Abreu, Sergio. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 24.
Acharya, Amitav. 2012. “Comparative Regionalism: A Field Whose Time Has Come?” International Spectator 47, no. 1: 3–15. doi: 10.1080/03932729.2012.655004.
Ambrosio, Thomas. 2008. “Catching the ‘Shanghai Spirit’: How the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Promotes Authoritarian Norms in Central Asia.” Europe-Asia Studies 60, no. 8: 1321–44. doi: 10.1080/09668130802292143.
Amorim, Celso. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 24.
Bassols, Raimundo. 2016. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Madrid, Spain, March 31.
Beach, Derek, and Pedersen, Rasmus Brun. 2013. Process-Tracing Methods: Foundations and Guidelines. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press.
Bennett, Andrew, and Checkel, Jeffrey T.. 2014. Process Tracing: From Metaphor to Analytic Tool. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
Boli, John, and Thomas, George M., eds. 1999. Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations Since 1875. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Börzel, Tanja A. 2016. “Theorizing Regionalism: Cooperation, Integration, and Governance.” In Tanja A. Börzel and Thomas Risse, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
Börzel, Tanja A., and Risse, Thomas. 2012. “From Europeanisation to Diffusion: Introduction.” West European Politics 35, no. 1: 1–19. doi: 10.1080/01402382.2012.631310.
Börzel, Tanja A., and van Hüllen, Vera. 2015. “Towards a Global Script? Governance Transfer by Regional Organizations.” In Tanja A. Börzel and Vera van Hüllen, eds., Governance Transfer by Regional Organizations: Patching Together a Global Script. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Breslin, Shaun, and Higgott, Richard. 2000. “Studying Regions: Learning from the Old, Constructing the New.” New Political Economy 5, no. 3: 333–52. doi: 10.1080/713687784.
Burges, Sean W. 2008. “Consensual Hegemony: Theorizing Brazilian Foreign Policy after the Cold War.” International Relations 22, no. 1: 65–84. doi: 10.1177/0047117807087243.
Burges, Sean W. 2007. “Building a Global Southern Coalition: The Competing Approaches of Brazil's Lula and Venezuela's Chávez.” Third World Quarterly 28, no. 7: 1343–58. doi: 10.1080/01436590701591911.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. 1999. “Social Construction and Integration.” Journal of European Public Policy 6, no. 4: 545–60. doi: 10.1080/135017699343469.
Closa, Carlos, and Casini, Lorenzo. 2016. Comparative Regional Integration: Governance and Legal Models. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Closa, Carlos, and Palestini, Stefano. 2018. Supplementary material for “Tutelage and Regime Survival in Regional Organizations’ Democracy Protection: The Case of mercosur and unasur.” Available at https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043887118000035.
Closa, Carlos, Céspedes, Stefano Palestini, and Ortiz, Pablo Castillo. 2016. “Regional Organisations and Mechanisms for Democracy Protection in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the European Union.” Hamburg, Germany: EU-LAC Foundation. doi: 10.12858/0716en1.
Coglianese, Cary. 2000. “Globalization and the Design of International Institutions.” In Joseph S. Nye and John D. Donahue, eds., Governance in a Globalizing World. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press: 297–318.
Collier, David. 2011. “Understanding Process Tracing.” PS: Political Science & Politics 44, no. 4: 823–30. doi: 10.1017/S1049096511001429.
Conde, Roberto. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 23.
Couriel, Alberto. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 23.
Crawford, James. 1994. “Democracy and International Law.” British Yearbook of International Law 64, no. 1: 113–33. doi: 10.1093/bybil/64.1.113.
Dabène, Olivier. 2004. “Does Mercosur Still Have a Project?” In Francisco Domínguez and Marcos Guedes de Oliveira, eds., Mercosur: Between Integration and Democracy. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang AG .
Donnelly, Jack. 1986. “International Human Rights: A Regime Analysis.” International Organization 40, no. 3: 599–642. jstor.org/stable/2706821.
Donno, Daniela. 2010. “Who Is Punished? Regional Intergovernmental Organizations and the Enforcement of Democratic Norms.” International Organization 64, no. 4: 593–625. doi: 10.1017/S0020818310000202.
Duxbury, Alison. 2013. The Participation of States in International Organisations: The Role of Human Rights and Democracy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Elkins, Zachary, and Simmons, Beth. 2005. “On Waves, Clusters, and Diffusion: A Conceptual Framework.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 598, no. 1: 33–51.
Farer, Tom, ed. 1996. Beyond Sovereignty: Collectively Defending Democracy in the Americas. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Simões, Ferreira, José, Antonio. 2016. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Madrid, Spain, January 15.
Fierro, Elena. 2003. The EU's Approach to Human Rights Conditionality in Practice. The Hague, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Finnemore, Martha, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52, no. 4: 887–917. doi: 10.1162/002081898550789.
Flemes, Daniel, Nolte, Detlef, and Wehner, Leslie. 2011. “Una Comunidad de Seguridad Regional en Formación: La Unasur y su Consejo de Defensa” [A Regional Security Community in the Making: Unasur and its Defense Council]. Estudios Internacionales 44, no. 170: 105–27. doi: 10.5354/0719-3769.2013.19428.
Fox, Gregory H. 1992. “The Right to Political Participation in International Law.” Yale Journal of International Law 17, no. 2: 540–607.
Franck, Thomas M. 1992. “The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance.” American Journal of International Law 86, no. 1: 46–91. doi: 10.2307/2203138.
Gardini, Gian Luca. 2006. “Government-Business Relations in the Construction of Mercosur.” Business and Politics 8, no. 1: 1–26. doi: 10.2202/1469-3569.1147.
Genna, Gaspare M., and Hiroi, Taeko. 2015. Regional Integration and Democratic Conditionality: How Democracy Clauses Help Democratic Consolidation and Deepening. New York, N.Y.: Routledge.
George, Alexander L., and Bennett, Andrew. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Ginsburg, Tom. 2006. “Locking in Democracy: Constitutions, Commitment, and International Law.” New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 38, no. 4: 707–60.
Goldstein, Judith. 1998. “International Institutions and Domestic Politics: GATT, WTO, and the Liberalization of International Trade” In Anne O. Krueger, ed., The WTO as an International Organization. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press: 133–60.
Gómez Mera, Laura. 2013. Power and Regionalism in Latin America: The Politics of MERCOSUR. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.
Bibolini, González, Miguel, Juan. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Asunción, Paraguay, July 22.
Hall, Peter A. 2008. “Systematic Process Analysis: When and How to Use It.” European Political Science 7, no. 3: 304–17. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.eps.2210130.
Hawkins, Darren, and Shaw, Carolyn. 2008. “Legalising Norms of Democracy in the Americas.” Review of International Studies 34, no. 3: 459–80. At http://www.jstor.org/stable/40212485, accessed April 5, 2018.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press.
Insulza, José Miguel. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Florence, Italy, October 9.
Jetschke, Anja, and Lenz, Tobias. 2013. “Does Regionalism Diffuse? A New Research Agenda for the Study of Regional Organizations.” Journal of European Public Policy 20, no. 4: 626–37. doi: 10.1080/13501763.2012.762186.
Jupille, Joseph, Mattli, Walter, and Snidal, Duncan. 2013. Institutional Choice and Global Commerce. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Koremenos, Barbara, Lipson, Charles, and Snidal, Duncan. 2001. “The Rational Design of International Institutions.” International Organization 55, no. 4: 761–99. At http://www.jstor.org/stable/3078615, accessed April 5, 2018.
Krippendorff, Klaus. 2003. Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Herrera, Lacalle, Alberto, Luis. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 23.
Lacognata, Héctor. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Asunción, Paraguay, July 20.
Lafer, Celso. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 28.
Lampreia, Luiz Felipe. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Rio de Janeiro, July 27.
Lara Castro, Jorge. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Asunción, Paraguay, July 21.
Legler, Thomas, and Tieku, Thomas Kwasi. 2010. “What Difference Can a Path Make? Regional Democracy Promotion Regimes in the Americas and Africa.” Democratization 17, no. 3: 465–91. doi: 10.1080/13510341003700337.
Lenz, Tobias. 2013. “EU Normative Power and Regionalism: Ideational Diffusion and Its Limits.” Cooperation and Conflict 48, no. 2: 211–28. doi: 10.1177/0010836713485539.
Levitt, Barry S. 2006. “A Desultory Defense of Democracy: OA S Resolution 1080 and the Inter-American Democratic Charter.” Latin American Politics and Society 48, no. 3: 93–123. doi: 10.1111/j.1548-2456.2006.tb00357.x.
Luján, Carlos. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 24.
Malamud, Andrés. 2003. “Presidentialism and Mercosur: A Hidden Cause for a Successful Experience.” In Laursen, Finn, ed., Comparative Regional Integration: Theoretical Perspectives. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing: 53–73.
Malamud, Andrés. 2005. “Mercosur Turns 15: Between Rising Rhetoric and Declining Achievement.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 18, no. 3: 421–36. doi: 10.1080/09557570500238068.
Mansfield, Edward D., and Milner, Helen V.. 1999. “The New Wave of Regionalism.” International Organization 53, no. 3: 589–627. doi: 10.1162/002081899551002.
Mansfield, Edward D., Milner, Helen V., and Peter Rosendorff, B.. 2002. “Why Democracies Cooperate More: Electoral Control and International Trade Agreements.” International Organization 56, no. 3: 477–513. At http://www.jstor.org/stable/3078586, accessed April 5, 2018.
Mansfield, Edward D., and Pevehouse, Jon C.. 2006. “Democratization and International Organizations.” International Organization 60, no. 1: 137–67. doi: 10.1017/S002081830606005X.
Marks, Susan. 2011. “What Has Become of the Emerging Right to Democratic Governance?” European Journal of International Law 22, no. 2: 507–24. doi: 10.1093/ejil/chr023.
Melgarejo, Rubén. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Asunción, Paraguay, July 21.
Merke, Federico. 2015. “Neither Balance nor Bandwagon: South American International Society Meets Brazil's Rising Power.” International Politics 52, no. 2: 178–92. doi: 10.1057/ip.2014.49.
Meyer, John W., Boli, John, Thomas, George M., and Ramirez, Francisco O.. 1997. “World Society and the Nation-State.” American Journal of Sociology 103, no. 1: 144–81. doi: 10.1086/231174.
Meyer, John W., and Rowan, Brian. 1977. “Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.” American Journal of Sociology 83, no. 2: 340–63. At http://www.jstor.org/stable/2778293, accessed April 5, 2018.
Miola, Jeferson. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Brasilia, Brazil, July 30.
Mitchell, Ronald B., and Keilbach, Patricia M.. 2001. “Situation Structure and Institutional Design: Reciprocity, Coercion, and Exchange.” International Organization 55, no. 4: 891–917. doi: 10.1162/002081801317193637.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 2000. “The Origins of Human Rights Regimes: Democratic Delegation in Postwar Europe.” International Organization 54, no. 2: 217–52. doi: 10.1162/002081800551163.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 2010. “Active Citation: A Precondition for Replicable Qualitative Research.” PS: Political Science & Politics 43, no. 1: 29–35. doi: 10.1017/S1049096510990781.
O’Donnell, Guillermo, Schmitter, Philippe C., and Whitehead, Laurence. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ons, Álvaro. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 25.
Ovodenko, Alexander, and Keohane, Robert O.. 2012. “Institutional Diffusion in International Environmental Affairs.” International Affairs 88, no. 3: 523–41. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2346.2012.01087.x.
Padrón, Álvaro. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 25.
Palestini, Stefano, and Agostinis, Giovanni. 2015. “Constructing Regionalism in South America: The Cases of Sectoral Cooperation on Transport Infrastructure and Energy.” Journal of International Relations and Development 21, no. 1: 1–29. doi: 10.1057/jird.2015.15.
Pevehouse, Jon C. 2002a. “With a Little Help from My Friends? Regional Organizations and the Consolidation of Democracy.” American Journal of Political Science 46, no. 3: 611–26. doi: 10.2307/3088403.
Pevehouse, Jon C. 2002b. “Democracy from the Outside-In? International Organizations and Democratization.” International Organization 56, no. 3: 515–49. doi: 10.1162/002081802760199872.
Pevehouse, Jon C. 2005. Democracy from Above: Regional Organizations and Democratization. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511491078.
Pevehouse, Jon C. 2016. “Regional Human Rights and Democracy Governance.” In Börzel, Tanja A. and Risse, Thomas, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
Pinheiro Guimarães, Samuel. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Brasilia, Brazil, July 31.
Rachid, Leila. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Asunción, Montevideo, July 21.
Raimondi, Guillermo. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 26.
Ramírez Lezcano, Rubén. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 27. Ribeiro Hoffmann, Andrea. 2016. “As Organizações Regionais e a Promoção e Proteção da Democracia: Reflexões a Partir das Práticas de Intervenção Democrática na América do Sul” [Regional Organization and the Promotion and Protection of Democracy: Reflections from the Cases of Democratic Intervention in South America]. Caderno CRH 29, no. 3: 47–57.
Ribeiro Hoffmann, Andrea, and van der Vleuten, Anna. 2007. Closing or Widening the Gap? Legitimacy and Democracy in Regional Integration Organizations. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Rich, Roland. 2001. “Bringing Democracy into International Law.” Journal of Democracy 12, no. 3: 20–34. doi: 10.1353/jod.2001.0056.
Riggirozzi, Pía, and Tussie, Diana, eds. 2012. The Rise of Post-Hegemonic Regionalism: The Case of Latin America. New York, N.Y.: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-2694-9.
Risse, Thomas. 2000. “‘Let's Argue!’: Communicative Action in World Politics.” International Organization 54, 1: 1–39. doi: 10.1162/002081800551109.
Risse, Thomas. 2016. “Explaining Regionalism: Diffusion, Translation, and Adaptation.” In Börzel, Tanja A. and Risse, Thomas, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism. New York, N.Y: Oxford University Press.
Ruiz Díaz Balbuena, Hugo. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Asunción, Paraguay, July 22.
Salomone, Patricia. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 26.
Sanahuja, José Antonio. 2012. “Post-Liberal Regionalism in South America: The Case of UNA SUR.” Working Paper, Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies, 2012/05. European University Institute. At http://hdl.handle.net/1814/20394, accessed April 5, 2018.
Sanguinetti, Julio Maria. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 24.
Schimmelfennig, Frank. 2005. “Strategic Calculation and International Socialization: Membership Incentives, Party Constellations, and Sustained Compliance in Central and Eastern Europe.” International Organization 59, no. 4: 827–60. doi: 10.1017/S0020818305050290.
Schimmelfennig, Frank, Engert, Stefan, and Knobel, Heiko. 2003. “Costs, Commitment and Compliance: The Impact of EU Democratic Conditionality on Latvia, Slovakia and Turkey.” Journal of Common Market Studies 41, no. 3: 495–518. doi: 10.1111/1468-5965.00432.
Simmons, Beth A., Dobbin, Frank, and Garrett, Geoffrey. 2006. “Introduction: The International Diffusion of Liberalism.” International Organization 60, no. 4: 781–810.
Tansey, Oisin. 2007. “Process Tracing and Elite Interviewing: A Case for Non-Probability Sampling.” PS: Political Science & Politics 40, no. 4: 765–72. doi: 10.1017/S1049096507071211.
Teixeira, Carlos Gustavo Poggio. 2012. Brazil, the United States, and the South American Sub-System: Regional Politics and the Absent Empire. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books.
Torfason, Magnus Thor, and Ingram, Paul. 2010. “The Global Rise of Democracy: A Network Account.” American Sociological Review 75, no. 3: 355–77. doi: 10.1177/0003122410372230.
Valdés, Juan Gabriel. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Florence, Italy, October 13.
Vanderhill, Rachel. 2012. Promoting Authoritarianism Abroad. Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
van der Vleuten, Anna, and Hoffmann, Andrea Ribeiro. 2010. “Explaining the Enforcement of Democracy by Regional Organizations: Comparing EU, Mercosur and SADC .” Journal of Common Market Studies 48, no. 3: 737–58. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5965.2010.02071.x.
Volonté, Alberto. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 23.
von Soest, Christian. 2015. “Democracy Prevention: The International Collaboration of Authoritarian Regimes.” European Journal of Political Research 54, no. 4: 623–38. doi: 10.1111/1475-6765.12100.
Wasmosy, Juan Carlos. 2015. Interviewed by Carlos Closa, Asunción, Paraguay, July 22.
Wehner, Leslie, and Nolte, Detlef. 2013. “UNA SUR and Regional Security in South America.” In Aris, Stephen and Wenger, Andreas, eds., Regional Organisations and Security: Conceptions and Practices. London, UK: Routledge.
Wetzel, Anne, and Orbie, Jan, eds. 2015. The Substance of EU Democracy Promotion: Concepts and Cases. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Whitehead, Laurence, ed. 2001. The International Dimensions of Democratization: Europe and the Americas. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Whitehead, Laurence, 2014. “Antidemocracy Promotion: Four Strategies in Search of a Framework.” Taiwan Journal of Democracy 10, no. 2: 1–24.