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Glyphosate-Resistant Russian-thistle (Salsola tragus) Identified in Montana and Washington

  • Vipan Kumar (a1), John F. Spring (a2), Prashant Jha (a1), Drew J. Lyon (a2) and Ian C. Burke (a2)...
Abstract

Two putative glyphosate-resistant (GR) Russian-thistle accessions were collected from fallow fields (wheat-fallow rotation): one from Choteau County, MT (MT-R), and a second from Columbia County, WA (WA-R) in summer/fall of 2015. Greenhouse and outdoor/field whole-plant dose-response studies were conducted to confirm and characterize the levels of glyphosate resistance in these GR accessions relative to known glyphosate-susceptible accessions (MT-S and WA-S from MT and WA, respectively). Based on GR50 values of the progeny plants, the MT-R accession exhibited 4.5-fold and 5.9-fold resistance to glyphosate relative to the MT-S accession under greenhouse and outdoor conditions, respectively. The WA-R accession showed 3.0- to 5.0-fold resistance relative to the WA-S accession in greenhouse experiments, and 1.9- to 7.5-fold resistance in multi-site field experiments. In a separate greenhouse study on alternative POST herbicides to control GR Russian-thistle, bicyclopyrone plus bromoxynil, bromoxynil plus fluroxypyr, bromoxynil plus pyrasulfotole, bromoxynil plus MCPA, paraquat alone, paraquat plus metribuzin, saflufenacil alone, saflufenacil plus 2,4-D, and 2,4-D plus bromoxynil plus fluroxypyr provided effective control (≥95%) and shoot dry weight reduction (up to 98%) of GR accessions. This research confirms the first global case of field-evolved GR Russian-thistle. Best management practices (BMPs); including alternative, effective herbicide programs (based on multiple mechanisms of action highlighted in this study) need immediate implementation to prevent further spread of GR or evolution of multiple HR Russian-thistle populations in this region.

Dos accesiones de Salsola tragus con resistencia putativa a glyphosate (GR) fueron colectadas en campos en barbecho (rotación trigo−barbecho): una proveniente del condado Choteau, Montana (MT−R), y la otra proveniente del condado Columbia, Washington (WA−R), en el verano/otoño de 2015. Se realizaron estudios de respuesta a dosis con plantas enteras en invernadero y campo para confirmar y caracterizar los niveles de resistencia a glyphosate en estas accesiones GR en relación a accesiones con susceptibilidad a glyphosate conocida (MT−S y WA−S originarias de Montana y Washington, respectivamente). Con base en los valores de GR50 de las plantas progenie, la accesión MT−R presentó una resistencia a glyphosate que fue 4.5 y 5.9 veces mayor en relación a la accesión MT−S, en condiciones de invernadero y de campo, respectivamente. La accesión WA−R mostró de 3.0 a 5.0 veces mayor resistencia en relación a la accesión WA−S en experimentos de invernadero, y 1.9 a 7.5 veces en experimentos de campo realizados en múltiples sitios. En un estudio de invernadero adicional, se evaluaron los herbicidas POST alternativos para el control de S. tragus bicyclopyrone plus bromoxynil, bromoxynil plus fluroxypyr, bromoxynil plus pyrasulfotole, bromoxynil plus MCPA, paraquat solo, paraquat plus metribuzin, saflufenacil solo, saflufenacil plus 2,4−D, y 2,4−D plus bromoxynil plus fluroxypyr, los cuales brindaron control efectivo (≥95%) y redujeron el peso seco de la parte aérea (hasta 98%) de las accesiones GR. Esta investigación confirma el primer caso a nivel global de S. tragus con evolución GR a nivel de campo. Las mejores prácticas de manejo (BMPs), incluyendo programas de herbicidas alternativos efectivos (con base en múltiples mecanismos de acción señalados en este estudio), necesitan ser implementadas inmediatamente para prevenir la dispersión de GR o la evolución de poblaciones de S. tragus con resistencia múltiple en esta región.

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*Corresponding author’s E-mail: pjha@montana.edu
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Associate Editor for this paper: Scott McElroy, Auburn University.

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Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
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