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Royalist and Cromwellian Armies in Flanders, 1657–1662

  • C. H. Firth
Extract

In 1657 two small bodies of British troops stood opposed to each other in Flanders. One consisted of English, Irish, and Scottish royalists following the fortunes of Charles II., and serving with the Spanish army. The other was composed of 6,000 English soldiers raisedby the Protector to assist the French against the Spaniards, and to secure England a foot-holdon the Continent. The object of this paper is to show how the two forces were raised, of what regiments they consisted, and by what officers they were commanded. The history of the regiments composing these two little armies will be traced up to the Restoration, and it will be shown how the remains of the Cromwellian contingent and the remains of the royalist force were amalgamated to form the garrison which held Dunkirk for England from 1660 to 1662. Finally I shall endeavour to trace the fate which befell the different regiments of that garrison after Charles II, sold Dunkirk to the French.

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page 68 note 1 For the treaty see Cal. Clarendon State Papers, iii. 109.

page 68 note 2 The proclamation is dated June 20, 1657. A facsimile of itis given in MrHodgkin's, J. E.Rariora, iii. 41. See also Clarendon State Papers, iii. 307; Carte, , Life of Ormond, iii. 653, ed. 1851.

page 68 note 3 Cal. Clarendon State Papers, iii. 199, 205, 209; Guizot, , Cromwell and the English Commonwealth, ii. 541, 547.

page 68 note 4 ‘The Marquis de Caracena told me the last night, that as soon as ever the general business of the quarters with the country was settled, the four regiments promised his Majesty should also be settled, and that his Majesty might give the command of them to whom he pleased, but that he must tell me freely, that they could not give winter quarters to any more new regiments at a time when they were obliged to cashier above forty of their old ones; and that whatever men should come over to the King, as well Muskerry's as others, must be aggregated to one of those four regiments, which were ground-work enough for a body of four thousand men, which was more than they could hope to see drawn together by his Majesty this winter.’ (Bristol to Hyde, Nov. 26, 1656; Clar. State Papers, iii. pp. 311–312.)

page 68 note 5 ‘The King of Scotts is at a stand, for all he hath lifted a few men; hee keeps them as yett together: they are about five hundred, of Irish the most of them are, some Scots, and some English, who rely upon him, and cannot live otherwise.’ (Tho. George to Priestman, 29 October 1656. Thurloe Papers, v. p. 533.)

‘Take it upon my word, there is not in all 700, for they mutiny every day: their pay is so small, they cannot live upon it. The soldier hath but four stivers a day, and a gentleman six.’ (Letter of intelligence, Bruges, Nov. 5, 1656 (N.S.) Thurloe, v. p. 521.)

page 69 note 1 See the extract from Mercurius Politicus printed onp. 72, and Bampfield's letter in Clarendon State Papers, iii. 344.

page 69 note 2 A letter from a spy, printed in Cal. Clarendon State Papers, iii. 232, says that the five regiments then raising (January 1657) are to consist of20 companies each, and each company of 60 men; each soldier has 7 stivers a day, and each officer 14. Another spy, writing in May, says they then numbered 4,000 (ibid. p. 283).

page 69 note 3 Clarendon, (Rebellion, xvi. 68)and SirTurner, James (Memoirs, p. 121) both agree that Rochester's regiment was one of the first regiments raised. Clarendon erroneously states that the Guards were one of the original regiments. The King, he says, ‘resolved to raise one regiment of Guards, the command whereof he gave to the Lord Wentworth, which was to do duty in the army as common men till his Majesty should be in such a posture that they might be brought about his person.’ Clarendon's correspondence, however, shows that the Guards were not established till October er November 1657 (Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 364, 368, 379, 405). Two warrants to Blague as its lieutenant-colonel are printed in the Hist. MSS. Commission's Report on the MSS. of Mr. Eliot Hodgkin, p. 123. A list of the officers of the Guards is given in Hamilton's History of the Grenadier Guards, but that author gives no references to his authorities, and his account of the history of the regiment during 1657–60 contains many errors.

page 70 note 1 ‘The King, by permission of Don Juan of Austria, raised three regiments, one of English under the Earl of Rochester … the second of Scots under General Middletone; the third of Irish under Ormond. Two more were added after. … All the captaines were to be lords, knights, or colonels; at least 16 captaines were ordered to be of the Scots, whereof I was one.’ He adds that about 1658 Middleton's regimentwas given to Newburgh, ‘Don Juan having commanded, that none should have charge but those who attended it.’ Memoirs of Sir James Turner, pp. 120, 130. See also, on the history of this regiment, Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 218, 283, 307. A list of its captains, dated June 4, 1657, is given in Macray's Ruthven Correspondence, p. 165

page 70 note 2 On Middleton's mission, see ibid. iii. 204; Turner's, Memoirs, pp. 120130; Scotland and the Protectorate (Scottish History Society, 1899, pp. 336345, 355; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1656–7, pp. 322, 345.

page 70 note 3 For letters of Newburgh, see Carte, xxx. 503.

page 70 note 4 Life of James II. i. 268; Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 194, 201, 258, 260, 283; Report on the MSS. of the Duke of Ormond, ii. 17; Carte MSS. xxx. 400–438 inclusive, and ccxiii. 90–92.

page 71 note 1 Carte, , Life of Ormond, iii. 654–636, ed. 1851; Clarendon, , Rebellion, xv. 7074; Life of James II. i. 274–6, 280–1, 313; Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 231, 232, 283; Report on the Ormond MSS. i. 18. Carte MSS. xxx. 398, is a copyof Muskerry's capitulation with the French government.

page 71 note 2 Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 231, 256, 260, 283, 258. See also Report on the MSS. of Mr. Eliot Hodgkin, pp. 124, 125, and Lodge's, Irish Peerage, ii. 377, ed. 1754.

page 72 note 1 Clarendon Rebellion, xv. 80; Clarendon State Papers, iii. pp. lxvi–lxviii; Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 256, 262, 266, 276, 307; Report on the MSS. of Mr. Eliot Hodgkin, p. 125.

page 72 note 2 Clarendon State Papers, iii. 344.

page 72 note 3 Life of Janus II. i. 327, 349.

page 74 note 1 Mercurius Politicus, April 16–23, 1657, p. 7750.

page 74 note 2 Ibid. Jan. 8, 1657, p. 7508.

page 74 note 3 Duels were very frequent amongst the officers.

page 74 note 4 Merc. Polit. April 16–23, P. 7737.

page 75 note 1 Thurloe, vi. 345.

page 75 note 2 Clarendon State Papers, iii. 347.

page 75 note 3 Life of James II. i. 297.

page 76 note 1 Guizot, , Cromwell and the English Commonwealth, ii. 562.

page 76 note 2 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1656–7, p. 374.

page 76 note 3 Heath states that Cromwell had ‘trained and drilled most of them as recruits to Colonel Barkstead's regiment of the Tower.’ (Chronicle, p. 720.)

page 77 note 1 Guizot, ii. 564.

page 77 note 2 Lives of both are to be found in the Dictionary of National Biography. Morgan had served in the French army before. Bordeaux writes on May 31, 1657: ‘Le colonel qui doit servir de major general vint disner chez moi hier, et me tesmoigna estre fort aise de retourner en France, ou il a servy de capitaine dans le regiment de Colonel Coulon.’ (R.O. Transcripts.)

page 77 note 3 Alsop gave the following account of himself in a petition which he addressed to the Protector in September 1656:

‘In 1650, during the service in Scotland, you took from me my captain's place, and made me Marshal General, though I earnestly desired to be excused, preferring actual service upon the enemy, but I took it in obedience to you, and you promised me a lieutenant-colonel's pay and preferment. Yet my pay has been less than a foot captain's, and my profitssmall. I have to keep horses, servants, &c, and have only had the poorer sort of prisoners, who cannot pay for their quarters, nor pay fees, and I am 500 l. poorer than when I took the employment.’ (Cal. S.P., Dom. 1656–7, p. 94.)

page 77 note 4 A note on the character of the officers in Flanders says of Clark: ‘a civil man, but never served the Parliament till now,’ i.e. 1659. It goes on to say of his lieutenant-colonel, William Beadle: ‘a civil man, but served with his colonel in Holland till late.’ (Rawlinson MS. A, lxv. 185.)

page 78 note 1 On Cochrane see Coxe, , Hibemia Anglicana, ii. 203; Thurloe, iii. 18; Cromwelliana, p. 87.

page 78 note 2 It is very likely that Lillingston had been in the Dutch service. At all events he seems to have been in that service later. H. Lillingston appears as lieutenant-colonel of Lord Mulgrave's regiment in the army raised by Charles II. (January 25, 1673), while Luke Lillingston, whom I take to be his son, was ensign in that regiment at the same date. (Dalton, , English Army Lists, i. 136.) In the winter of 1674 the Prince of Orange raised two regiments of Englishmen whose colonels' names were Disney and Lillingston. (Life of Major John Bernardi, p. 20.) I takethe latter to have been Colonel Henry Lillingston. Colonel Lillingston is said to have died next year. Luke Lillingston appears as a captain in the Dutch service in 1678–9 (Ferguson, , Scots Brigade in Holland, pp. 513–4), and became a colonel in the English service in 1693 (Dalton, ii. 229).

page 79 note 1 Merc. Polit. No. 360, p. 7769, April 30-May 7. See also pp. 7784 and 7790.

page 80 note 1 Merc. Polit. No. 361, p. 7790, May 7–14, 1657.

page 80 note 2 Ibid. No. 362, p. 7796, May 14–21, 1657.

page 81 note 1 Clarke Papers, iii. no; Thurloe, vi. 290, 291, 297. Compare the following extract from a newspaper:

‘From the English head quarters at Rue in Picardie,

between Abbeville and Montreal, June 1, S.N.

‘We are nobly treated, after the manner of this country, in all places, and hope the kindnes will hold. We are quartered in their townes, and visited by their governors and magistrates. A gentleman comes each day to perform civility to our officers, in the name of the Cardinal. The king's own troop of gentlemen were divided by his appointment, and one half of them ordered to march before us. Wine and beer is plentifully given to our soldiers in each night's quarters. Our men, if sick or lame, are lodged in the houses of burgers; and indeedthe French do give many demonstrations of really affecting our nation, and an union with it. We depend upon the Lord for success.’ (Merc. Polit. No. 363, p. 7809, May 21–28, 1657.)

page 81 note 2 Thurloe, vi. 287.

page 82 note 1 Thurloe, vi. 287, 290, 297; cf. Clarke Papers, iii. lit. Ere long the pay fell into arrears; cf. Thurloe, vi. 487; Bourelly, p. 27.

page 82 note 2 Thurloe, vi. 288, 290. In defending the conduct of his government on this point, Lockhart doubtless pointed out that the French had not provided the arms for three thousand men which they were by treaty bound to furnish. But there was some foundation for the complaint, as the same letter shows. (Ibid. 290.)

page 82 note 3 Lansdowne MS. 823, f. 114; cf. Thurloe, vi. 523.

page 82 note 4 Ibid. vi. 522, 524; Bourelly, , Cromwell et Mazarin, p. 34; Clarke Papers, iii. 119. An account of their despatch is given in Mercurius Politicus, p. 1648.

page 83 note 1 Clarke Papers, iii. 121, 123, 135. On December 5, 1657, Reynolds wrote to Turenne that there were only 1,800 serviceable men left out of all the English in France and Flanders (Thurloe, p. 659). Bourelly says in a note (p. 41), ‘A lafin de l'hiver, plus de 2,000 Anglais étaient morts dans ce triste réduit de Mardick’ (La Mesnardière, Relations de guerre &c.). See also Bourelly, p. 52. The English royalists quartered at Oudekerke, near Dunkirk, also suffered very severely during the winter. ‘Few of the officers or soldiers, excepting only the natural Spaniards, escaped agues; insomuch that wee had never half our men together in a condition of doing duty. It fell the most severely on those troopes I commanded; for, excepting myself, there was scarcely an officer or volunteer of quality, or any of my servants, who was free from an ague. My brother the Duke of Glocester went out of the army sick of that distemper; and the Prince of Condé was seiz'd with it to that degree that he was once given over by the phisitians.’ (Life James II. 317, 322.)

page 83 note 2 Thurloe, vi. 637, 653.

page 83 note 3 Thurloe, vi. 659. What remained of these regiments formed the garrison of Mardyke about January (ibid. vi. 709, 725).

page 84 note 1 Thurloe, vi. 665, 676, 680, 686, 735; Bourelly, p. 58; Life of James II. i. 328.

page 84 note 2 Thurloe, vi. 695.

page 84 note 3 Ibid. vi. 615, 659, 676, 677.

page 84 note 4 Ibid. vi. 804, 853; Bourelly, pp. 83–85.

page 84 note 5 According to Lockhart, 2,079 men, ‘and most of them raw men,’ landed before May 6/16. Four or five days later 270 more arrived (Thurloe, vii. 116, 127).

page 85 note 1 Clarke Papers, iii. 151, 152; Thurloe, vii. 115. Turenne had urged that two whole regiments of old soldiers should be sent (ibid. vii. 52).

page 85 note 2 It consisted of about 400 men. Life of James II. i.336; Clarke Papers, iii. 150; Bourelly, p. 138.

page 85 note 3 Life of James II. i. 345; Clarke Papers, iii. 154.

page 85 note 4 Life of James II. i. 345, 354.

page 85 note 5 Ibid.; Clarke Papers, iii. 154. William Urry, originally major of the Scottish regiment, became its lieutenant-colonel on November 1, 1658. (Macray, , Ruthven Correspondence, p. 166.)

page 86 note 1 Clarke Papers, iii. 154; Thurloe, vii. 156, 160; Cal. S. P., Dam. 1658–9, p. 97.

page 86 note 2 Life of James II. i. 353, 354, 359.

page 86 note 3 ‘I finde the 4 regiments with mee and la Ferté, vir. my owne, Colone Lillingeston's, Sir Brice Cochron's, and Collonel Clarcke's, are much weakened by the losse of those wee have had killed and wounded both at the battaile, and seidges before Dunkerke and Bergin; though I will assure you that nothing is wanting in mee to preserve them, yet our last recruits fell sicke verie fast.’ (Morgan to Thurloe, Thurloe, vii. 200; cf. Clarke Papers, iii. 160.) Lockhart sent 500 recruits to Morgan in August (Thurloe, vii. 305, 308).

page 87 note 1 Guizot, , Richard Cromwell, i. 292; Merc. Polit.

page 87 note 2 Thurloe, vii. 170.

page 87 note 3 Ibid. vii. 175, 179. The ‘state of the garrison of Dunkirk’ printed in Thurloe, vii. 239, shows the cost of the garrison ratherthan its numbers, but there are some musters amongst the Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian (A. lix. 87). Nine companies of Gibbons's regiment and eight of Salmon's were mustered at Dunkirk on June 24/July 4; the place of the absent companies was filled by companies belonging to different regiments quartered in England.

page 87 note 4 Lockhart was the nominal colonel of the regiment, but fromAugust 1659 Major Tobias Bridge was its real commander. See Commons' Journals, vii. 760; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1659–60, pp. 151, 105, 143; Thurloe, vii. 170, 239, 274. 319.

page 87 note 5 Thurloe, vii. 306.

page 88 note 1 Thurloe, vii. 215, 238, 319.

page 88 note 2 The address is printed in Merc. Folit., October 7–14, 1659. See also pp. 874, 893, 922.

page 88 note 3 Guizot, , Richard Cromwell, i. 235.

page 88 note 4 Thurloe, vii. 579; Clarke Papers, iii. 171. See also Guizot, i. 285. The old soldiers would not go to Flanders, so recruits were sent instead.

page 89 note 1 Thurloe, iii. 179, iv. 283; Guizot, , Richard Cromwell, i. 292.

page 89 note 2 Chéruel, , Histoire de France sous le ministére de Mazarin, iii. 221.

page 89 note 3 See Guizot, , Richard Cromwell (translated by Scoble, , 1856), i. 391, 398, 402, 409; Commons' Journals, vii. 657, and Lockhart's own letter of May 17, 1659; Thurloe, vii. 670. Colonel Alsop gives the following account of Lockhart's speech to the garrison:

‘His excellency did then and there acquaint the officers with the transactions of things in England; and did also exhort and command the officers to a strict performance of their duty, notwithstanding the cessation made betwixt the two crowns of France and Spain, giving them good reasons to incite them thereunto; and did also acquaint them, that notwithstanding thechange of government, which is now in England, that we were not to look upon particulars with the same eye, that we are bound in duty to look upon things of public concernment. And although the government were altered, the nation is still the same, and the concernment of the publicalso the same; for which we are immediately to act; and having through the providence of God procured this town to the use of our country, that we are to lay forth ourselves to the utmost of our power to keep and maintain it for the use aforesaid.’ (Thurloe, vii. 671.)

page 90 note 1 Thurloe, vii. 668. A report presented to the Parliament onApril 7, 1659, showed that the forces in Flanders and the garrison of Dunkirk cost 5, 95 Il. per month, and that over two months' pay was owing to them. (Commons' Journal, vii. 629, 631.)

page 90 note 2 Commons' Journals, vii. 657; Ludlow, , Memoirs, ii. 96, ed. 1894; Thurloe, vii. 670, 694, 721.

page 90 note 3 On July 19 from the three regiments late in French service; on July 27 from those at Dunkirk.(Commons' Journals, vii. 723, 735.)

page 91 note 1 Clarke Papers, iii. 283; they seem to have been paid soon after the mutiny. (Thurloe, vii. 707.)

page 91 note 2 Colonels Packer and Ashfield and Lieutenant-Colonel Pearson. For their letters and report see Thurloe, vii. 694, 699, 712–79.

page 91 note 3 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1659–60, pp. 58, 74.

page 92 note 1 Thurloe, vii. 722.

page 92 note 2 Clarke Papers, iv. 40; Commons' Journals, vii. 723, 760; Cal. Stale Papers, Dom. 1659–60, pp. 121, 146, 195, 197.

page 92 note 3 Ibid. pp. 307, 322, 349, 352, 368, 415, 592; Report on the MSS. of Mr. Leyborne Popliam, p. 174.

page 93 note 1 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1659–60, pp. 300, 309, 331.

page 93 note 2 Guizot, , Richard Cromwell, translatedby Scoble, , ii. 341, 343; Publick Intelligencer, January 30–February 6, 1660, p. 1068.

page 93 note 3 On February 6 the Council of State ordered that 600 men ofthe regiment late Sir Bryce Cochrane's should be conducted to Dunkirk, but there is no evidence that the order was carried out. (Cal. Slate Papers, Dom. 1659 60, p. 343.)

page 93 note 4 Thurloe, vii. 695.

page 94 note 1 See Appendix A.

page 94 note 2 Thurloe Papers, vii. 723, 729, 730.

page 95 note 1 Thurloe, vii. 729.

page 95 note 2 Common' Journals, viii. 803; Merc. Polit. p. 1002. See Appendix B.

page 95 note 3 Clarendon, , Rebellion, xvi. 173, ed. Macray, .

page 96 note 1 Pepys, ed. Wheatley, p. 104.

page 96 note 2 Scott, , British Army, iii. 113, quoting Mercurius Publicus, May 16–23, 1660.

page 96 note 3 Commons' Journals, viii. 52; cf. Guizot, , Richard Cromwell, ii. 428, 437; Portland MSS. iii. 222.

page 96 note 4 Collins, , History of the Noble Families of Cavendish, Holies, Harley, &c. p. 202.

page 96 note 5 For a list of the regiments and their officers see Mercurius Publicus, August 23–30, 1660.

page 97 note 1 Commons' Journals, viii. 163.

page 97 note 2 Ibid. viii. 77, 135. An establishment for Dunkirk is given in Lister's Life of Clarendon, iii. 510, but it belongs to 1661 or 1662. Monck's computation of the cost of the garrison is given in a paper printed at p. 212 of the same volume.

page 98 note 1 Clarendon MSS.

page 98 note 2 Military Memoirs of John Gwynne, pp. 109–112.

page 98 note 3 Clarendon MSS.

page 99 note 1 Military Memoirs of John Gwynne, p. 132.

page 99 note 2 Ibid. p. 133. Gwynne gives no dates, but says that this took place when they were quartered at Nivelles. It may have happened just before the king's restoration or just afterwards.

page 99 note 3 See the correspondence quoted in Hamilton's, History of the Grenadier Guards, i. 2930.

page 100 note 1 Report on the MSS. of Mr. Eliot Hodgkin, p. 125. Grace's regiment is evidently that once called Ormond's, Farrell's probably Bristol's. According to Hamilton, who, as usual, does not give his authority, the King had atthe commencement of 1660 about 2,000 men in Flanders, (Grenadier Guards, i. 32). In May 1659 the King said he would bring 2,000 men with him (Clarendon S. P. iii. 472).

page 100 note 2 Life of James II. i. 379; Lister, , Life of Clarendon, i. 464.

page 101 note 1 Carte, , Original Letters, ii. 269276; Chéruel, , Ministère de Mazarin, iii. 289393.

page 101 note 2 Carte, ii. 215, 230, 253, 258, 260.

page 101 note 3 On June 13 the Duke of York petitioned the Privy Council that his troop, ‘at present in the King of Spain's dominions, might be drawn into and provided for in his Majesty's town and garrison of Dunkirk.’ (Scott, , British Army, iii. 116.) For the vote of the Commons see Journals viii. 77, 78. See also MSS. of the Duke of Portland, iii. 242, 244, 246.

page 101 note 4 Scott, iii. 65, 80, 116; Life of James II. i. 391; Dalton, , Army Lists, i. 2.

page 101 note 5 Hamilton says that the commission to Wentworth describes the regiment a being at Dunkirk, but it certainly was not there till later.(History of the Grenadier Guards, i. 75–77.)

page 102 note 1 Memoirs of John Guynne, p. 127.

page 102 note 2 Ibid. p. 129.

page 102 note 3 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660–1, p. 332.

page 102 note 4 Cf. Scott, , History of the British Army, iii. 117, 118.

page 102 note 5 See Appendix C.

page 102 note 6 Cal. S.P., Dom. 1661–2, p. 545; Walton, Clifford, History of the British Standing Army, pp. 5, 843; Scott, iii. 216, 220.

page 103 note 1 Scott, , History of the British Army, iii. 83, 235.

page 103 note 2 Report on the MSS. of Mr. Leyborne Popham, p. 189.See also Report on the MSS. of the Duke of Portland, iii. 255.

page 104 note 1 Cal. S.P., Dom. 1661–2, pp. 249, 287.

page 104 note 2 Ibid. pp. 8, 41, 313, 409, 469, 492; Lister, , Life of Clarendon, iii. 510. It apparently succeeded Robert Harley's on the Dunkirk establishment.

page 104 note 3 Kennet, , Register Ecclesiastical and Civil, p. 717.

page 104 note 4 Scott, , British Army, iii. 216; Cal. S.P., Dom. 1661–2, pp. 545, 608, 632.

page 104 note 5 On its sufferings see Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660–1, p. 173; ibid. 1661–2, p. 222.

page 104 note 6 Idid. 1660–1, p. 433; 1661–2, pp. 167, 194, 249, 261, 364. The officers who were reduced were granted certain sums out of the money assigned for the payment of the 500 soldiers at which the strength of the regiment was fixed.

Many only 389 men were actually on the muster rolls.

page 105 note 1 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, pp. 553, 573, 607.

page 105 note 2 Ibid. pp. 129, 287, 288; Davis, , History of the Second Queen's Regiment, i. 27, 31. 41. 49.

page 105 note 3 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, pp. 10, 129, 136, 161, 288–9; Davis, i. 27, 31, 41, 49. 65, 69, 71.

page 105 note 4 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, p. 588; Davis, pp. 43, 54, 72, 82; Petys's Diary, ed. Wheatley, , iii. 102, iv. 271, 306, viii. 746.

page 106 note 1 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, pp. 161, 287, 288.

page 106 note 2 Grace was rewarded by being granted the sale of a baronetcy (ibid. p. 270). He survived to take part in the Irish wars which followed the Revolution and to defend Athlone against the troops of William III. (Dalton, , Army List of King James II. ii. 567.)

page 106 note 3 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660–1, p. 415; 1661–2, pp. 287, 288.

page 106 note 4 Camden Miscellany, vol. viii., ‘Letters addressed to the Earl of Lauderdale,’ p. 22.

page 107 note 1 This is proved by comparing the list of officers in Harley's regiment in 1660 with the list of Rutherford's in 1662, and noting the changes made in 1661. (Dalton, , Army Lists i. 18, 19, 24.)

page 107 note 2 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, p. 545.

page 107 note 3 Davis, , History of the Second Queen's Regiment, pp. 36, 63.

page 107 note 4 Davis, i. 82, 99; Dalton,. 18.

page 107 note 5 Report on the MSS. of the Duke of Portland, iii. 247, 250.

page 107 note 6 Davis, , History of the Second Queen's Regiment, pp. 27, 31, 42; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, 194, 312, 376.

page 108 note 1 Portland MSS. iii. 259.

page 108 note 2 Davis, i. 33, 41, 49.

page 108 note 3 The last mention of Alsop's regiment amongst the Harley Papers is dated February 11, 1661; the first mention of Ossory's is in April. Report on the Duke of Portland's MSS. iii. 247, 250, 251. Notes of commissions in which officers lately belonging to Alsop's regiment are replaced by others commissioned as of Lord Falkland's prove the connection between the two regiments. (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660–1, 443; 1661–2, I. 124, 195, 325; Mercurius Publicus, August 23–30, 1660.)

page 108 note 4 A petition to Monck from the officers at Dunkirk shows that they expected disbanding, and only desired to be paid their arrears first. Probably theyobtained them.

‘The Officers at Dunkirk to the Duke of Albemarle

‘1661, May.—You having been a father to your country, and more particularly to us of this garrison, God having raised you up to accomplish those things in the restoration of our Lord and master, his most sacred Majesty, to his rights, which we all constantly and passionately desired, but had not the possibility to effect but by your conduct, we implore you to mediate with the King that no officer or soldier of the troops or companies of this garrison may be cashiered or put out of their employment without first having their arrears paid.

Signed by Colonel Roger Alsop, Lieutenant-Colonels Maurice Kingwell andWilliam Fleetwood, and 47 others.’

(Report on the MSS. of Mr. Leyborne Popham, p. 189.) Kingwell, who was Alsop's lieutenant-colonel, seems to have been removed to make room for his former colonel when Ossory took the command. He was, apparently, made lieutenant-colonel of Sir Robert Harley's foot, while Fleetwood was dismissed altogether.

page 109 note 1 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, pp. 525, 544–5.

page 109 note 2 Ibid. p. 525.

page 109 note 3 Report on the MSS. of Mr. J. M. Heathcote, pp. 157, 164. Davis, , History of the Second Queen's, i. 44, 71, 74, 111, 115.

page 110 note 1 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661–2, p. 344.

page 110 note 2 Ibid. p. 545.

page 110 note 3 Davis, , History of the Second Queen's, pp. 44, 64, 74, 83;Dalton, , Army Lists, p. 75.

page 111 note 1 Rawlinson MS. A, lxv. ff. 85, 69.

page 111 note 1 I suspect Mr. Gardiner of being the author of this denunciation.

page 119 note 1 Life of Marmaduke Rawdon (Camden Soc), p. 93.

page 119 note 2 Reprinted in Churchill's Voyages, vi. 363.

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