Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-42xl8 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-05T22:14:06.555Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Nutritional considerations of poultry during heat stress

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 September 2007

S. Leeson
Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Geulph, Ontario, CanadaN1G 2W1
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1986

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ahmad, M. M., Moreng, R. E. and Muller, H. D. (1967). Breed responses in body temperature to elevated environmental temperature and ascorbic acid. Poultry Science 46: 615.Google Scholar
Arad, Z. and Marder, J. (1982). Effect of gradual acclimatization to high ambient temperatures on eggshell quality of the Sinai Bedouin fowl, the commercial White Leghorn and their crossbreds. British Poultry Science 23: 113.Google Scholar
Aarad, Z., Marder, J. and Soller, M. (1981). Effect of gradual acclimatization to temperatures up to 44°C on productive performance of the desert Bedouin fowl, the commercial White Leghorn and the two reciprocal crossbreeds. British Poultry Science 22: 511.Google Scholar
Arad, Z., Moskovitz, E. and Marder, J. (1975). A preliminary study of egg production and heat tolerance in a new breed of fowl (Leghorn X Bedouin). Poultry Science 54: 780783.Google Scholar
Arima, Y., Mather, F. B. and Ahmad, M. M. (1976). Response of egg production and shell quality to increases in environmental temperature in two age groups of hens. Poultry Science 55: 818820.Google Scholar
Bacon, W. L., Cantor, A. H. and Coleman, M. A. (1981). Effect of dietary energy environment and sex of market broilers on lipoprotein composition. Poultry Science 60: 12821286.Google Scholar
Bhatti, B. M. and Morris, T. R. (1977). The relative importance of light and temperature as phase setting signals for oviposition in the fowl. British Poultry Science 18: 391395.Google Scholar
Bianca, W. (1964). Thermoregulatory responses of the dehydrated Ox to drinking cold and warm water in a warm environment. Research in Veterinary Science 5: 75.Google Scholar
Buys, S. B. and Rasmussen, R. W. (1978). Heat stress mortality in nicarbazine fed chickens. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 49: (2).Google Scholar
Charles, D. R., Groom, C. M. and Bray, T. S. (1981). The effects of temperature on broilers: interactions between temperature and feeding regime. British Poultry Science 22: 475.Google Scholar
Cheville, N. F. (1979). Environmental factors affecting the immune response of birds—a review. Avian Diseases 23: No. 2, April-June.Google Scholar
Cowan, P. J. and Michie, W. (1978a). Environmental temperature and turkey performance: the use of diets containing increased levels of protein and use of a choice-feeding system. Annals Zootechnology 27: 175180.Google Scholar
Cowan, P. J. and Michie, W. (1978b). Environmental temperature and choice feeding of the broiler. British Journal of Nutrition 40: 311314.Google Scholar
Cowan, P. J. and Michie, W. (1978c). Environmental temperature and broiler performance: the use of diets containing increased amounts of protein. British Poultry Science 19: 601605.Google Scholar
Dale, N. M. and Fuller, H. L. (1979). Proceedings Georgia Nutrition Conference p. 56–61.Google Scholar
Dale, N. M. and Fuller, H. L. (1980). Effect of diet composition on feed intake and growth of chicks under heat stress. Poultry Science 59: 14341441.Google Scholar
Daniel, M. and Balnave, D. (1981). Response of laying hens to gradual and abrupt increases in ambient temperature and humidity. Australian Journal Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 21: 189195.Google Scholar
De Andrade, J. C., Rogler, A. N., Featherston, W. R. and Alliston, C. W. (1977). Interrelationship between diet and elevated temperature (cyclic and constant) on egg production and shell quality. Poultry Science 56: 1178.Google Scholar
Deaton, J. W., Reece, F. N. and Lott, B. D. (1984). Effect of differing temperature cycles on broiler performance. Poultry Science 63 (4): 612615.Google Scholar
Deetz, L. E. and Ringrose, R. C. (1976). Effect of heat stress on the potassium requirement of the hen. Poultry Science 55: 17651770.Google Scholar
El Haid, H. and Sykes, A. H. (1982). Thermal panting and respiratory alkalosis in the laying hen. British Poultry Science 23: 49.Google Scholar
Farrell, D. J. and Swain, S. (1977). Effect of temperature treatment on the energy and nitrogen metabolism of fed chickens. British Poultry Science 18: 735748.Google Scholar
Fox, T. W. (1951). Studies on heat tolerance in the domestic fowl. Poultry Science 30: 477483.Google Scholar
Frank, F. R. and Burger, R. E. (1967). The effect of carbon dioxide inhalation and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on eggshell deposition. Poultry Science 44: 16041606.Google Scholar
Freeman, B. M., Manning, A. C. C., Harrison, G. F. and Coates, M. E. (1975). Dietary aureomycin and the response of the fowl to stressors. British Poultry Science 16: 395404.Google Scholar
Garlich, J. D. and McCormick, C. C. (1981). Interrelationships between environmental temperature and nutritional status of chicks. Federation Proceedings 40: 7376.Google Scholar
Hagan, A. A. and Heath, J. E. (1976). Metabolic responses of White Pekin ducks to ambient temperature. Poultry Science 55: 18991905.Google Scholar
Hamilton, P. B. and Harris, J. R. (1971). Interaction of Aflatoxicosis with Candida albicans infections and other stresses in chickens. Poultry Science 50: 906910.Google Scholar
Harris, G. C. and Nelson, G. S. (1975). Influence of high relative humidity on performance of strains of commercial broilers. Arkansas Farm Research Nov.-Dec. p. 7.Google Scholar
Henken, A. M., Groote, A. M. J. and Vanderttel, W. (1983). The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken. 4. Effect of environmental temperature on some aspects of energy and protein metabolism. Poultry Science 62: 59.Google Scholar
Howes, J. R. (1967). Acid-base relationships and calcium deposition in the eggshell. Distillers Feed Research Council 22: 3239.Google Scholar
Huff, W. E. and Hamilton, P. M. (1975). The interaction of ochratoxin A with some environmental extremes. Poultry Science 54: 16591662.Google Scholar
Hurwitz, S., Weiselberg, M., Eisner, U., Bartov, I., Riesenfeld, G., Sharvit, M., Nir, A. and Bornstein, S. (1980). The energy requirements and performance of growing chickens and turkeys as affected by environmental temperature. Poultry Science 59: 22902299.Google Scholar
Jones, J. E., Hughes, B. L. and Barnett, B. D. (1976). Effect of changing dietary energy levels and environmental temperatures on feed consumption and egg production of Single Comb White Leghorns. Poultry Science 55: 274277.Google Scholar
Kafri, I. and Cherry, J. A. (1984). Supplemental ascorbic acid and heat stress in broiler chicks. Poultry Science 63: Supl. 125126.Google Scholar
Kerstens, R. (1964). Investigation of the production of heat and water vapour and the influence of environment on the growth rate of broiler chicks. Funki Information Bulletin, Funki Limited, Aarhms, Denmark.Google Scholar
Kohne, H. J. and Jones, J. E. (1975). Acid-base balance, plasma electrolytes and production performance of adult turkey hens under conditions of increasing ambient temperature. Poultry Science 54: 2038.Google Scholar
Kubena, L. F., Deaton, J. W., Chen, T. C. and Reece, F. N. (1974). Factors influencing the quantity of abdominal fat in broilers. 1. Rearing temperature, sex, age or weight and dietary choline choride and inositol supplementation. Poultry Science 53: 211214.Google Scholar
Kubena, L. F., Lott, B. D., Deaton, J. W., Reece, F. N. and May, S. D. (1972). Body composition of chicks as influenced by environmental temperature and selected dietary factors. Poultry Science 51: 517522.Google Scholar
Leeson, S. and Summers, J. D. (1975). Cool water during heat stress results in more eggs. Poultry Digest. September.Google Scholar
Leeson, S., Summers, J. D. and Bayley, H. S. (1975). Influence of diet on energy metabolism of laying hens at an elevated environmental temperature. 59th Annual Meeting.FASEB. Atlantic City. N.J.Google Scholar
Leeson, S., Summers, J. D. and Moran, E. T. Jr. (1976). Avian water metabolism—A Review. World's Poultry Science Journal 32: 185195.Google Scholar
Leeson, S. and Summers, J. D. (1981). Effect of rearing diet on performance of early maturing pullets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 61: 743749.Google Scholar
Leeson, S., Walker, J. P. and Summers, J. D. (1978). Environmental temperature and the incidence of unabsorbed yolks in sexed broiler chickens. Poultry Science 57: 316318.Google Scholar
March, B. E. and Biely, J. (1972). The effect of energy supplied from the diet and from environment heat on the response of chicks to different levels of dietary lysine. Poultry Science 51: 665668.Google Scholar
McDougald, L. R. and McQuistion, T. E. (1980). Mortality from heat stress in broiler chickens influenced by anticoccidial drugs. Poultry Science 59: 24212423.Google Scholar
McNaughton, J. L., Kubena, L. F., Deaton, J. W. and Reece, F. N. (1977). Influence of dietary protein and energy on the performance of commercial egg-type pullets reared under summer conditions. Poultry Science 56: 1391.Google Scholar
McNaughton, J. L. and Reece, F. N. (1984). Response of broiler chickens to dietary energy and lysine levels in a warm environment. Poultry Science 63: (6) pp. 11701174.Google Scholar
Mickleberry, W. C., Rogler, J. C. and Stadelman, W. J. (1966). The influence of dietary fat and environmental temperature upon chick growth and carcase composition. Poultry Science 45: 313321.Google Scholar
Miller, P. C. and Sunde, M. L. (1975). The effects of precise constant and cyclic environments on shell quality and other lay performance factors with leghorn pullets. Poultry Science 54: 3646.Google Scholar
Mongin, P., (1968). Role of acid-base balance in the physiology of eggshell formation. World's Poultry Science Journal 24: 200220.Google Scholar
Moreng, R. E. (1980). Temperature and vitamin requirement of the domestic fowl. Poultry Science 59: 782785.Google Scholar
Mount, L. E., (1976). Heat loss in relation to plane of nutrition and thermal environment. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 35: 81.Google Scholar
Mueller, M. J. (1966). Effect of rapid temperature changes on acid-base balance and shell quality. Poultry Science 45: 1109.Google Scholar
Nixey, C. (1979). Environmental influences on egg production. Technical Turkey ConferenceKesteven, England.April 4–7.Google Scholar
Njoku, P. C. (1984). The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on broiler performance in a tropical environment. Poultry Science 63: Supl. 156.Google Scholar
Nordstom, J. O. (1971). Duration of egg formation in chickens during heat stress. Poultry Science 50: 1612.Google Scholar
Pastro, K. R., March, B. E. and Biely, J. (1969). Body temperature of chicks in response to lysine deficiency. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 47: 339342.Google Scholar
Reece, F. N. and McNaughton, J. L. (1982). Effects of dietary nutrient density on broiler performance at low moderate environmental temperatures. Poultry Science 61: 22082211.Google Scholar
Richards, S. A. (1977). The influence of loss of plumage on temperature regulation in laying hens. Journal of the Agricultural Society of Cambridge 89: 393398.Google Scholar
Rogler, J. C. and Parker, H. E. (1978). Effects of environmental temperature on the iodine requirements of young chickens. Poultry Science 57: 558561.Google Scholar
Scott, M. L. (1966). Factors in modifying the practical vitamin requirements of poultry. Proceedings of 1966 Cornell Nutrition Conference p. 35–54.Google Scholar
Stockland, W. L. and Blaylock, L. G. (1974). The influence of temperature on the protein requirement of cage reared replacement pullets. Poultry Science 53: 11741187.Google Scholar
Tanor, M. A., Leeson, S. and Summers, J. D. (1984). Effect of heat stress and diet composition on performance of White Leghorn hens. Poultry Science 63: 304310.Google Scholar
Thornton, P. A. (1961). Increased environmental temperature influences an ascorbic acid activity in the domestic fowl. Federation Proceedings 20: 210A.Google Scholar
Van Kampen, M. (1977). Effects of feed restiction on heat production, body temperature and respiratory evaporation in the White Leghorn hen on a “tropical” day. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 102: 504514.Google Scholar
Vohra, P., Wilson, W. O. and Siopes, T. D. (1979). Egg production, feed consumption and maintenance energy requirements of leghorn hens as influenced by dietary energy at temperatures of 15.6 and 26.7°C Poultry Science 58: 674680.Google Scholar
Waldroup, P. W., Mitchell, R. J., Payne, J. R. and Hazen, K. R. (1976). Performance of chicks fed diets formulated to minimize excess levels of essential amino acids. Poultry Science 55: 243253.Google Scholar
Washburn, K. W., Peavey, R. and Renwick, G. M. (1980). Relationship of strain variation and feed restriction to variation in blood pressure and response to heat stress. Poultry Science 59: 25862588.Google Scholar
Wilson, H. R., Wilcox, C. J., Voitle, R. A., Baird, C. D. and Dorminey, R. W. (1975). Characteristics of White Leghorn chickens selected for heat tolerance. Poultry Science 54: 126130.Google Scholar
Woodham, A. A. and Deans, P. S. (1977). Nutritive value of mixed proteins. I. In cereal based diets for poultry. British Journal of Nutrition 37: 289308.Google Scholar
Yamazaki, M. and Zhang, Zi-Yi. (1982). A note on the effect of temperature on true and apparent metabolisable energy values of a layer diet. British Poultry Science Journal 23: 447450.Google Scholar