Ghazanfari, T, Faghihzadeh, S, Aragizadeh, H, Soroush, MR, Yaraee, R, Mohammad Hassan, Z, et al. Sardasht-Iran cohort study of chemical warfare victims: design and methods. Arch Iran Med
2009; 12: 5–14.
Washington Post. Poison gas attack kills Kurds. Washington Post
1988; 24 March.
Sidell, FR, Urbanetti, JS, Smith, WJ, Vesicants, HC. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Textbook of Military Medicine Series. Part 1. Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1997.
In Iran, grim reminders of Saddam's arsenal. The Star Ledger
2002; 27 October.
Security Council. Report of Specialists Appointed by the Secretary General to Investigate Allegations by the Islamic Republic of Iran concerning the use of Chemical Weapons. United Nations, 1986.
Tavallaie, SA, Assari, S, Najafi, M, Habibi, M, Ghanei, M.
Study of sleep disorders among chemical warfare victims [in Persian]. J Mil Med
2004; 6: 241–8.
Khateri, S, Ghanei, M, Keshavarz, S, Soroush, M, Haines, D.
Incidence of lung, eye, and skin lesions as late complications in 34,000 Iranians with wartime exposure to mustard agent. J Occup Environ Med
2003; 45: 1136–43.
Pathology of Chemical Weapons. Chemical warfare victims' Broadcasting Center, 2005.
Hashemian, F, Khoshnood, K, Desai, MM, Falahati, F, Kasl, S, Southwick, S.
Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in Iranian survivors of chemical warfare. JAMA
2006; 296: 560–6.
Zarchi, K, Akbar, A, Naieni, KH. Long-term pulmonary complications in combatants exposed to mustard gas: a historical cohort study. Int J Epidemiol
2004; 33: 579–81.
Ford, JD, Schnurr, PP, Friedman, MJ, Green, BL, Adams, G, Jex, S.
Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health, and health care utilization 50 years after repeated exposure to a toxic gas. J Trauma Stress
2004; 17: 185–94.
Schnurr, PP, Friedman, MJ, Green, BL. Post-traumatic stress disorder among World War II mustard gas test participants. Mil Med
1996; 161: 131–6.
Schnurr, PP, Ford, JD, Friedman, MJ, Green, BL, Dain, BJ. PTSD in WWII mustard gas test participants. A preliminary report. Ann N Y Acad Sci
1997; 821: 425–9.
Jankowski, MK, Schnurr, PP, Adams, GA, Green, BL, Ford, JD, Friedman, MJ. A mediational model of PTSD in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas. J Trauma Stress
2004; 17: 303–10.
Romano, JA, King, JM. Psychological casualties resulting from chemical and biological weapons. Mil Med
2001; 166: 21–2.
Mohammadi, MR, Noori, AR. Common psychologic disorders among chemical warfare victims. In Proceedings of the Conference on Neuropsychologic Complications of War, 1993: 147–50. Bonyad Publishing Company, 1993.
Haghdadi, G, Parchami, M.
Comparisonal survey of disabled people (Janbazan) with severe psychologic symptoms among two groups exposed or nonexposed to chemical agents. In Proceedings of the Conference on Neuropsychologic Complications of War, 1993: 508–31. Bonyad Publishing Company, 1993.
Vafaei, B, Seidy, A.
Study of the prevalence and intensity of depression in 100 devotees with chemical and non-chemical war injuries (30–70%) of imposed war in Tabriz. J Mil Med
2003; 2: 105–10.
Devilly, GJ. The psychological effects of a lifestyle management course on war veterans and their spouses. J Clin Psychol
2002; 58: 1119–34.
Radfar, S, Haghani, H, Tavalaei, A, Modirian, E, Falahati, M.
Evaluation of mental health state in veterans family (15–18 Y/O adolescents). J Mil Med
2005; 3: 203–9.
McCann, IL, Pearlman, LA. Constructivist self-development theory: a theoretical framework for assessing and treating traumatized college students. J Am Coll Health
1992; 40: 189–96.
Motta, RW. Secondary trauma. Int J Emerg Ment Health
2008; 10: 291–8.
Marriage, S, Marriage, K.
Too many sad stories: clinician stress and coping. Can Child Adolesc Psychiatr Rev
2005; 14: 114–7.
Stevens, MM, Olson, AL, Gaffney, CA, Tosteson, TD, Mott, LA, Starr, P.
A pediatric, practice-based, randomized trial of drinking and smoking prevention and bicycle helmet, gun, and seatbelt safety promotion. Pediatrics
2002; 109: 490–7.
Caring for abused women: impact on nurses' professional and personal life experiences. J Adv Nurs
2009; 65: 1645–54.
Kleespies, PM, Dettmer, EL. The stress of patient emergencies for the clinician: incidence, impact, and means of coping. J Clin Psychol
2000; 56: 1353–69.
Burnout, vicarious traumatization and its prevention. Torture
2006; 16: 1–9.
Farrar, AR. Vicarious traumatization of the mental health professional. APAGS Newsletter
Bilal, MS, Rana, MH, Rahim, S, Ali, S.
Psychological trauma in a relief worker – a case report from earthquake-struck areas of north Pakistan. Prehosp Disaster Med
2007; 22: 458–61.
Geller, JA, Madsen, LH, Ohrenstein, L.
Secondary trauma: a team approach. Clin Soc Work J
2004; 32: 415–30.
Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ. Posttraumatic responses in spouse/significant others of disaster workers. In Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Acute and Long-term Responses to Trauma and Disaster (eds Fullerton, CS & Ursano, RJ): 59–76. American Psychiatric Press,, 1997.
Figley, CR. Strangers at home: comment on Dirkzwager, Bramsen, Adèr, and van der Ploeg (2005). J Fam Psychol
2005; 19: 227–9.
Figley, CR. Burnout in Families: The Systematic Cost of Caring. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 1998.
Strengths and secondary trauma in family violence work. Soc Work
2003; 48: 513–22.
Koić, E, Francišković, T, Mužinić-Masle, L, ðorÐević, V, Vondraček, S.
Chronic pain and secondary traumatization in wives of Croatian war veterans treated for post traumatic stress Disorder. Acta Clinica Croatica
2002; 41: 295–306.
Dekel, R, Solomon, Z, Bleich, A.
Emotional distress and marital adjustment of caregivers: contribution of level of impairment and appraised burden. Anxiety Stress Coping
2005; 18: 71–82.
Solomon, Z, Levi, G, Waysman, M, Fried, B, Mikulincer, M, Florian, V, et al. Secondary traumatization among wives of soldiers with combat stress reaction [in Hebrew]. Harefuah
1993; 124: 750–6, 796.
Renshaw, KD, Rodrigues, CS, Jones, DH. Psychological symptoms and marital satisfaction in spouses of Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: relationships with spouses' perceptions of veterans' experiences and symptoms. J Fam Psychol
2008; 22: 586–94.
Posttraumatic distress and growth among wives of prisoners of war: the contribution of husbands' posttraumatic stress disorder and wives' own attachments. Am J Orthopsychiatry
2007; 77: 419–26.
Dekel, R, Solomon, Z.
Secondary traumatization among wives of Israeli POWs: the role of POWs' distress. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2006; 41: 27–33.
Westerink, J, Giarratano, L.
The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder on partners and children of Australian Vietnam veterans. Aust N Z J Psychiatry
1999; 33: 841–7.
Calhoun, PS, Beckham, JC, Bosworth, HB. Caregiver burden and psychological distress in partners of veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress
2002; 15: 205–12.
Hendrix, CC, Erdmann, MA, Briggs, K.
Impact of Vietnam veterans arousal and avoidance on spouses' perceptions of family life. Am J Fam Ther
1998; 26: 115–28.
Jordan, BK, Marmar, CR, Fairbank, J, Schlenger, WE, Kulka, RA, Hough, RL, et al. Problems in families of male Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol
1992; 60: 916–26.
Bramsen, I, Reuling, IE, van der Ploeg, HM. Indirect traumatization of spouses of Dutch war victims [in Dutch]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
2000; 144: 2210–4.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (Text Revision) (DSM–IV–TR). APA, 1994.
Keane, TM, Caddell, JM, Taylor, KL. Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: three studies in reliability and validity. J Consult Clin Psychol
1988; 56: 85–90.
Norris, FH, Perilla, JL. The revised civilian mississippi scale for PTSD: reliability, validity, and cross-language stability. J Trauma Stress
1996; 9: 285–98.
McFall, ME, Smith, DE, Roszell, DK, Tarver, DJ, Malas, KL. Convergent validity of measures of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans. Am J Psychiatry
1990; 147: 645–8.
Goodarzi, MA. Evaluating validity and reliability of Mississippi Post Traumatic Stress disorder Scale. J Psychol
2003; 7: 153–78.
Lyons, JA, Caddell, JM, Pittman, RL, Rawls, R, Perrin, S.
The potential for faking on the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD. J Trauma Stress
1994; 7: 441–5.
Shalev, AY, Freedman, S, Peri, T, Brandes, D, Sahar, T.
Predicting PTSD in trauma survivors: prospective evaluation of self-report and clinician-administered instruments. Br J Psychiatry
1997; 170: 558–64.
Yaffe, K, Vittinghoff, E, Lindquist, K, Barnes, D, Covinsky, KE, Neylan, T, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among US veterans. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2010; 67: 608–13.
Zatzick, DF, Marmar, CR, Weiss, DS, Browner, WS, Metzler, TJ, Golding, JM, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. Am J Psychiatry
1997; 154: 1690–5.
Ouimette, P, Coolhart, D, Sugarman, D, Funderburk, JS, Zelman, RH, Dornau, C.
A pilot study of posttraumatic stress and associated functioning of army National Guard following exposure to Iraq warzone trauma. Traumatol
2008; 14: 51–6.
Sayer, NA, Noorbaloochi, S, Frazier, P, Carlson, K, Gravely, A, Murdoch, M.
Reintegration problems and treatment interests among Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans receiving VA medical care. Psychiatr Serv
2010; 61: 589–97.
Dirkzwager, AJE, van der Velden, PG, Grievink, L, Yzermans, CJ. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health. Psychosom Med
2007; 69: 435–40.
Francisković, T, Stevanović, A, Jelusić, I, Roganović, B, Klarić, M, Grković, J.
Secondary traumatization of wives of war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Croat Med J
2007; 48: 177–84.
Al-Turkait, FA, Ohaer, JU. Post-traumatic stress disorder among wives of Kuwaiti veterans of the first Gulf War. J Anxiety Disord
2008; 22: 18–31.
Gure, TR, Kabeto, MU, Blaum, CS, Langa, KM. Degree of disability and patterns of caregiving among older Americans with congestive heart failure. J Gen Intern Med
2008; 23: 70–6.
Evans, RL, Bishop, DS, Ousley, RT. Providing care to persons with physical disability. Effect on family caregivers. Am J Phys Med Rehabil
1992; 71: 140–4.
Davis, LC, Sander, AM, Struchen, MA, Sherer, M, Nakase-Richardson, R, Malec, J.
Medical and psychosocial predictors of caregiver distress and perceived burden following traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil
2009; 24: 145–54.