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The Genetic and Environmental Effects on Depressive Symptoms Among Older Female Twins

  • Sanna Takkinen (a1), Asko Tolvanen (a2), Jaakko Kaprio (a3), Stig Berg (a4), Markku Koskenvuo (a5) and Taina Rantanen (a6)...
Abstract
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to depressive symptoms among older women. The participants were 102 monozygotic and 115 dizygotic female twin pairs aged 64 to 76 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The contribution of genetic and environmental effects was estimated for the constructed depressiveness factor and for the subscales which were depressed mood, psychomotor retardation, lack of wellbeing and interpersonal difficulties. Of the variance in depressiveness, shared environmental influences accounted for 39% and nonshared environmental influences 61%. For the subscales, 24% to 62% of the variance was explained by individual, and 13% to 23% by shared, environmental factors. Lack of well-being had its own moderate additive genetic effect explaining 30% of the variance. This study showed that in older women predominantly environmental factors underlay individual differences in depressiveness; however, the factors varied to some extent between dimensions measured by the subscales.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Sanna Takkinen, Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, PO Box 1026, 55111 Jönköping, Sweden.
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Twin Research and Human Genetics
  • ISSN: 1832-4274
  • EISSN: 1839-2628
  • URL: /core/journals/twin-research-and-human-genetics
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