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Effects of Shoot Clipping–Soil Disturbance Frequency and Tuber Size on Aboveground and Belowground Growth of Purple and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and Cyperus esculentus)

  • Sanjeev K. Bangarwa (a1), Jason K. Norsworthy (a1) and Edward E. Gbur (a2) (a3)
Abstract

Purple and yellow nutsedges are two of the world's worst weeds, reproducing asexually by rhizomes that can develop into new shoots or tubers. These tubers are the storage organs for carbohydrate reserves that are replenished by growing shoots and exhausted by new shoot, root plus rhizome, and basal bulb production. Based on the biology of both species, we hypothesized that the regenerative potential of purple and yellow nutsedge would decrease, with increasing shoot clipping–soil disturbance (SCSD) frequency and decreasing tuber size. To test this hypothesis, greenhouse experiments were conducted in pots to determine the effect of SCSD frequency and tuber size on aboveground and belowground growth of purple and yellow nutsedges. Five viable tubers of two tuber category sizes (small, 0.40 ± 0.05; and large, 0.80 ± 0.05 g of tuber fresh weight) were subjected to four SCSD frequencies (weekly, biweekly, monthly, and none) for 12 wk. SCSD was performed by clipping the emerged nutsedge shoots followed by manually disturbing the soil. SCSD at biweekly or weekly intervals reduced purple nutsedge proliferation, regardless of initial tuber size. However, monthly SCSD did not suppress purple nutsedge as effectively as weekly or biweekly SCSD, and less proliferation occurred with small tubers than with large tubers. In contrast, yellow nutsedge proliferation was equally reduced with monthly or more-frequent SCSD, regardless of initial tuber size. Even weekly soil disturbance for 12 wk failed to eradicate all small or large tubers in either species. Thus, yellow nutsedge is managed more easily than purple nutsedge with less-frequent tillage or cultivation. However, tillage or cultivation alone during a 12-wk period will not likely eradicate either nutsedge species from infested soil.

Cyperus rotundus y Cyperus esculentus son dos de las peores malezas del mundo, las cuales se reproducen asexualmente por rizomas que pueden desarrollar nuevo tejido aéreo o tubérculos. Estos tubérculos son órganos de almacenaje de reservas de carbohidratos, los cuales son mantenidos por la parte aérea en crecimiento de la planta y son desgastados por la producción de nuevos puntos aéreos, raíces más rizomas y bulbos basales. Basados en la biología de ambas especies, nosotros planteamos la hipótesis de que el potencial regenerativo de C. rotundus y C. esculentus disminuiría, al incrementarse la frecuencia de poda del tejido aéreo y la perturbación del suelo (SCSD) y al disminuirse el tamaño de los tubérculos. Para evaluar esta hipótesis, se realizaron experimentos de invernadero en macetas para determinar el efecto de la frecuencia de SCSD y el tamaño del tubérculo sobre el crecimiento del tejido aéreo y subterráneo de C. rotundus y C. esculentus. Se sometió cinco tubérculos viables de dos categorías de tubérculo según el tamaño (pequeño, 0.40±0.05; y grandes, 0.80±0.05 g tubérculo fresco wt−1) a cuatro frecuencias de SCSD (semanal, bisemanal, mensual y ninguna) durante 12 semanas. SCSD se realizó cortando las hojas de plantas emergidas de C. rotundus y C. esculentus e inmediatamente después perturbando el suelo manualmente. SCSD realizado a intervalos semanales o bisemanales redujo la proliferación de C. rotundus sin importar el tamaño del tubérculo. Sin embargo, SCSD mensual no fue tan efectivo como SCSD semanal o bisemanal, y menos proliferación ocurrió con tubérculos pequeños que con tubérculos grandes. En contraste, la proliferación de C. esculentus fue reducida de la misma forma con SCSD mensuales o a intervalos más frecuentes, sin importar el tamaño del tubérculo. La perturbación semanal del suelo durante 12 semanas no fue suficiente para erradicar todos los tubérculos pequeños o grandes en ninguna de estas especies. De esta forma, con labranza y cultivo menos frecuentes se puede manejar C. esculentus más fácilmente que C. rotundus. Sin embargo, la labranza y el cultivo solos durante un período de 12 semanas probablemente no erradicará ninguna de estas especies en suelos infestados.

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Corresponding author's E-mail: jnorswor@uark.edu
References
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Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
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