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    Qi, Q. Cavanagh, M. M. Le Saux, S. NamKoong, H. Kim, C. Turgano, E. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Mackey, S. Swan, G. E. Dekker, C. L. Olshen, R. A. Boyd, S. D. Weyand, C. M. Tian, L. and Goronzy, J. J. 2016. Diversification of the antigen-specific T cell receptor repertoire after varicella zoster vaccination. Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 8, Issue. 332, p. 332ra46.

    Rubelt, Florian Bolen, Christopher R. McGuire, Helen M. Heiden, Jason A. Vander Gadala-Maria, Daniel Levin, Mikhail M. Euskirchen, Ghia Mamedov, Murad R. Swan, Gary E. Dekker, Cornelia L. Cowell, Lindsay G. Kleinstein, Steven H. and Davis, Mark M. 2016. Individual heritable differences result in unique cell lymphocyte receptor repertoires of naïve and antigen-experienced cells. Nature Communications, Vol. 7, p. 11112.

    Brodin, Petter Jojic, Vladimir Gao, Tianxiang Bhattacharya, Sanchita Angel, Cesar J. Lopez Furman, David Shen-Orr, Shai Dekker, Cornelia L. Swan, Gary E. Butte, Atul J. Maecker, Holden T. and Davis, Mark M. 2015. Variation in the Human Immune System Is Largely Driven by Non-Heritable Influences. Cell, Vol. 160, Issue. 1-2, p. 37.

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    Horowitz, A. Strauss-Albee, D. M. Leipold, M. Kubo, J. Nemat-Gorgani, N. Dogan, O. C. Dekker, C. L. Mackey, S. Maecker, H. Swan, G. E. Davis, M. M. Norman, P. J. Guethlein, L. A. Desai, M. Parham, P. and Blish, C. A. 2013. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Human NK Cell Diversity Revealed by Mass Cytometry. Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 5, Issue. 208, p. 208ra145.


The Twin Research Registry at SRI International

  • Ruth E. Krasnow (a1), Lisa M. Jack (a1), Christina N. Lessov-Schlaggar (a2), Andrew W. Bergen (a1) and Gary E. Swan (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 19 October 2012

The Twin Research Registry (TRR) at SRI International is a community-based registry of twins established in 1995 by advertising in local media, mainly on radio stations and in newspapers. As of August 2012, there are 3,120 same- and opposite-sex twins enrolled; 86% are 18 years of age or older (mean age 44.9 years, SD 16.9 years) and 14% less than 18 years of age (mean age 8.9 years, SD 4.5); 67% are female, and 62% are self-reported monozygotic (MZ). More than 1,375 twins have participated in studies over the last 15 years in collaboration with the University of California Medical Center in San Francisco, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and the Stanford University School of Medicine. Each twin completes a registration form with basic demographic information either online at the TRR Web site or during a telephone interview. Contact is maintained with members by means of annual newsletters and birthday cards. The managers of the TRR protect the confidentiality of twin data with established policies; no information is given to other researchers without prior permission from the twins; and all methods and procedures are reviewed by an Institutional Review Board. Phenotypes studied thus far include those related to nicotine metabolism, mutagen sensitivity, pain response before and after administration of an opioid, and a variety of immunological responses to environmental exposures, including second-hand smoke and vaccination for seasonal influenza virus and Varicella zoster virus. Twins in the TRR have participated in studies of complex, clinically relevant phenotypes that would not be feasible to measure in larger samples.

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Corresponding author
address for correspondence: Gary E. Swan, PhD, Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood, BN133, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. E-mail:
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M. S. Angst , L. C. Lazzeroni , N. G. Phillips , D. R. Drover , M. Tingle , A. Ray , . . . J. D. Clark (2012). Aversive and reinforcing opioid effects: A pharmacogenomic twin study. Anesthesiology, 117, 2237.

M. S. Angst , N. G. Phillips , D. R. Drover , M. Tingle , A. Ray , G. E. Swan , . . . J. D. Clark (2012). Pain sensitivity and opioid analgesia: A pharmacogenomic twin study. Pain, 153, 13971409.

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N. L. Benowitz , C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar , & G. E. Swan (2008). Genetic influences in the variation in renal clearance of nicotine and cotinine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 84, 243247.

N. L. Benowitz , C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar , G. E. Swan , & P. Jacob 3rd. (2006). Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 79, 480488.

N. L. Benowitz , G. E. Swan , P. Jacob 3rd., C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar , & R. F. Tyndale (2006). CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 80, 457467.

A. W. Bergen , D. V. Conti , D. Van Den Berg , W. Lee , J. Liu , D. Li , . . . G. E. Swan (2009). Dopaminergic genes and nicotine dependence in treatment seeking and community smokers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 22522264.

D. Carmelli , G. E. Swan , C. DeCarli , & T. Reed (2002). Quantitative genetic modeling of regional brain volumes and cognitive performance in older male twins. Biological Psychology, 61, 139155.

D. Carmelli , G. E. Swan , D. Robinette , & R. Fabsitz (1992). Genetic influence on smoking: A study of male twins. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 829833.

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M. Falcone , C. Jepson , N. Benowitz , A. W. Bergen , A. Pinto , E. P. Wileyto , . . . R. Ray (2011). Association of the nicotine metabolite ratio and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 polymorphisms with smoking rate among treatment-seeking smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 13, 498503.

A. C. Heath , D. R. Nyholt , R. Neuman , P. A. Madden , K. K. Bucholz , R. D. Todd , . . . N. G. Martin (2003). Zygosity diagnosis in the absence of genotypic data: An approach using latent class analysis. Twin Research, 6, 2226.

P. Jacob 3rd., N. L. Benowitz , & A. Shulgin (1988). Synthesis of optically pure deuterium labeled nicotine, nornicotine and cotinine. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, 25, 11171128.

P. Jacob 3rd., L. Yu , M. Wilson , & N. L. Benowitz (1991). Selected ion monitoring method for determination of nicotine, cotinine and deuterium-labeled analogs: Absence of an isotope effect in the clearance of (S)-nicotine-3’,3’-d2 in humans. Biological Mass Spectrometry, 20, 247252.

E. Krishnan , C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar , R. E. Krasnow , & G. E. Swan (2012). Nature versus nurture in gout: A twin study. American Journal of Medicine, 125, 499504.

W. Lee , R. Ray , A. W. Bergen , G. E. Swan , P. Thomas , R. F. Tyndale , . . . D. V. Conti (2012). DRD1 associations with smoking abstinence across slow and normal nicotine metabolizers. Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, 22, 551554.

C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar , G. E. Swan , C. DeCarli , R. E. Krasnow , T. Reed , P. A. Wolf , & D. Carmelli (2012). Longitudinal genetic analysis of brain volumes in normal elderly males: The NHLBI twin study. Neurobiology of Aging, 33, 636644.

C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar , G. E. Swan , T. Reed , P. A. Wolf , & D. Carmelli (2007). Longitudinal genetic analysis of executive function in elderly men. Neurobiology of Aging, 28, 17591768.

J. Lin , G. E. Swan , P. G. Shields , N. L. Benowitz , J. Gu , C. I. Amos , M. de Andrade , M. R. Spitz , & X. Wu (2007). Mutagen sensitivity and genetic variants in nucleotide excision repair pathway: Genotype-phenotype correlation. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 16, 20652071.

J. C. Mwenifumbo , C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar , Q. Zhou , R. E. Krasnow , G. E. Swan , N. L. Benowitz , & R. F. Tyndale (2008). Identification of novel CYP2A6*1B variants: The CYP2A6*1B allele is associated with faster in vivo nicotine metabolism. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 83, 115121.

A. Pfefferbaum , E. V. Sullivan , & D. Carmelli (2001). Genetic regulation of regional microstructure of the corpus callosum in late life. Neuroreport, 12, 16771681.

G. Pickering & A. Leplege (2011). Herpes zoster pain, postherpetic neuralgia, and quality of life in the elderly. Pain Practice, 11, 397402.

D. Ruau , J. T. Dudley , R. Chen , N. G. Phillips , G. E. Swan , L. C. Lazzeroni , . . . M. S. Angst (2012). Integrative approach to pain genetics identifies pain sensitivity loci across diseases. PLoS Computional Biology, 8, e1002538.

S. Sarna , J. Kaprio , P. Sistonen , & M. Koskenvuo (1978). Diagnosis of twin zygosity by mailed questionnaire. Human Heredity, 28, 241254.

E. V. Sullivan , A. Pfefferbaum , G. E. Swan , & D. Carmelli (2001). Heritability of hippocampal size in elderly twin men: Equivalent influence from genes and environment. Hippocampus, 11, 754762.

G. E. Swan , N. L. Benowitz , P. Jacob 3rd., C. N. Lessov , R. F. Tyndale , K. Wilhelmsen , . . . M. Wambach (2004). Pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism in twins: Methods and procedures. Twin Research, 7, 435448.

G. E. Swan , N. L. Benowitz , C. N. Lessov , P. Jacob 3rd., R. F. Tyndale , & K. Wilhelmsen (2005). Nicotine metabolism: The impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence. Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, 15, 115125.

G. E. Swan , D. Carmelli , & L. R. Cardon (1996). The consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and coffee in Caucasian male twins: A multivariate genetic analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse, 8, 1931.

G. E. Swan , D. Carmelli , & L. R. Cardon (1997). Heavy consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and coffee in male twins. Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 58, 182190.

G. E. Swan , & C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar (2009). Tobacco addiction and pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism. Journal of Neurogenetics, 23, 262271.

G. E. Swan , & D. Carmelli (2002). Evidence for genetic mediation of executive control: A study of aging male twins. Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57, 133143.

G. E. Swan , H. S. Javitz , L. M. Jack , J. Wessel , M. Michel , D. A. Hinds , . . . A. W. Bergen (2011). Varenicline for smoking cessation: Nausea severity and variation in nicotinic receptor genes. Pharmacogenomics Journal, 12, 349358.

G. E. Swan , C. N. Lessov-Schlaggar , A. W. Bergen , Y. He , R. F. Tyndale , & N. L. Benowitz (2009). Genetic and environmental influences on the ratio of 3’hydroxycotinine to cotinine in plasma and urine. Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, 19, 388398.

G. E. Swan , J. B. McClure , L. M. Jack , S. M. Zbikowski , H. S. Javitz , S. L. Catz , & T. A. McAfee (2010). Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 482490.

G. E. Swan , T. Reed , L. M. Jack , B. L. Miller , T. Markee , P. A. Wolf , . . . D. Carmelli (1999). Differential genetic influence for components of memory in aging adult twins. Archives of Neurology, 56, 11271132.

J. Wessel , S. M. McDonald , D. A. Hinds , R. P. Stokowski , H. S. Javitz , M. Kennemer , . . . A. W. Bergen (2010). Resequencing of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes and association of common and rare variants with the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 23922402.

X. Wu , M. R. Spitz , C. I. Amos , J. Lin , L. Shao , J. Gu , . . . G. E. Swan (2006). Mutagen sensitivity has high heritability: Evidence from a twin study. Cancer Research, 66, 59935996.

J. Xing , M. Chen , C. G. Wood , J. Lin , M. R. Spitz , J. Ma , . . . X. Wu (2008). Mitochondrial DNA content: Its genetic heritability and association with renal cell carcinoma. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100, 11041112.

N. Zaitlen , & P. Kraft (2012). Heritability in the genome-wide association era. Human Genetics, 131, 16551664.

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Twin Research and Human Genetics
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  • EISSN: 1839-2628
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