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Can Domestic Environmental Courts Implement International Environmental Law? A Framework for Institutional Analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 June 2023

J. Michael Angstadt*
Colorado College, Environmental Studies Programme, Colorado Springs, CO (United States (US)).


The rapid and widespread establishment of domestic environmental courts and tribunals raises important questions regarding their implications for international environmental law and global environmental governance. I use an interdisciplinary, multi-method approach to consider the capacity of domestic environmental courts to identify and apply norms and principles of international environmental law in domestic opinions. I first review existing literature, identifying jurisdiction, judicial discretion, and a court's position in a legal system as key institutional determinants of this capacity. I then develop a typology of domestic environmental courts and tribunals, which suggests that, all else being equal, a court with national geographic jurisdiction that also enjoys attributes of broad subject-matter jurisdiction and discretion may be expected to be best equipped to implement norms and principles of international environmental law. Next, I integrate existing assessments of environmental court presence with original outreach and web research to identify all countries which possess environmental courts, and assess a subset of eight existing national-level institutions. The analysis of this subset highlights the diversity of institutional models that can incorporate theorized best practices. Based on these findings, I draw several theoretical conclusions: specifically (i) the relevance of environmental court research to individual- and institutional-level analysis in transnational and international environmental law, (ii) the need for further legal-institutional analysis in global environmental governance scholarship, and (iii) the opportunity for further interdisciplinary analysis of the role of domestic courts in environmental governance.

Copyright © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press

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I am grateful to Michele Betsill for support throughout the authorship process. I also acknowledge the input of Dimitris Stevis, Courtenay Daum, and Rebecca Gruby, feedback from attendees of the Utrecht Conference on Earth System Governance, and the exceptional support of anonymous reviewers for TEL. Any errors or omissions are my own.

Competing interests: The author declares none.


1 G. Pring & C. Pring, Environmental Courts & Tribunals: A Guide for Policy Makers (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2016), p. iii, available at:

2 Angstadt, J.M., ‘Environmental Norm Diffusion and Domestic Legal Innovation: The Case of Specialized Environmental Courts and Tribunals’ (2022) 31(2) Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, pp. 222–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 Pring & Pring, n. 1 above.

4 See, e.g., Lin, T. et al., Green Benches: What Can the People's Republic of China Learn from Environment Courts of Other Countries? (Asian Development Bank, 2009)Google Scholar.

5 de Zavala, S. Abed et al., ‘An Institute for Enhancing Effective Environmental Adjudication’ (2010) 3(1) Journal of Court Innovation, pp. 110Google Scholar, at 2.

6 See, e.g., Okong'o, S., ‘Environmental Adjudication in Kenya: A Reflection on the Early Years of the Environment and Land Court of Kenya’ (2017) 29(2–3) Environmental Law & Management, pp. 103–9Google Scholar.

7 Frequently, however, environmental courts and tribunals are staffed by specialist judges and scientific experts, and they regularly offer litigants special procedures and evidentiary rules that are tailored to environmental disputes.

8 Bertram, D., ‘Judicializing Environmental Governance? The Case of Transnational Corporate Accountability’ (2022) 22(2) Global Environmental Politics, pp. 117–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar. E.g., Zhu, M., ‘The Rule of Climate Policy: How Do Chinese Judges Contribute to Climate Governance without Climate Law?’ (2021) 11(1) Transnational Environmental Law, pp. 119–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

9 Bertram, ibid.

10 F. Aletta et al., Frontiers 2022: Noise, Blazes and Mismatches (UNEP, 2022), available at:

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13 This article examines dynamics that influence the domestic incorporation of both IEL norms and principles. Both concepts are relevant to this analysis, yet the distinctions between norms and principles are dynamic and frequently contested, both collectively and with regard to the status of individual precepts. Unless explicitly noted, reference to ‘norms’ throughout should be read to include both norms and principles, as they are understood within IEL. For further consideration of the status of individual IEL norms and principles; see P.M. Dupuy & J. Viñuales, International Environmental Law, 2nd edn (Cambridge University Press, 2018), pp. 58–104.

14 Angstadt, n. 2 above.

15 Pring & Pring, n. 1 above, p. 12.

16 G.N. Gill, Environmental Justice in India: The National Green Tribunal (Routledge, 2017).

17 B.J. Preston, ‘Benefits of Judicial Specialization in Environmental Law: The Land and Environment Court of New South Wales as a Case Study’ (2012) 29(2) Pace Environmental Law Review, pp. 396–440.

18 See, e.g., R. Guidone & H. Jonas, ‘A Review of Environmental Courts and Tribunals for Civil Society Organisations and the Judiciary’, in C. Voigt & Z. Makuch (eds), Courts and the Environment (Edward Elgar, 2018), pp. 369–88.

19 C. Warnock, Environmental Courts and Tribunals: Powers, Integrity, and the Search for Legitimacy (Bloomsbury, 2020).

20 A. Rosencranz & G. Sahu, ‘Assessing the National Green Tribunal after Four Years’ (2014) 5(Monsoon) Journal of Indian Law & Society, pp. 191–200.

21 Preston, n. 17 above.

22 See critiques of inequity in China's environmental court system in R.E. Stern, ‘Poor Rural Residents in China Seen as Easy Target for Environmental Lawsuits’ (2013) April China Dialogue, pp. 11–4; see also R.E. Stern, ‘The Political Logic of China's New Environmental Courts’ (2014) 72 The China Journal, pp. 53–74, at 69.

23 N.A. Robinson, ‘Introduction: Ensuring Access to Justice through Environmental Courts and Tribunals’ (2012) 29(2) Pace Environmental Law Review, pp. 363–95, at 379.

24 B.O. Giupponi, ‘Fostering Environmental Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Analysis of the Regional Agreement on Environmental Access Rights’ (2019) 28(2) Review of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law, pp. 136–51, at 144.

25 J. Clapp & L. Swanston, ‘Doing Away with Plastic Shopping Bags: International Patterns of Norm Emergence and Policy Implementation’ (2009) 18(3) Environmental Politics, pp. 315–32.

26 P.M. Haas, ‘Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination’ (1992) 46(1) International Organization, pp. 1–35.

27 A. Acharya, ‘The R2P and Norm Diffusion: Towards a Framework of Norm Circulation’ (2013) 5(4) Global Responsibility to Protect, pp. 466–79.

28 A.-J. Saiger, ‘Domestic Courts and the Paris Agreement's Climate Goals: The Need for a Comparative Approach’ (2020) 9(1) Transnational Environmental Law, pp. 37–54, at 38–9.

29 For exemplar references, see G. Auld, M. Betsill & S.D. Vandeveer, ‘Transnational Governance for Mining and the Mineral Lifecycle’ (2018) 43(1) Annual Review of Environment & Resources, pp. 425–53.

30 L. Carnwath, ‘Judges and the Common Laws of the Environment – At Home and Abroad’ (2014) 26(2) Journal of Environmental Law, pp. 177–87.

31 See, e.g., L. Andonova & R. Mitchell, ‘The Rescaling of Global Environmental Politics’ (2010) 35 Annual Review of Environment and Resources, pp. 255–82.

32 L. Parks & E. Morgera, ‘The Need for an Interdisciplinary Approach to Norm Diffusion: The Case of Fair and Equitable Benefit-Sharing’ (2015) 24(3) Review of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law, pp. 353–67, at 353–4.

33 J. Abrams et al., ‘How Do States Benefit from Nonstate Governance? Evidence from Forest Sustainability Certification’ (2018) 18(3) Global Environmental Politics, pp. 66–85.

34 A. Bengtsson, ‘Green Courts as the Providers of Environmental Rights? The Case of the Swedish Land and Environment Courts’, in S. Bogojević & R. Reyfuse (eds), Environmental Rights in Europe and Beyond (Hart, 2018), pp. 177–200.

35 D. Kaniaru, ‘Environmental Tribunals as a Mechanism for Settling Disputes’ (2007) 37(4) Environmental Policy and Law, pp. 459–63; R. Asenjo, ‘Environmental Justice in Chile: Three Years after the Establishment of the Environmental Court of Santiago’ (2017) 29 Environmental Law & Management, pp. 110–4.

36 See, e.g., B.J. Preston, ‘Characteristics of Successful Environmental Courts and Tribunals’ (2014) 26(3) Journal of Environmental Law, pp. 365–93.

37 J. Liu, ‘China's Procuratorate in Environmental Civil Enforcement: Practice, Challenges & Implications for China's Environmental Governance’ (2011) 13(1) Vermont Journal of Environmental Law, pp. 41–68; S. Tripathi, ‘Report Card of the NGT at the End of Seven Years since Establishment: The Present and Future Ahead’ (2018) 30(3) Environmental Claims Journal, pp. 228–36; Q. Zhang, Z. Yu & D. Kong, ‘The Real Effect of Legal Institutions: Environmental Courts and Firm Environmental Protection Expenditure’ (2019) 98 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, article 102254; R. Walters & D. Solomon Westerhuis, ‘Green Crime and the Role of Environmental Courts’ (2013) 59(3) Crime, Law and Social Change, pp. 279–90.

38 A. Dilay, A.P. Diduck & K. Patel, ‘Environmental Justice in India: A Case Study of Environmental Impact Assessment, Community Engagement and Public Interest Litigation’ (2020) 38(1) Impact Assessment & Project Appraisal, pp. 16–27; G.N. Gill, ‘Environmental Justice in India: The National Green Tribunal and Expert Members’ (2016) 5(1) Transnational Environmental Law, pp. 175–205; M. Stubbs, ‘Environmental Mediation in Planning Appeals: Lessons from the Land and Environment Court of New South Wales’ (1996) 39(2) Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, pp. 273–84.

39 Warnock, n. 19 above.

40 E.g., L. Wegener, ‘Can the Paris Agreement Help Climate Change Litigation and Vice Versa?’ (2020) 9(1) Transnational Environmental Law, pp. 17–36.

41 M.-C. Cordonier Segger & H.E. Judge C.G. Weeramantry (eds), Sustainable Development Principles in the Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals 1992–2012 (Oxford University Press, 2017); C. Bruch, ‘Is International Environmental Law Really Law? An Analysis of Application in Domestic Courts’ (2006) 23(2) Pace Environmental Law Review, pp. 423–64.

42 M. Shinde, ‘The Polluter Pays Principle in Effect at the National Green Tribunal in India’ (2017) 9 The Journal of Health, Environment, & Education, pp. 10–18.

43 E.g., P.G. Ferreira, ‘“Common but Differentiated Responsibilities” in the National Courts: Lessons from Urgenda v. The Netherlands’ (2016) 5(2) Transnational Environmental Law, pp. 329–51.

44 M.R. Anderson, ‘International Environmental Law in Indian Courts’ (1998) 7(1) Review of European, Comparative, and International Environmental Law, pp. 21–30.

45 C. Tollefson & J. Thornback, ‘Litigating the Precautionary Principle in Domestic Courts’ (2008) 19(1) Journal of Environmental Law and Practice, pp. 33–58; J. Peel & H.M. Osofsky, ‘A Rights Turn in Climate Change Litigation?’ (2018) 7(1) Transnational Environmental Law, pp. 37–67.

46 Saiger, n. 28 above; C.M. Kauffman & P.L. Martin, ‘Constructing Rights of Nature Norms in the US, Ecuador, and New Zealand’ (2018) 18(4) Global Environmental Politics, pp. 43–62.

47 For a thoughtful overview of the synergies and distinctions between disciplinary conceptions of norms, with specific reference to IEL and GEP, see Parks & Morgera, n. 32 above, p. 356.

48 S. Gill, ‘Globalisation, Market Civilisation, and Disciplinary Neoliberalism’ (1995) 24(3) Millennium – Journal of International Studies, pp. 399–423.

49 T.S. Goldbach, ‘Why Legal Transplants?’ (2019) 15 Annual Review of Law and Social Science, pp. 583–601.

50 E.g., M. Finnemore & K. Sikkink, ‘International Norm Dynamics and Political Change’ (1998) 52(4) International Organization, pp. 887–917.

51 Dupuy & Viñuales, n. 13 above.

52 L. Vanhala, ‘Shaping the Structure of Legal Opportunities: Environmental NGOs Bringing International Environmental Procedural Rights Back Home’ (2018) 40(1) Law and Policy, pp. 110–27; M. Schroeder, ‘The Construction of China's Climate Politics: Transnational NGOs and the Spiral Model of International Relations’ (2008) 21(4) Cambridge Review of International Affairs, pp. 505–25.

53 Clapp & Swanston, n. 25 above.

54 I. Alogna, ‘The Circulation of the Model of Sustainable Development: Tracing the Path in a Comparative Law Perspective’, in V. Mauerhofer (ed.), Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development: Horizontal and Sectorial Policy Issues (Springer International, 2015), pp. 13–33.

55 E.g., Y. Lupu, ‘Best Evidence: The Role of Information in Domestic Judicial Enforcement of International Human Rights Agreements’ (2013) 67(3) International Organization, pp. 469–503; B.A. Simmons, ‘Compliance with International Agreements’ (1998) 1(1) Annual Review of Political Science, pp. 75–93.

56 T. Risse & K. Sikkink, ‘The Socialization of International Human Rights Norms into Domestic Practices: Introduction’, in T. Risse, S. Ropp & K. Sikkink (eds), The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change (Taylor & Francis, 1999), pp. 117–49.

57 W.W. Burke-White & A.-M. Slaughter, ‘The Future of International Law Is Domestic (or, the European Way of Law)’ (2006) 47(2) Harvard International Law Journal, pp. 327–52, at 336–7.

58 A. Tzanakopoulos & C. Tams, ‘Domestic Courts as Agents of Development of International Law’ (2013) 26(3) Leiden Journal of International Law, pp. 531–40 (noting domestic courts’ ability to leverage ‘powerful state enforcement mechanisms to traditionally weakly enforced international legal regulation’).

59 A. Tzanakopoulos, ‘Domestic Courts in International Law: The International Judicial Function of National Courts’ (2011) 34(1) Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, pp. 133–68.

60 Burke-White & Slaughter, n. 57 above, pp. 336–7.

61 See, e.g., D.G. Victor, K. Raustiala & E.B. Skolnikoff, The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments: Theory and Practice (The MIT Press, 1998).

62 F. Zelli & H. van Asselt, ‘Introduction – The Institutional Fragmentation of Global Environmental Governance: Causes, Consequences, and Responses’ (2013) 13(3) Global Environmental Politics, pp. 1–13; F. Biermann et al., ‘The Fragmentation of Global Governance Architectures: A Framework for Analysis’ (2009) 9(4) Global Environmental Politics, pp. 14–40; Victor, Raustiala & Skolnikoff, n. 61 above.

63 See, e.g., Victor, Raustiala & Skolnikoff, n. 61 above.

64 J. McGee & J. Steffek, ‘The Copenhagen Turn in Global Climate Governance and the Contentious History of Differentiation in International Law’ (2016) 28(1) Journal of Environmental Law, pp. 37–63.

65 E. Fisher & B. Preston (eds), An Environmental Court in Practice: Function, Doctrine, and Process (Hart, 2022).

66 Warnock, n. 19 above, p. 28; E. Scotford, Environmental Principles and the Evolution of Environmental Law (Bloomsbury, 2017).

67 Robinson, n. 23 above.

68 Pring & Pring, n.1 above.

69 Giupponi, n. 24 above.

70 Gill, n. 12 above; J. Darpö, ‘Environmental Justice through Environmental Courts? Lessons Learned from the Swedish Experience’, in J. Ebbesson & P. Okowa (eds), Environmental Law and Justice in Context (Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 176–99.

71 As Warnock rightly cautions, ‘[t]hese bodies are overwhelmingly seen as a “good thing”. In the main, the scholarship does not acknowledge that they are highly vulnerable institutions, susceptible to changing political climates’: Warnock, n. 19 above, p. 4.

72 Preston, n. 36 above.

73 For fuller elaboration of expert survey methodology and substantiation, see Angstadt, n. 2 above, pp. 226–7.

74 Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute, Wex Legal Dictionary, ‘Jurisdiction’, available at:

75 Ibid.

76 K.W. Abbott & D. Snidal, ‘Hard and Soft Law in International Governance’ (2000) 54(3) International Organization, pp. 421–56, at 432 (emphasis added).

77 Ibid.

78 Expert survey response of Respondent 2.

79 E. Hamman, R. Walterst & R. Maguire, ‘Environmental Crime and Specialist Courts: The Case for a “One-Stop (Judicial) Shop” in Queensland’ (2016) 27(1) Current Issues in Criminal Justice, pp. 59–77, at 60.

80 However, as other analysts note, broad jurisdictional grants (including the capacity to initiate reviews and engage in prospective review) raise important normative questions that demand consideration. For thoughtful treatment, see Warnock, n. 19 above, p. 28.

81 For fuller elaboration, see M. Klatt, ‘Taking Rights Less Seriously: A Structural Analysis of Judicial Discretion’ (2007) 20(4) Ratio Juris. pp. 506–29.

82 “Ibid.

83 C. Pring & R. Pring, ‘Specialized Environmental Courts and Tribunals at the Confluence of Human Rights and the Environment’ (2009) 11 Oregon Review of International Law pp. 301–29, at 311.

84 E. Fisher, ‘“Jurisdictional” Facts and “Hot” Facts: Legal Formalism, Legal, Pluralism, and the Nature of Australian Administrative Law’ (2015) 38(3) Melbourne University Law Review, pp. 968–95, at 985.

85 N. Jannu, ‘India's National Green Tribunal: Human Rights and the Merits of an Environmental Court’ (2016) 46 Environmental Law Reports: News & Analysis, pp. 10474–7.

86 Pring & Pring, n. 1 above, p. x; Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute, Wex Legal Dictionary, ‘Discretion’, available at:; D. Oran, Oran's Dictionary of the Law, 3rd edn (West Legal Studies, 2000), p. 150.

87 Preston, n. 36 above, p. 375.

88 Expert survey response of Respondent 9.

89 Expert survey response of Respondent 27 (emphasis added).

90 R. Revesz, ‘Specialized Courts and the Administrative Lawmaking System’ (1990) 138(4) University of Pennsylvania Law Review, pp. 1111–74.

91 Pring & Pring, n. 1 above; Asian Development Bank, ‘Strengthening Judicial Capacity Towards Sustainable Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific’, Dec. 2020.

92 E.g., G. Ganguly, ‘Judicial Transnationalization’, in V. Heyvaert & L.A. Duvic-Paoli (eds), Research Handbook on Transnational Environmental Law (Edward Elgar, 2020), pp. 301–17.

93 Pring & Pring, n. 1 above, p. iii; see also M.A. Waters, ‘Mediating Norms and Identity: The Role of Transnational Judicial Dialogue in Creating and Enforcing International Law’ (2005) 93(2) Georgetown Law Journal, pp. 487–574, at 491; A.-M. Slaughter, ‘The Real New World Order’ (1997) 76 Foreign Affairs, pp. 183–97, at 186; M. Claes & M. de Visser, ‘Are You Networked Yet? On Dialogues in European Judicial Networks’ (2012) 8(2) Utrecht Law Review, pp. 100–14, at 105.

94 Expert survey response of Respondent 28.

95 E.g., panellists of the Vermont Environment Court (US) have been sensitive to its role in the global adjudication of environmental issues; see M. Wright, ‘The Vermont Environmental Court’ (2010) 3(1) Journal of Court Innovation, pp. 20114. The Land and Environment Court of New South Wales (Australia) has also applied IEL; see J. Peel, ‘The Land and Environment Court of New South Wales and the Transnationalisation of Climate Law: The Case of Gloucester Resources v. Minister for Planning’, in Fisher & Preston, n. 65 above, pp. 73–91; and B. Boer, ‘Transnational Dimensions of the Land and Environment Court of New South Wales’, in Fisher & Preston, n. 65 above, pp. 93–111.

96 S. Hockman, ‘The Case for an International Court for the Environment’ (2010) 3(1) Journal of Court Innovation, pp. 215–30; A. Postiglione, ‘A More Efficient International Law on the Environment and Setting Up an International Court for the Environment within the United States’ (1990) 20(2) Environmental Law, pp. 3218; O.W. Pedersen, ‘An International Environmental Court and International Legalism’ (2012) 24(3) Journal of Environmental Law, pp. 547–58.

97 E.g., C.A. Whytock, ‘Domestic Courts and Global Governance’ (2009) 84(1) Tulane Law Review, pp. 67–123.

98 K. Sikkink & H.J. Kim, ‘The Justice Cascade: The Origins and Effectiveness of Prosecutions of Human Rights Violations’ (2013) 9 Annual Review of Law and Social Science, pp. 269–85.

99 Pring & Pring, n. 1 above, Appendix A.

100 e.g., Stern, n. 22 above, p. 55; Robinson, n. 23 above, p. 368.

101 I systematized this effort by limiting search time to five minutes per UN member state and employing common search terms and phrases (including ‘Country name AND green court,’ ‘Country name AND environment court,’ ‘Country name AND environmental law,’ ‘Country name AND judicial system,’ and ‘Country name AND judiciary’).

102 Where such contact information could be identified, this approach was followed. Where only consular, mission, and/or embassy contacts could be identified, the approach was modified. However, for each country except the US and Democratic People's Republic of Korea, two efforts were made to establish contact. Additionally, I followed all suggested avenues for follow-up engagement.

103 L. Baum, Specializing the Courts (University of Chicago Press, 2010).

104 U. Bjällås, ‘Experiences of Sweden's Environmental Courts’ (2010) 3(1) Journal of Court Innovation, pp. 177–84.

105 Jannu, n. 85 above.

106 Bengtsson, n. 34 above.

107 V.C. Perez, ‘Specialization Trend: Water Courts’ (2019) 49(2) Environmental Law, pp. 587–629.

108 E. Syarief, ‘Land Dispute Resolution through the Special Land Courts as a Transformative Step in Agrarian Reform in Indonesia’ (2021) 7(2) International Journal of Law, pp. 123–6.

109 M.T. Ladan, ‘Sanitation and Waste Management – Part 2: The Role of Environmental Courts’ (2016) 46(3–4) Environmental Policy & Law, pp. 263–70.

110 Records on file with author.

111 Personal communication with Prof. S. Pongboonjun.

112 Personal communication with Justice S. Okong'o.

113 National Green Tribunal Act, 2010, s. III(14)(1).

114 Bolivia Constitution, Art. 189.

115 Personal communication with Registrar H. Johnson.

116 Personal communication with Judge M. Wik.

117 Personal communication with Justice S. Okong'o.

118 W. Ruangsri, ‘Environmental Law in the Thai Supreme Court Green Bench’, address to the Roundtable for ASEAN Chief Justices and Senior Judiciary on Environmental Law and Enforcement, ‘Judicial Reforms to Respond to Environmental Challenges: Institutionalizing Environmental Expertise through Specialization and Environmental Courts’, Jakarta (Indonesia), 5–7 Dec. 2011, pp. 2–3.

119 Bolivia Constitution, Art. 186.

120 India National Green Tribunal Act, s. 20.

121 Kenya Environment and Land Court Act, Part IV(18)(a)(i), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi)

122 The Environmental Commission of Trinidad & Tobago, ‘Vision and Mission’, available at:

123 Preston, n. 17 above.

124 R. Macrory, ‘The Long and Winding Road: Towards an Environmental Court in England and Wales’ (2013) 25(3) Journal of Environmental Law, pp. 371–81.

125 US Department of Justice, Land and Natural Resources Division, Report of the President, Acting through the Attorney General, on the Feasibility of Establishing an Environmental Court System (1973).

126 A distillation of these claims is outlined in S.C. Whitney, ‘The Case for Creating a Special Environmental Court System: A Further Comment’ (1973) 15 William and Mary Law Review, pp. 33–56, at 42–4.

127 See, e.g., Revesz, n. 90 above, p. 1166 (‘to the extent that the argument for specialization is the technical complexity of the underlying facts, a specialized court should be given fact-finding, rather than appellate, capability’).

128 B. Christman, ‘(Non)-Developments in Environmental Justice in Scotland’ (2018) 20(2) Environmental Law Review, pp. 69–73.

129 E. Colombo, ‘Enforcing International Climate Law in Domestic Courts: A New Trend of Cases for Boosting Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration?’ (2017) 35(1) UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, pp. 98–144.

130 L. Burgers, ‘Should Judges Make Climate Change Law?’ (2020) 9(1) Transnational Environmental Law, pp. 55–75.

131 J. Peel & J. Lin, ‘Transnational Climate Litigation: The Contribution of the Global South’ (2019) 113(4) American Journal of International Law, pp. 679–726.

132 E.g., when considering the capacity of domestic courts to address scientific and technical complexity in Urgenda, analysts lauded the introduction of experts into the legal sphere, highlighting their capacity to interpret complexity alongside judges’ capacity to interpret legal precepts, including precaution: S. Roy & E. Woerdman, ‘Situating Urgenda v The Netherlands within Comparative Climate Change Litigation’ (2016) 34(2) Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law, pp. 165–89.

133 E.g., Tzanakopoulos, n. 59 above.

134 Angstadt, n. 2, above; see also, more broadly, N. Affolder, ‘Contagious Environmental Lawmaking’ (2019) 31(2) Journal of Environmental Law, pp. 187–212.

135 Gill, n. 38 above.

136 L. Fisler Damrosch & J. Claydon, ‘Application of Customary International Law by U.S. Domestic Tribunals’ (1982) 76 American Society of International Law Proceedings, pp. 251–8, at 253.

137 S. Fatima, ‘Using International Law in Domestic Courts – Part III: Customary International Law’ (2003) 8(4) Judicial Review, pp. 235–40, at 240.

138 W. Sandholtz, ‘How Domestic Courts Use International Law’ (2015) 38(2) Fordham International Law Journal, pp. 595–637.

139 See, e.g., M. Tawfik, ‘No Longer Living in Splendid Isolation: The Globalization of National Courts and the Internationalization of Intellectual Property Law’ (2007) 32(2) Queen's Law Journal, pp. 573–601, at 584.

140 Sandholtz, n. 138, above, p. 617 (e.g., whether a court has chosen to employ ‘a law clerk specifically to research foreign and international law’).

141 D. Zartner, Courts, Codes, and Custom: Legal Tradition and State Policy toward International Human Rights and Environmental Law (Oxford University Press, 2014).

142 D. Sloss & M. van Alstine, ‘International Law in Domestic Courts’, International Law in Domestic Courts (2015), in W. Sandholtz & C. Whytock (eds), Research Handbook on the Politics of International Law (Edward Elgar, 2017), pp. 77–115; R. Lillich, ‘Invoking International Human Rights Law in Domestic Courts’ (1985) 54 University of Cincinnati Law Review, pp. 158–63; Klein, D., ‘A Theory for the Application of the Customary International Law of Human Rights by Domestic Courts’ (1988) 13 Yale Journal of International Law, pp. 332–65Google Scholar.

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144 Colombo, n. 129 above; Bruch, n. 41 above.

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152 A. Acharya, Constructing Global Order: Agency and Change in World Politics (Cambridge University Press, 2018), p. 206.

153 E.g., M.C. Lemos & A. Agrawal, ‘Environmental Governance’ (2006) 31 Annual Review of Environment and Resources, pp. 297–325.

154 Clapp & Swanston, n. 25 above, p. 329.

155 Biermann et al., n. 62 above, p. 16.

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