Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Social Forces and Regime Change: Beyond Class Analysis

Abstract

This article discusses three recent books that analyze patterns of political conflict and regime change in postcolonial Asia and Africa using a social forces approach to political analysis. The social forces tradition, originally pioneered by Barrington Moore, studies the social origins and political consequences of struggles between social groups whose members hold shared identities and interests. The works under review examine, respectively, the varied regime trajectories of Southeast Asia's states, divergent regime outcomes in India and Pakistan, and the institutional origins of social cleavages and political conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. Although historically the social forces paradigm has focused on conflict between class actors, the author argues that these three works fruitfully extend the social forces approach to encompass struggles between nonclass social groups, including those defined along the lines of ethnicity, religion, nationality, region, and family. This pluralized version of the social forces approach is better suited to studying patterns of regime change in Asia and Africa, where the paradigm has been less frequently applied than it has been to cases in Europe and Latin America.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Rina Agarwala . 2013. Informal Labor, Formal Politics, and Dignified Discontent in India. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Lee J. Alston , Gary D. Libecap , and Bernardo Mueller . 1999. Titles, Conflict, and Land Use: The Development of Property Rights and Land Reform on the Brazilian Amazon Frontier. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press.

Ben Ansell , and David Samuels . 2010. “Inequality and Democratization: A Contractarian Approach.” Comparative Political Studies 43, no. 12: 1543–74. doi: 10.1177/0010414010376915.

Ben Ansell , and David Samuels . 2014. Inequality and Democratization: An Elite-Competition Approach. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Yoram Barzel . 1997. Economic Analysis of Property Rights. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Mark R. Beissinger 2008. “A New Look at Ethnicity and Democratization.” Journal of Democracy 19, no. 3: 8597. doi: 10.1353/jod.0.0017.

Eva Bellin . 2000. “Contingent Democrats: Industrialists, Labor, and Democratization in Late-Developing Countries.” World Politics 52, no. 2 (January): 175205. doi: 10.1017/S0043887100002598.

Eva Bellin . 2012. “Reconsidering the Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring.” Comparative Politics 44, no. 2: 127–49. At http://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/cuny/cp/2012/00000044/00000002/art00002.

Sheri Berman . 2006. The Primacy of Politics: Social Democracy and the Making of Europe's Twentieth Century. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Nancy Bermeo . 1997. “Myths of Moderation: Confrontation and Conflict during Democratic Transitions.” Comparative Politics 29, no. 3: 305–22. doi: 10.2307/422123.

Nancy Bermeo , and Deborah J. Yashar , eds. 2016. Parties, Movements, and Democracy in the Developing World. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Michael Bratton , and Nicolas van de Walle . 1994. “Neopatrimonial Regimes and Political Transitions in Africa.” World Politics 46, no. 4 (July): 453–89. doi:/10.2307/2950715.

Michael Bratton , and Nicolas van de Walle . 1997. Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jason Brownlee . 2007. Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Jason Brownlee , Tarek Masoud , and Andrew Reynolds . 2015. The Arab Spring: Pathways of Repression and Reform. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Rogers Brubaker . 2002. “Ethnicity without Groups.” European Journal of Sociology 43, no. 2: 163–89. doi: 10.1017/S0003975602001066.

Rogers Brubaker , and Frederick Cooper . 2000. “Beyond ‘Identity.’Theory and Society 29, no. 1: 147. doi: 10.1023/A:1007068714468.

Carles Boix . 2003. Democracy and Redistribution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Carles Boix , and Susan Stokes . 2003. “Endogenous Democratization.” World Politics 55, no. 4 (July): 517–49. doi: 10.1353/wp.2003.0019.

Pierre Bourdieu . 1989. “Social Space and Symbolic Power.” Sociological Theory 7, no. 1: 1425. doi: 10.2307/202060.

Valerie Bunce . 1999. Subversive Institutions: The Design and the Destruction of Socialism and the State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Giovanni Capoccia , and Daniel Ziblatt . 2010. “The Historical Turn in Democratization Studies: A New Research Agenda for Europe and Beyond.” Comparative Political Studies 43, 89: 931–68. doi: 10.1177/0010414010370431.

Miguel A. Centeno , Atul Kohli , and Deborah J. Yashar , eds. 2017. States in the Developing World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kanchan Chandra , ed. 2012. Constructivist Theories of Ethnic Politics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Christopher Clapham . 1985. Third World Politics: An Introduction. London, UK: Croom Helm.

Killian Clarke . 2014. “Unexpected Brokers of Mobilization: Contingency and Networks in the 2011 Egyptian Uprising.” Comparative Politics 46, no. 4: 379–97. At http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cuny/cp/2014/00000046/00000004/art00002.

Ruth Berins Collier . 1999. Paths toward Democracy: The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ruth Berins Collier , and James Mahoney . 1997. “Adding Collective Actors to Collective Outcomes: Labor and Recent Democratization in South America and Southern Europe.” Comparative Politics 29, no. 3: 285303. doi: 10.2307/422122.

Thomas Ertman . 2010. “The Great Reform Act of 1832 and British Democratization.” Comparative Political Studies 43, no. 8-9: 10001022. doi: 10.1177/0010414010370434.

James D. Fearon , and David D. Laitin . 1996. “Explaining Interethnic Cooperation.” American Political Science Review 90, no. 4: 715–35. doi: 10.2307/2945838.

Barbara Geddes , Joseph Wright , and Erica Frantz . 2014. “Autocratic Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set.” Perspectives on Politics 12, no. 2: 313–31. doi: 10.1017/S1537592714000851.

Jeff Goodwin . 2001. No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements, 1945–1991. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Andrew C. Gould 1999. Origins of Liberal Dominance: State, Church, and Party in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press.

Henry E. Hale 2005. “Regime Cycles: Democracy, Autocracy, and Revolution in Post-Soviet Eurasia.” World Politics 58, no. 1 (October): 133–65. doi: 10.1353/wp.2006.0019.

Stephan Haggard , and Robert R. Kaufman . 2012. “Inequality and Regime Change: Democratic Transitions and the Stability of Democratic Rule.” American Political Science Review 106, no. 3: 495516. doi: 10.1017/S0003055412000287.

Stephen E. Hanson 2010. Post-Imperial Democracies: Ideology and Party Formation in Third Republic France, Weimar Germany, and Post-Soviet Russia. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Donald L. Horowitz 1993. “Democracy in Divided Societies.” Journal of Democracy 4, no. 4: 1838. doi: 10.1353/jod.1993.0054.

Christian Houle . 2009. “Inequality and Democracy: Why Inequality Harms Consolidation but Does Not Affect Democratization.” World Politics 61, no. 4 (October): 589622. doi: 10.1017/S0043887109990074.

Katya Kalandadze , and Mitchell A. Orenstein . 2009. “Electoral Protests and Democratization Beyond the Color Revolutions.” Comparative Political Studies 42, no. 11: 1403–25. doi: 10.1177/0010414009332131.

Hazem Kandil . 2012. “Why Did the Egyptian Middle Class March to Tahrir Square?Mediterranean Politics 17, no. 2: 197215. doi: 10.1080/13629395.2012.694044.

Ryan Kennedy . 2014. “Fading Colours? A Synthetic Comparative Case Study of the Impact of ‘Colour Revolutions.’Comparative Politics 46, no. 3: 273–92. doi: 10.5129/001041514810943081.

Jeffrey S. Kopstein , and Jason Wittenberg . 2010. “Beyond Dictatorship and Democracy: Rethinking National Minority Inclusion and Regime Type in Interwar Eastern Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 43, no. 8-9: 1089–118. doi: 10.1177/0010414010370437.

Taeku Lee . 2008. “Race, Immigration, and the Identity-to-Politics Link.” Annual Review of Political Science 11, no. 1: 457–78. doi: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.11.051707.122615.

Steven Levitsky , and Lucan A. Way . 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Evan S. Lieberman , and Prerna Singh . 2012. “The Institutional Origins of Ethnic Violence.” Comparative Politics 45, no. 1: 124. doi: 10.5129/001041512802822860.

Gregory M. Luebbert 1987. “Social Foundations of Political Order in Interwar Europe.” World Politics 39, no. 4 (July): 449–78. doi: 10.2307/2010288.

Ellen Lust , and David Waldner . 2016. “Parties in Transitional Democracies: Authoritarian Legacies and Post-Authoritarian Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa.” In Nancy Bermeo and Deborah J. Yashar , eds., Parties, Movements, and Democracy in the Developing World. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press: 157–89.

Ellen Lust-Okar . 2005. Structuring Conflict in the Arab World: Incumbents, Opponents, and Institutions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Claude Menard , and Mary M. Shirley , eds. 2008. Handbook of New Institutional Economics. New York, N.Y.: Springer Science & Business Media.

Wolfgang Merkel , and Brigitte Weiffen . 2012. “Does Heterogeneity Hinder Democracy?Comparative Sociology 11, no. 3: 387421. doi: 10.1163/156913312X638606.

Joel S. Migdal 2001. State in Society: Studying How States & Societies Transform and Constitute One Another. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Joel S. Migdal , Atul Kohli , and Vivienne Shue , eds. 1994. State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Thandika Mkandawire . 2015. “Neopatrimonialism and the Political Economy of Economic Performance in Africa: Critical Reflections.” World Politics 67, no. 3 (July): 563612. doi: 10.1017/S004388711500009X.

Thomas B. Pepinsky 2009. Economic Crises and the Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes: Indonesia and Malaysia in Comparative Perspective. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Daniel N. Posner 2004. “The Political Salience of Cultural Difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas Are Allies in Zambia and Adversaries in Malawi.” American Political Science Review 98, no. 4: 529–45. doi: 10.1017/S0003055404041334.

Daniel N. Posner 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Adam Przeworski . 1991. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Adam Przeworski , Michael E. Alvarez , José Antonio Cheibub , Fernando Limongi . 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950–1990. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Michael L. Ross 2001. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?World Politics 53, no. 3 (April): 325–61. doi: 10.1353/wp.2001.0011.

Richard Sandbrook . 1986. “The State and Economic Stagnation in Tropical Africa.” World Development 14, no. 3: 319–32. doi: 10.1016/0305-750X(86)90072-0.

Richard Sandbrook . 1993. The Politics of Africa's Economic Recovery. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Richard Sandbrook , Marc Edelman , Patrick Heller , and Judith Teichman . 2007. Social Democracy in the Global Periphery: Origins, Challenges, Prospects. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Dan Slater . 2009. “Revolutions, Crackdowns, and Quiescence: Communal Elites and Democratic Mobilization in Southeast Asia.” American Journal of Sociology 115, no. 1: 203–54. doi: 10.1086/597796.

Dan Slater , and Erica Simmons . 2010. “Informative Regress: Critical Antecedents in Comparative Politics.” Comparative Political Studies 43, no. 7: 886917. doi: 10.1177/0010414010361343.

Dan Slater , and Daniel Ziblatt . 2013. “The Enduring Indispensability of the Controlled Comparison.” Comparative Political Studies 46, no. 10: 1301–27. doi: 10.1177/0010414012472469.

Theda Skocpol . 1973. “A Critical Review of Barrington Moore's Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy.” Politics & Society 4, no. 1: 134.

Richard Snyder . 1992. “Explaining Transitions from Neopatrimonial Dictatorships.” Comparative Politics 24, no. 4: 379–99. doi: 10.2307/422151.

Hillel David Soifer . 2012. “The Causal Logic of Critical Junctures.” Comparative Political Studies 45, no. 12: 1572–97. doi: 10.1177/0010414012463902.

Jan Teorell . 2010. Determinants of Democratization: Explaining Regime Change in the World, 1972–2006. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Charles Tilly . 2004. “Social Boundary Mechanisms.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34, no. 2: 211–36. doi: 10.1177/0048393103262551.

Maya Tudor . 2013. “Explaining Democracy's Origins: Lessons from South Asia.” Comparative Politics 45, no. 3: 253–72. doi: 10.5129/001041512X13815255434816.

Maya Tudor , and Dan Slater . 2016. “The Content of Democracy: Nationalist Parties and Inclusive Ideologies in India and Indonesia.” In Nancy Bermeo and Deborah J. Yashar , eds., Parties, Movements, and Democracy in the Developing World. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press: 2860.

Nicolas van de Walle . 2001. African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis, 1979–1999. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jeffrey A. Winters 2011. Oligarchy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jason Wittenberg . 2006. Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and Electoral Continuity in Hungary. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Elisabeth Jean Wood . 2001. “An Insurgent Path to Democracy: Popular Mobilization, Economic Interests, and Regime Transition in South Africa and El Salvador.” Comparative Political Studies 34, no. 8: 862–88. doi: 10.1177/0010414001034008002.

Robert Woodberry . 2012. “The Missionary Roots of Liberal Democracy.” American Political Science Review 106, no. 2: 244–74. doi: 10.1017/S0003055412000093.

Daniel Ziblatt . 2017. Conservative Political Parties and the Birth of Modern Democracy in Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World Politics
  • ISSN: 0043-8871
  • EISSN: 1086-3338
  • URL: /core/journals/world-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 268 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 592 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 23rd May 2017 - 24th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.