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Incidence of Herbicide Resistance in Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) across Southeastern Australia

  • Peter Boutsalis (a1), Gurjeet S. Gill (a1) and Christopher Preston (a1)

Herbicide resistance in rigid ryegrass is an escalating problem in grain-cropping fields of southeastern Australia due to increased reliance on herbicides as the main method for weed control. Weed surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2009 to identify the extent of herbicide-resistant rigid ryegrass across this region to dinitroaniline, and acetolactate synthase- and acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides. Rigid ryegrass was collected from cropped fields chosen at random. Outdoor pot studies were conducted during the normal winter growing season for rigid ryegrass with PRE-applied trifluralin and POST-applied diclofop-methyl, chlorsulfuron, tralkoxydim, pinoxaden, and clethodim. Herbicide resistance to trifluralin in rigid ryegrass was identified in one-third of the fields surveyed from South Australia, whereas less than 5% of fields in Victoria exhibited resistance. In contrast, resistance to chlorsulfuron was detected in at least half of the cropped fields across southeastern Australia. Resistance to the cereal-selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate-inhibiting herbicides diclofop-methyl, tralkoxydim, and pinoxaden ranged between 30 and 60% in most regions, whereas in marginal cropping areas less than 12% of fields exhibited resistance. Resistance to clethodim varied between 0 and 61%. Higher levels of resistance to clethodim were identified in the more intensively cropped, higher-rainfall districts where pulse and canola crops are common. These weed surveys demonstrated that a high incidence of resistance to most tested herbicides was present in rigid ryegrass from cropped fields in southeastern Australia, which presents a major challenge for crop producers.

La resistencia a herbicidas en Lolium rigidum es un problema creciente en los campos de cultivo de granos en el sureste de Australia, debido al incremento en la dependencia a herbicidas como el método principal para el control de malezas. Estudios observacionales de malezas se realizaron entre 1998 y 2009 para identificar el alcance en esta región de la resistencia de L. rigidum a los herbicidas dinitroaniline, inhibidores acetolactate synthase y acetyl CoA carboxylase. L. rigidum se recolectó en campos de cultivo seleccionados al azar. Se realizaron estudios al aire libre con macetas durante la temporada normal de crecimiento en invierno para L. rigidum con trifluralin aplicado PRE y diclofop-methyl, chlorsulfuron, tralkoxydim, pinoxaden y clethodim aplicados POST. La resistencia de L. rigidum al herbicida trifluralin fue identificada en un tercio de los campos muestreados en el sur de Australia, mientras que menos del 5% de los campos en Victoria mostraron resistencia. En contraste, la resistencia al chlorsulfuron fue detectada en al menos la mitad de los campos de cultivo en el sureste de Australia. La resistencia a los herbicidas selectivos a cereales, inhibidores aryloxyphenoxy propionate, como son diclofop-methyl, tralkoxydim y pinoxaden, varió entre 30 y 60% en la mayoría de las regiones, mientras que en áreas marginales de cultivo, menos del 12% de los campos mostraron resistencia. La resistencia al clethodim varió entre 0 y 61%. Niveles más altos de resistencia a clethodim se identificaron en los distritos de mayor intensidad de cultivo y mayor precipitación, donde los cultivos de especies leguminosas y Brassica napus son comunes. Estos estudios observacionales de malezas demostraron que existe una alta incidencia de resistencia en L. rigidum a la mayoría de los herbicidas estudiados en los campos de cultivo en el sureste de Australia, lo cual representa un importante reto para los productores.

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Weed Technology
  • ISSN: 0890-037X
  • EISSN: 1550-2740
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