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    Odeh, R Mihailidis, S Townsend, G Lähdesmäki, R Hughes, T and Brook, A 2016. Prevalence of infraocclusion of primary molars determined using a new 2D image analysis methodology. Australian Dental Journal, Vol. 61, Issue. 2, p. 183.


    Yi, Q Cao, Y Liu, OS Lu, YQ Wang, JS Wang, SL Yao, R and Fan, ZP 2016. Spatial and temporal expression of histone demethylase, Kdm2a, during murine molar development. Biotechnic & Histochemistry, Vol. 91, Issue. 2, p. 137.


    Odeh, Ruba Townsend, Grant Mihailidis, Suzanna Lähdesmäki, Raija Hughes, Toby and Brook, Alan 2015. Infraocclusion: Dental development and associated dental variations in singletons and twins. Archives of Oral Biology, Vol. 60, Issue. 9, p. 1394.


    Silberstein, Robyn 2015. Recognizing and correcting developing malocclusions A problem-oriented approach to orthodontics.


    Prowse, Sarah Schroth, Robert J. Wilson, Alexandria Edwards, Jeanette M. Sarson, Janet Levi, Jeremy A. and Moffatt, Michael E. 2014. Diversity Considerations for Promoting Early Childhood Oral Health: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 2014, p. 1.


    Yong, R Ranjitkar, S Townsend, GC Smith, RN Evans, AR Hughes, TE Lekkas, D and Brook, AH 2014. Dental phenomics: advancing genotype to phenotype correlations in craniofacial research. Australian Dental Journal, Vol. 59, p. 34.


    Lopez, Sofia I. N. Mundstock, Karina S. Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa R. Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia Mundstock, Carlos A. Bortolini, Maria Cátira and Salzano, Francisco M. 2013. MSX1 and PAX9 Investigation in Monozygotic Twins With Variable Expression of Tooth Agenesis. Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 16, Issue. 06, p. 1112.


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Genetic, Epigenetic, and Environmental Influences on Dentofacial Structures and Oral Health: Ongoing Studies of Australian Twins and Their Families

Abstract

The Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at The University of Adelaide is entering an exciting new phase of its studies of dental development and oral health in twins and their families. Studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins have been continuing for nearly 30 years, with three major cohorts of twins recruited over that time, and currently we are working with twins aged 2 years old to adults. Cross-sectional data and records relating to teeth and faces of twins are available for around 300 pairs of teenage twins, as well as longitudinal data for 300 pairs of twins examined at three different stages of development, once with primary teeth, once at the mixed dentition stage, and then again when the permanent teeth had emerged. The third cohort of twins comprises over 600 pairs of twins recruited at around birth, together with other family members. The emphasis in this third group of twins has been to record the timing of emergence of the primary teeth and also to sample saliva and dental plaque to establish the timing of colonization of decay-forming bacteria in the mouth. Analyses have confirmed that genetic factors strongly influence variation in timing of primary tooth emergence. The research team is now beginning to carry out clinical examinations of the twins to see whether those who become colonized earlier with decay-forming bacteria develop dental decay at an earlier age. By making comparisons within and between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and applying modern molecular approaches, we are now teasing out how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors interact to influence dental development and also oral health.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
address for correspondence: Professor Grant C. Townsend, Craniofacial Biology Research Group, School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia. E-mail: grant.townsend@adelaide.edu.au
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M. Bockmann , A. Harris , C. Bennett , R. Odeh , T. Hughes , & G. Townsend (2011). Timing of colonization of caries-producing bacteria: An approach based on studying monozygotic twin pairs. International Journal of Dentistry, Article ID 571573, doi:10.1155/2011/571573.

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S. Eguchi , G. Townsend , L. Richards , T. Hughes , & K. Kasai (2004). Genetic contributions to dental arch size variation in Australian twins. Archives of Oral Biology, 49, 10151025.

T. Hughes , M. Bockmann , K. Seow , T. Gotjamanos , N. Gully , L. Richards , & G. Townsend (2007). Strong genetic control of emergence of human primary incisors. Journal of Dental Research, 86, 11601165.

T. Hughes , P. Dempsey , L. C. Richards , & G. C. Townsend (2000). Genetic analysis of deciduous tooth size in Australian twins. Archives of Oral Biology, 45, 9971004.

T. Hughes , C. Thomas , & G. Townsend (2001b). A study of occlusal variation in the primary dentition of Australian twins and singletons. Archives of Oral Biology, 46, 857864.

S. E. Medland , D. Duffy , M. J. Wright , G. Geffen , D. A. Hay , F. Levy , C. E. van-Beijsterveldt , G. Willemsen , G. C. Townsend , V. White , A. W. Hewitt , D. A. Mackey , J. M. Bailey , W. S. Slutske , D. R. Nyholt , S. A. Treloar , N. G. Martin , & D. I. Boomsma (2009). Genetic influences on handedness: Data from 25,732 Australian and Dutch twin families. Neuropsychologia, 47, 330337.

R. Smith , G. Townsend , K. Chen , & A. Brook (2009b). Synetic superimposition of dental 3D data: Application in twin studies. In T. Koppe, G. Meyer & K. W. Alt (Eds.), Comparative dental morphology: Frontiers in oral biology (Vol. 13, pp. 142147), Basel: Karger Press.

S. Taji , W. K. Seow , G. C. Townsend , & T. Holcombe (2010). A controlled study of dental erosion in 2–4 year-old twins. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 20, 400409.

S. Taji , W. K. Seow , G. C. Townsend , & T. Holcombe (2011). Enamel hypoplasia in the primary dentition of monozygous and dizygous twins compared with singleton controls. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 21, 175184.

K. Tangchaitrong , L. B. Messer , D. Thomas , & G. C. Townsend (2000). Fourier analysis of facial profiles of young twins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 113, 369379.

G. C. Townsend (1980). Heritability of deciduous tooth size in Australian Aboriginals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 53, 297300.

G. C. Townsend , & N. G. Martin (1992). Fitting genetic models to Carabelli trait data in South Australian twins. Journal of Dental Research, 71, 403409.

G. Townsend , L. Richards , & T. Hughes (2003). Molar intercuspal dimensions: Genetic input to phenotypic variation. Journal of Dental Research, 82, 350355.

S. Woodroffe , S. Mihailidis , T. Hughes , M. Bockmann , K. Seow , T. Gotjamanos , & G. Townsend (2010). Primary tooth emergence in Australian children: Timing, sequence and patterns of asymmetry. Australian Dental Journal, 55 (3), 245251.

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Twin Research and Human Genetics
  • ISSN: 1832-4274
  • EISSN: 1839-2628
  • URL: /core/journals/twin-research-and-human-genetics
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