1. Foucault, Michel, The History of Sexuality, volume I: An Introduction, trans. Hurley, Robert (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978), 139. See, among others, Armstrong, Nancy, Fiction in the Age of Photography: The Legacy of British Realism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000); Green-Lewis, Jennifer, Framing the Victorians: Photography and the Culture of Realism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996); and Novak, Daniel A., Realism, Photography, and Nineteenth-Century Fiction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). Kate Flint offers a definitive account of Victorian visuality in The Victorians and the Visual Imagination (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
2. Martin Jay traces French theory's hostility to visuality in Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth-Century French Thought (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
3. Flint, Kate, “‘Seeing is believing?’: Visuality and Victorian Fiction,” in A Concise Companion to the Victorian Novel, ed. O'Gorman, Francis (Malden: Blackwell, 2005), 37, 43.
4. Flint, “‘Seeing is believing?,’” 37.
5. See Foucault, Michel, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Sheridan, Alan (1977; rpt., New York: Vintage Books, 1995).
6. Crary, Jonathan, Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990), 29.
7. Peter J. Bellis takes a more traditional approach in arguing that Jane Eyre dramatizes a “conflict between two different modes of vision: a penetrating male gaze that fixes and defines the woman as its object, and a marginal female perception that would conceal or withhold itself from the male” (639). See Bellis, Peter J., “In the Window-Seat: Vision and Power in Jane Eyre,” English Literary History 54, no. 3 (1987): 639–42.
8. Denisoff, Dennis, in Sexual Visuality From Literature To Film 1850–1950 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), argues that late-Victorian literary works destabilized sex and gender norms through moments of queer or sexualized visuality, especially via literary portraits of artists.
9. All quotations are taken from Charlotte Brontë, Jane Eyre (1847; Project Gutenberg online edition, 2007).