Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted near Knoxville, TN, during 2002 and 2003 to investigate the effects of calcium and magnesium ions on the performance of three glyphosate formulations with and without diammonium sulfate (AMS). Weed species investigated in the greenhouse were broadleaf signalgrass, pitted morningglory, Palmer amaranth, and yellow nutsedge. Three glyphosate formulations (isopropylamine salt, diammonium salt, and potassium salt) and two glyphosate application rates (0.42 and 0.84 kg ae/ha) were applied to weeds in water fortified with either calcium or magnesium at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 ppm. In all comparisons, there were no differences in the three glyphosate formulations. Glyphosate activity was reduced only when cation concentration was >250 ppm, and this antagonism was not observed when 2% w/ w AMS was added to the spray solution. A chemical analysis of the calcium and magnesium concentrations in water collected from farmers indicated that water samples from eight different producers contained relatively low amounts of cations, with calcium at <40 ppm and magnesium at <8 ppm. In the field results using these and other waters as the herbicide carrier, broadleaf signalgrass control was greater with the 0.84 kg ae/ha than 0.42 kg ae/ha glyphosate rate regardless of water source or addition of AMS. Pitted morningglory responded similarly to glyphosate with water from all farms and with AMS added, and the addition of AMS gave similar results for both glyphosate rates. In 2003, common cocklebur was evaluated and control was >93% regardless of glyphosate rate, water source, or AMS addition. Based on these results, the addition of AMS-based adjuvants to many glyphosate applications may not be warranted.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.