Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Spectral characteristics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) leaves and flower bracts

  • E. Raymond Hunt, James E. McMurtrey (a1), Amy E. Parker Williams (a2) and Lawrence A. Corp (a3)
Abstract

Leafy spurge can be detected during flowering with either aerial photography or hyperspectral remote sensing because of the distinctive yellow-green color of the flower bracts. The spectral characteristics of flower bracts and leaves were compared with pigment concentrations to determine the physiological basis of the remote sensing signature. Compared with leaves of leafy spurge, flower bracts had lower reflectance at blue wavelengths (400 to 500 nm), greater reflectance at green, yellow, and orange wavelengths (525 to 650 nm), and approximately equal reflectances at 680 nm (red) and at near-infrared wavelengths (725 to 850 nm). Pigments from leaves and flower bracts were extracted in dimethyl sulfoxide, and the pigment concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically. Carotenoid pigments were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Flower bracts had 84% less chlorophyll a, 82% less chlorophyll b, and 44% less total carotenoids than leaves, thus absorptance by the flower bracts should be less and the reflectance should be greater at blue and red wavelengths. The carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio of the flower bracts was approximately 1:1, explaining the hue of the flower bracts but not the value of reflectance. The primary carotenoids were lutein, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin in a 3.7:1.5:1 ratio for flower bracts and in a 4.8:1.3:1 ratio for leaves, respectively. There was 10.2 μg g−1 fresh weight of colorless phytofluene present in the flower bracts and none in the leaves. The fluorescence spectrum indicated high blue, red, and far-red emission for leaves compared with flower bracts. Fluorescent emissions from leaves may contribute to the higher apparent leaf reflectance in the blue and red wavelength regions. The spectral characteristics of leafy spurge are important for constructing a well-documented spectral library that could be used with hyperspectral remote sensing.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author. USDA ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Building 007, Room 104, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350; erhunt@hydrolab.arsusda.gov
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. L. Anderson , E. S. Delfosse , N. R. Spencer , C. W. Prosser , and R. D. Richard 2003. Lessons in developing successful invasive weed control programs. J. Range Manag 56:212.

G. L. Anderson , J. H. Everitt , D. E. Escobar , N. R. Spencer , and R. J. Andrascik 1996. Mapping leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) infestations using aerial photography and geographic information systems. Geocarto Int 11:8189.

D. A. Bangsund , F. L. Leistritz , and J. A. Leitch 1999. Assessing economic impacts of biological control of weeds: the case of leafy spurge in the northern Great Plains of the United States. J. Environ. Manag 56:3543.

G. E. Bartley and P. A. Scolnik 1995. Plant carotenoids: pigments for photoprotection, visual attraction, and human health. Plant Cell 7:10271038.

P. M. Bramley 2002. Regulation of carotenoid formation during tomato fruit ripening and development. J. Exp. Bot 53:21072113.

C. Buschmann , G. Langsdorf , and H. K. Lichtenthaller 2000. Imaging of the blue, green, and red fluorescence emission of plants: an overview. Photosynthetica 38:483491.

C. Buschmann and H. K. Lichtenthaller 1998. Principles and characteristics of multi-colour fluorescence imaging of plants. J. Plant Physiol 152:297314.

G. A. Carter and A. K. Knapp 2001. Leaf optical properties in higher plants: linking spectral characteristics to stress and chlorophyll concentrations. Am. J. Bot 88:677684.

L. A. Corp , J. E. McMurtrey , E. M. Middleton , C. L. Mulchi , E. M. Chappelle , and C. S. T. Daughtry 2003. Fluorescence sensing systems: in vivo detection of biophysical variations in field corn due to nitrogen supply. Remote Sens. Environ 86:470479.

C. S. T. Daughtry , L. L. Biehl , and K. J. Ransom 1989. A new technique to measure the spectral properties of conifer needles. Remote Sens. Environ 27:8191.

B. Deming-Adams and W. W. Adams III. 1996. The role of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids in the protection of photosynthesis. Trends Plant Sci 1:2126.

J. M. DiTomaso 2000. Invasive weeds in rangelands: species, impacts, and management. Weed Sci 48:255265.

D. M. Gates 1980. Biophysical Ecology. New York, NY: Springer. Pp. 7595.

D. M. Gates , H. J. Keegan , J. C. Schleter , and V. R. Weidner 1965. Spectral properties of plants. Appl. Opt 4:1120.

A. A. Gitelson and M. N. Merzlyak 1996. Signature analysis of leaf reflectance spectra: algorithm development for remote sensing of chlorophyll. J. Plant Physiol 148:494500.

T. W. Goodwin 1980. The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids, Volume 1 Plants. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall. Pp. 3368.

J. C. Hall , L. L. Van Eerd , S. D. Miller , M. D. K. Owen , T. S. Prather , D. L. Shaner , M. Singh , K. C. Vaughn , and S. C. Weller 2000. Future research directions for weed science. Weed Technol 14:647658.

G. A. F. Hendry , J. D. Houghton , and S. B. Brown 1987. The degradation of chlorophyll—a biological enigma. New Phytol 107:255302.

E. R. Hunt Jr., J. H. Everitt , J. C. Ritchie , M. S. Moran , D. T. Booth , G. L. Anderson , P. E. Clark , and M. S. Seyfried 2003. Applications and research using remote sensing for rangeland management. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 69:675693.

M. S. Kim , E. W. Chappelle , L. Corp , and J. E. McMurtrey III. 1993. The contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the reflectance spectra of green vegetation. Pages 13211324 in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS'93. Volume 3. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.

E. B. Knipling 1970. Physical and physiological basis for the reflectance of visible and near-infrared radiation from vegetation. Remote Sens. Environ 1:155159.

R. F. Kokaly , D. G. Despain , Roger N. Clark , and K. E. Livo 2003. Mapping vegetation in Yellowstone National Park using spectral feature analysis of AVIRIS data. Remote Sens. Environ 84:437456.

J. A. Leitch , F. L. Leistritz , and D. A. Bangsund 1996. Economic effect of leafy spurge in the upper Great Plains: methods, models, and results. Impact Assess 14:419433.

H. K. Lichtenthaler 1987. Chlorophyll and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic membranes. Methods Enzymol 148:350382.

S. J. Maas and J. R. Dunlap 1989. Reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance of light by normal, etiolated, and albino corn leaves. Agron. J 81:105110.

J. E. McMurtrey , E. W. Chappelle , M. Kim , J. Mesinger , and L. Corp 1994. Development of algorithms for detecting N fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with laser induced fluorescence. Remote Sens. Environ 47:3644.

A. Parker Williams and E. R. Hunt Jr. 2002. Estimation of leafy spurge cover from hyperspectral imagery using mixture tuned matched filtering. Remote Sens. Environ 82:446456.

A. E. Parker Williams and E. R. Hunt Jr. 2004. Accuracy assessment for detection of leafy spurge with hyperspectral imagery. J. Range Manag 57:106112.

J. C. Price 1994. How unique are spectral signatures? Remote Sens. Environ 49:181186.

J. C. Price 1998. An approach for analysis of reflectance spectra. Remote Sens. Environ 64:316330.

J. Radhakrishnan , J. R. Teasdale , S. Liang , and C. J. Shuey 2002. Remote sensing of weed canopies. Pages 175202 in R. S. Muttiah ed. From Laboratory Spectroscopy to Remotely Sensed Spectra of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

M. R. Slaton , E. R. Hunt Jr., and W. K. Smith 2001. Estimating near-infrared leaf reflectance from leaf structural characteristics. Am. J. Bot 88:278284.

W. Verhoef 1984. Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance modeling: the SAIL model. Remote Sens. Environ 16:125141.

A. R. Wellburn 1994. The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrometers of different resolution. J. Plant Physiol 144:307313.

P. J. Zarco-Tejada , J. R. Miller , G. H. Mohammed , and T. L. Noland 2000. Chlorophyll fluorescence effects on vegetation apparent reflectance: I. Leaf-level measurements and model simulation. Remote Sens. Environ 74:582595.

P. J. Zarco-Tejada , J. C. Pushnik , S. Debrowski , and S. L. Ustin 2003. Steady-state chlorophyll a fluorescence detection from canopy derivative reflectance and double-peak red-edge effects. Remote Sens. Environ 84:283294.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 16 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 29th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.