Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Phytotoxicity of clove oil and its primary constituent eugenol and the role of leaf epicuticular wax in the susceptibility to these essential oils

  • Luke D. Bainard (a1), Murray B. Isman (a1) and Mahesh K. Upadhyaya
Abstract

Herbicidal activities of clove oil and its primary constituent eugenol on broccoli, common lambsquarters, and redroot pigweed and the role of crystalline leaf epicuticular wax (LEW) in susceptibility and retention of these essential oils were studied. Clove oil (2.5%) and eugenol (1.5%) were applied to leaves of greenhouse-grown broccoli, common lambsquarters, and redroot pigweed seedlings and effects on seedling growth and leaf cell membrane integrity were studied. Compared with eugenol, clove oil caused greater inhibition of seedling growth in all species. Both eugenol and clove oil caused greater loss of membrane integrity and inhibition of seedling growth in redroot pigweed, which has no crystalline LEW, compared with common lambsquarters, which has a thick layer of crystalline LEW. In broccoli seedlings with LEW, clove oil caused greater inhibition of growth than eugenol. Both clove oil and eugenol caused greater electrolyte leakage from broccoli leaves without LEW than in the leaves with LEW. Removal of LEW increased electrolyte leakage, an indicator of cell membrane damage, by 97% in eugenol-treated and 26% in clove oil–treated broccoli leaves. Susceptibility of broccoli seedlings and possibly some weed species may, therefore, be affected by factors (e.g., genetic, environmental) that influence the amount of LEW. Although the presence of LEW greatly reduced the retention of the essential oil solutions, there was no significant difference between the retention of clove oil and eugenol solutions, indicating that differences in their phytotoxicity to broccoli leaves was not due to differential foliar retention.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding Author. Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; upadh@interchange.ubc.ca
References
Hide All
Bauer, K., Garbe, D., and Surburg, H. 1997. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation, Properties and Uses, 3rd ed. New York: J. Wiley–VCH. 278 p.
Bitterlich, I. and Upadhyaya, M. K. 1990. Leaf surface ultrastructure and susceptibility to ammonium nitrate injury. Can. J. Bot. 68:19111915.
Bitterlich, I., Upadhyaya, M. K., and Shibairo, S. I. 1996. Weed control in cole crops and onion (Allium cepa) using ammonium nitrate. Weed Sci. 44:952958.
Burdock, G. A. 2002. Fenaroli's Handbook of Flavor Ingredients, 4th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC. 1834 p.
Duke, S. O. 2002. Chemicals from nature for weed management. Weed Sci. 50:138151.
Duke, S. O., Baerson, S. R., and Dayan, F. E. et al. 2003. United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service research on natural products for pest management. Pest Manag. Sci. 59:708717.
Harbour, J. D., Messersmith, C. G., and Ramsdale, B. K. 2003. Surfactants affect herbicides on kochia (Kochia scoparia) and Russian thistle (Salsola iberica). Weed Sci. 51:430434.
Hess, F. D. 1985. Herbicide absorption and translocation and their relationship to plant tolerances and susceptibility. Pages 191214 in Duke, S. O. ed. Weed Physiology, Volume 2: Herbicide Physiology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.
Holloway, P. J. 1993. Structure and chemistry of plant cuticles. Pestic. Sci. 37:203232.
Isman, M. B. 2000. Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Prot. 19:603608.
Kong, C., Hu, F., Xu, T., and Lu, Y. 1999. Allelopathic potential and chemical constituents of volatile oil from Ageratum conyzoides . J. Chem. Ecol. 25:23472356.
Raina, V. K., Srivastava, S. K., Aggarwal, K. K., Syamasundar, K. V., and Kumar, S. 2001. Essential oil composition Syzygium aromaticum leaf from Little Andaman, India. Flavour Fragr. J. 16:334336.
Ramsdale, B. K. and Messersmith, C. G. 2001. Drift-reducing nozzle effects on herbicide performance. Weed Technol. 15:453460.
Silcox, D. and Holloway, P. J. 1986. A simple method for the removal and assessment of foliar deposits of agrochemicals using cellulose acetate film stripping. Asp. Appl. Biol. 11:1317.
Srivastava, A. K., Srivastava, S. K., and Syamsundar, K. V. 2005. Bud and leaf essential oil composition of Syzygium aromaticum from India and Madagascar. Flavour Fragr. J. 20:5053.
Tworkoski, T. 2002. Herbicide effects of essential oils. Weed Sci. 50:425431.
Zawierucha, J. E. 2000. Absorption, translocation, metabolism, and spray retention of quinclorac in Digitaria sanguinalis and Eleusine indica . Weed Sci. 48:296301.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed