285–293.
AV Terry Jr., SE Warner , L Vandenhuerk , A Pillai , SP Mahadik , G Zhang , MG Bartlett (2008) Negative effects of chronic oral chlorpromazine and olanzapine treatment on the performance of tasks designed to assess spatial learning and working memory in rats. Neuroscience 156:1005–1016.
T Thomas , L Stansifer , RL Findling (2011) Psychopharmacology of pediatric bipolar disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am 58:173–187, xii.
HBM Uylings , HJ Groenewegen , B Kolb (2003) Do rats have a prefrontal cortex? Behav Brain Res 146:3–17.
SM Vasconcelos , VS Nascimento , CR Nogueira , CM Vieira , FC Sousa , MM Fonteles , GS Viana (2003) Effects of haloperidol on rat behavior and density of dopaminergic D2-like receptors. Behav Processes 63:45–52.
A Vidal-Infer , C Roger-Sanchez , M Daza-Losada , MA Aguilar , J Minarro , M Rodriguez-Arias (2012) Role of the dopaminergic system in the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of MDMA-Induced conditioned place preference in adolescent mice. PLoS ONE 7:e43107.
D Wahlstrom , T White , M Luciana (2010) Neurobehavioral evidence for changes in dopamine system activity during adolescence. Neurosc Biobehav Rev 34:631–648.
EB Weller , RA Weller (2009) Olanzapine as treatment for children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome. Curr Psychiatry Rep 11:95–96.
RM Wightman , ML Heien , KM Wassum , LA Sombers , BJ Aragona , AS Khan , JL Ariansen , JF Cheer , PE Phillips , RM Carelli (2007) Dopamine release is heterogeneous within microenvironments of the rat nucleus accumbens. Eur J Neurosci 26:2046–2054.
I Willuhn , MJ Wanat , JJ Clark , PE Phillips (2010) Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens of animals self-administering drugs of abuse. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 3:29–71.
PN Yadav , AI Abbas , MS Farrell , V Setola , N Sciaky , XP Huang , WK Kroeze , LK Crawford , DA Piel , MJ Keiser , JJ Irwin , BK Shoichet , ES Deneris , J Gingrich , SG Beck , BL Roth (2011) The presynaptic component of the serotonergic system is required for clozapine's efficacy. Neuropsychopharmacology 36:638–651.
A Zuddas , R Zanni , T Usala (2011) Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for non-psychotic disorders in children and adolescents: a review of the randomized controlled studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21:600–620.