Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-57lbh Total loading time: 0.323 Render date: 2022-12-09T21:44:51.984Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

The potential of cassava products in diets for poultry

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 March 2009

N. CHAUYNARONG
Affiliation:
School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia
A.V. ELANGOVAN
Affiliation:
School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia
P.A. IJI*
Affiliation:
School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia
*
Corresponding author: piji@une.edu.au
Get access

Abstract

Inadequate supply, exorbitant prices and diversion towards using cereal grains for biofuel production, particularly maize, has led to a constant search for alternative energy sources for poultry and other non-ruminant species. The abundant availability of cassava in certain regions makes it a good alternative to maize and other cereal grains. Cassava root meal is rich in carbohydrate but low in protein and all other nutrients, whereas, cassava leaf meal is a moderate source of protein. Results of studies to evaluate the replacement of cereals with cassava products in poultry feed show wide variability due to differences in origin, variety, plant maturity at harvest, ecological conditions of plant growth and processing methods. Cassava products contain a wide range of cyanogenetic glycosides, particularly linamarin and lotaustralin. The level of hydrocyanic acid released from the cyanogenetic glycosides limits the utilization of cassava, but with proper processing, the dietary inclusion level of cassava meal can be increased for economic poultry production. This paper reviews the nutrient composition of cassava and its uses as a substitute for more conventional ingredients in poultry diets.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © World's Poultry Science Association 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

ADEREMI, F.A. (2006) Microbial degradation of cassava root sieviette (CRS) and its utilization by layers. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5: 758-761.Google Scholar
ADEREMI, F.A., LAWAL, T.E., ALABI, O.M., LADOKUN, O.A. and ADEYEMO, G.O. (2006) Effect of enzyme supplemented cassava root sieviate on egg quality, gut morphology and performance of egg type chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science 5: 526-529.Google Scholar
ADEREMI, F.A., TEWE, O.O. and ADESEHINWA, A.O.K. (2000) Utilization of cassava root and leaves in diets for layers. Tropical Veterinary 18: 213-219.Google Scholar
ADEWUSI, S.R.A. and BRADBURY, J.H. (1993) Carotenoids in cassava: Comparison of open- column and HPLC methods of analysis. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 62: 375-383.Google Scholar
AGWUNOBI, L.N. and OKEKE, J.E. (2000) Metabolisable energy of some improved cassava cultivars for broiler chicken. African Journal of Root and Tuber Crops 4: 35-37.Google Scholar
AINA, A.B.J. and FANIMO, A.O. (1997) Substitution of maize with cassava and sweet potato meal as the energy source in the rations of layer birds. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 20: 163-167.Google Scholar
AKINFALA, E.O., ADERIBIGBE, A.O. and MATANMI, O. (2002) Evaluation of the nutritive value of whole cassava plant as replacement for maize in the starter diets for broiler chicken. Livestock Research for Rural Development 14: 1-6.Google Scholar
BABIKER, S.A., MOUSA, H.M. and MUAWIA, H. (1991) Cassava root meal as an alternative source of energy to grain sorghum in broiler feeding. Sudan Journal of Animal Production 4: 11-22.Google Scholar
BALAGOPALAN, C. (2002) Cassava utilization in food, feed and industry, in: HILLOCK, R.J., THRESH, J.M. & BELLOTTI, A.C. (Eds) Cassava: Biology, production and utilization, pp. 301-318 (Kerala, India).Google Scholar
BANDAY, M.T. and GOWDH, C.V. (1992) Replacing maize with raw and processed tapioca meal in broiler diet. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 9: 43-46.Google Scholar
BORIN, K., LINDBERG, J.E. and OGLE, R.B. (2006) Digestibility and digestive organ development in indigenous and improved chickens and ducks fed diets with increasing inclusion levels of cassava leaf meal. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 90: 230-237.Google Scholar
BRUM, P.A.R.D., GUIDONI, A.L., ALBINO, L.F.T. and CESAR, J.S. (1990) Whole cassava meal in diets for broiler chickens. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 25: 1367-1373.Google Scholar
DEVENDRA, C. (1977) Cassava as a feed source for ruminants, in: NESTEL, B. & GRAHAM II. (Eds) Cassava as Animal Feed. Proceedings of a workshop held at the University of Guelph, 18–20 April, 1977. Ottawa, International Development Research Centre, IDRC-095e, 107-119.Google Scholar
EGGUM, R.O. (1970) The protein quality of cassava leaves. British Journal of Nutrition 24: 761-768.Google Scholar
EKPENYONG, T.E. and OBI, A.E. (1986) Replacement of maize with cassava in broiler rations. Archiv für Geflügelkunde 50: 2-6.Google Scholar
ELANCHEZHIAN, N., RAVI, R. and PURUSHOTHAMAN, M.R. (1999) Utilization of cassava peel meal as a feed ingredient in broiler ration. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 34: 255-258.Google Scholar
ENRIQUEZ, F.Q. and ROSS, E. (1972) Cassava root meal in grower and layer diets. Poultry Science 51: 228-232.Google Scholar
ERUVBETINE, D. and ADEJOBI, P.K. (2000) Preparation of cass-soya concentrate for inclusion in poultry diets (in-vitro studies). Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 27: 50-54.Google Scholar
ERUVBETINE, D., TAJUDEEN, I.D., ADEOSUN, A.T. and OLOJEDE, A.A. (2003) Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf and tuber concentrate in diets for broiler chickens. Bioresource Technology 86: 277-281.Google Scholar
ESHIETT, N. and ADEMOSUN, A.A. (1980) Sun-dried cassava root-meal in broiler diets. Nutrition Reports International 22: 343-352.Google Scholar
ESHIETT, N. and ADEMOSUN, A.A. (1976) Cassava for poultry. Progress report on the use of cassava as animal feed in Nigeria. IDRC, Ottawa.Google Scholar
FAO, (2008) FAOSTAT Production database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, downloaded from http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor on 11 November 2008.Google Scholar
FAUQUET, C. and FARGETTE, D. (1990) African cassava mosaic virus; etiology, epidemiology and control. Plant Disease 74: 404-411.Google Scholar
FETUGA, S.L. and OLUYEMI, J.A. (1976) The metabolizable energy of some tropical tuber meals for chicks. Poultry Science 55: 868-873.Google Scholar
GOMES, E., SOUZA, S.R., GRANDI, R.P. and SILVA, R.D. (2005) Production of thermostable glucoamylase by newly isolated Aspergillus Flavus A1.1 and thermomyces Lanuginosus A13.37. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 36: 75-82.Google Scholar
GOMEZ, G., VALDIVIESO, M., DE LA CUESTA, D. and SALCEDO, T.S. (1984) Effect of variety and plant age on the cyanide content of whole root cassava chips and its reduction by sun drying. Animal Feed Science and Technology 11: 57-65.Google Scholar
GOMEZ, G., VALDIVIESO, M., SANTOS, J. and HOYOS, C. (1983) Evaluation of cassava root meal prepared from low-cyanide or high-cyanide containing cultivars in pig and broiler diets. Nutrition Reports International 28: 693-704.Google Scholar
HAMID, K. and JALALUDIN, S. (1972) The utilization of tapioca in rations for laying poultry. Malaysian Agricultural Research 3: 48-53.Google Scholar
HOWELER, R. (2003) Cassava in Asia: Present situation and its future potential in agro-industry. Accessed July 2008 from http://ciatrary.ciat.cgiar.org/Articulos_Ciat/CASSAVA_IN_ASIA___PRESENT_S.pdf.Google Scholar
HUDSON, B.J.F. and OGUNSUA, A.O. (1974) Lipids of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) tubers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 25:1503-1508.Google Scholar
HUTAGALUNG, R.I., JAYALUDIN, S. and CHANG, C.C. (1974) Evaluation of agricultural products and by-products as animal feeds. II. Effect of levels of dietary cassava (tapioca) leaf meal and root on performance, digestibility and body composition of broilers. Malaysian. Agricultural Research 3: 49-59.Google Scholar
IDOWU, O.M.O., ODUWEFO, A. and ERUVBETINE, D. (2005) Performance and hypocholesterolaemic response of laying hens fed cassava root sievate-based diets. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 32: 215-223.Google Scholar
JOB, T.A., OLUYEMI, J.A., AWOPEJU, A.F. and ODEYEMI T.O., (1980) Optimal level of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) flour in the diet of the growing chick. Zentralblatt Veterinary Medicine 27: 669-674.Google Scholar
KANTO, U. and JUTTUPORNPONG, S. (2005) Advantages of cassava in animal rations. Cassava in animal nutrition: With reference to Thailand cassava. 99: 19-50.Google Scholar
KHAJARERN, S. and KHAJARERN, J. (1986) Utilization of cassava for animal feed. Proceeding of 24th Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 64-72. (in Thai).Google Scholar
KHAJARERN, S. and KHAJARERN, J.M. (1992) Use of cassava products in poultry feeding. Proceedings of Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
KHAJARERN, S., HUTANUWATR, N., KHAJARERN, J., KIPANIT, N., PHALARAKSH, R. and TERAPUNTUWAT, S. (1979) The improvement of nutritive and economic value of cassava root products. Annual Report, IDRC, Ottawa, Canada. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.Google Scholar
KHAJARERN, S., HUTANUWATR, N., KHAJARERN, J., KITPANIT, N., PHALARAKSH, R. and TERAPUNTUWAT, S. (1980) The improvement of nutritive and economic value of cassava root products. Annual Report, IDRC, Ottawa, Canada. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.Google Scholar
KHAJARERN, S., HUTANUWATR, N., KHAJARERN, J., KITPANIT, N., PHALARAKSH, R. and TERAPUNTUWAT, S. (1982) The improvement of nutritive and economic value of cassava root products. Annual Report, IDRC, Ottawa, Canada. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.Google Scholar
MANILAL, V.B., NARAYANAN, C.S. and BALAGOPALAN, C. (1987) Amyloglucosidase and cellulase activity of Aspergillus niger in cassava starch factory wastes. Proceedings of Tropical Tuber Crops Production and Utilization. Indian Society for root crops, CTCRI, Trivandrum, India: 211-213.Google Scholar
MATHUR, M.L., SAMPATH, S.R. and GHOSH, S.N. (1969) Studies on tapioca: effect of 50 and 100 percent replacement of oats by tapioca in the concentrate mixture of dairy cows. Indian Journal Dairy Sciences 22: 193-199.Google Scholar
MAUST, L.R., SCOTT, M.L. and POND, W.G. (1972) The metabolizable energy of rice bran, cassava flour, and blackeye cowpeas for growing chickens. Poultry Science 51: 1397-1401.Google Scholar
MCMILLAN, A.M. and DUDLEY, F.G. (1941) Potato meal, tapioca meal and town waste in chicken rations. Poultry Journal 26: 191-194.Google Scholar
MONTILLA, J.J. (1977) Cassava in the nutrition of broilers. Cassava as animal feed. 43-50.Google Scholar
MULLER, Z.O., CHOU, K.C. and NAH, K.C. (1975) Cassava as a total substitute for cereal in livestock and poultry rations. Proceeding of Conference on Animal Feeds of Tropical and Subtropical Origin, London School of pharmacy, Bruswick Square, London, pp. 85-95.Google Scholar
MULLER, Z., CHOU, X.C. and NAH, X.C. (1974) Cassava as a total for cereals in livestock and poultry rations. World Animal Review 12: 19-24.Google Scholar
MULLER, Z., CHOU, X.C. and NAH, X.C. (1975) Cassava as a total substitute for cereals in livestock and poultry rations. Proceedings of the 1974 Tropical Products Institute Conference, 1–5 April, pp. 85–95.Google Scholar
MUZANILA, Y.C., BRENNAN, J.G. and KING, R.D. (2000) Residual cyanogens, chemical composition and aflatoxins in cassava flour from Tanzanian villages. Food Chemistry 70: 45-49.Google Scholar
NGOKA, D.A., CHIKE, E.C., AWONIYI, A.B., ENYINNIA, T. and ODURUKWE, S.O. (1982) Effect of the cassava meal on the hatchability of chicken's eggs. Proceeding of II Triennial Symposium of Intl. Soc. For Tropical Root Crops, Ottawa, ON, Canada, p. 117.Google Scholar
NWOKORO, S. and EKHOSUEHI, E. (2005) Effect of replacement of maize with cassava peel in cockerel diets on performance and carcass characteristics. Tropical Animal Health and Production 37: 495-501.Google Scholar
OBIKAONU, H.O. and UDEDIBIE, A.B.I. (2006) Comparative evaluation of sun-dried and ensiled cassava peel meals as substitute for maize in broiler starter diets. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 7: 52-55.Google Scholar
OBIOHA, F.C., AZUBUIKE, G.O., ENE, L.S.O., OKEREKE, H.E. and OKOLI, O.O. (1984) The effect of partial replacement of maize with cassava peel on layer performance. Nutrition. Reports International 30: 1423-1429.Google Scholar
OCHETIM, S. (1992) The substitutability of maize with cassava and leaf meal mixture in broiler diets. Journal of South Pacific Agriculture 1: 29-33.Google Scholar
OGBONNA, J.U., MCCRACKEN, K.J., LILLEY, J. and MCALLISTER, A. (1996) Effect of processing and enzyme supplementation of cassava root meal on performance of broiler chicks. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 23: 111-115.Google Scholar
OLSON, D.W., SUNDE, M.L. and BIRD, H.R. (1969) The metabolizable content and feeding value of mandioca meal in diets for chicks. Poultry Science 48: 1445-1452.Google Scholar
OMOLE, T.A. (1977) Cassava in the nutrition of layers, in: NESTEL, B. & GRAHAM, M. (Eds) Cassava as Animal Feed, pp. 51-55 (Ottawa, Canada).Google Scholar
ONJORO, P.A., BHATTACHARJEE, M. and OTTARO, J.M. (1998) Bioconversion of cassava tuber by fermentation into broiler feed of enriched nutritional quality. Journal of Root Crops 24: 105-110.Google Scholar
ONWUEME, I.C. (1978) The tropical tuber crops. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York. 274.Google Scholar
OSEI, S.A. (1992) Sun-dried cassava peel meal as a feed ingredient in broiler diets. Tropical Agriculture 69: 273-275.Google Scholar
OYEBIMPE, K., FANIMO, A.O., ODUGUWA, O.O. and BIOBAKU, W.O. (2006) Response of broiler chickens to cassava peel and maize offal in cashewnut meal-based diets. Archivos de Zootecnia 55: 301-304.Google Scholar
PADMAJA, G. and BALAGOPALAN, C. (1990) Evaluation of single cell protein enriched cassava waste as an energy source in broiler rations. Proceedings of national symposium on Recent advance in production and utilization of tropical tuber crops. Trivandrum, India.Google Scholar
PANIGRAHI, S., RICKARD, J., OBRIEN, G.M. and GAY, C. (1992) Effects of different rates of drying cassava root on its toxicity to broiler chicks. British Poultry Science 33: 1025-1042.Google Scholar
PANIGRAHI, S.A. (1996) Review of the potential for using cassava root meal in poultry diets. Tropical tuber crops: problems, prospects and future strategies. Pages: 416-428Google Scholar
PHILIPS, T.P. (1974) Cassava utilization and potential markets. Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
PROMTHONG, S., KANTO, U., TIRAWATTANAWANICH, C., TONGYAI, S., ISARIYODOM, S., MARKVICHITR, K. and ENGKAGUL, A. (2005) Comparison of nutrient compositions and carbohydrate fractions of corn, cassava chip and cassava pellet ingredients: Animals. Proceedings of 43rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Thailand. Google Scholar
PROMTHONG, S., KANTO, U., TIRAWATTANAWANICH, C., TONGYAI, S., ISARIYODOM, S., MARKVICHITR, K. and ENGKAGUL, A. (2006) Comparative effects of corn, cassava chip and cassava pellet diets on histological properties in broiler intestinal tract: Animals Veterinary Medicine. Proceedings of 44th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Thailand. 211-220.Google Scholar
RAVINDRAN, V. (1992) Preparation of cassava leaf products and their use as animal feeds. Proceedings of Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
RAVINDRAN, V. and RAVINDRAN, G. (1988) Changes in the nutritional composition of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves during maturity. Food Chemistry 27: 299-309.Google Scholar
RAVINDRAN, V., KORNEGAY, E.T., RAJAGURU, A.S.B., POTTER, L.M. and CHERRY, J.A. (1986) Cassava leaf meal as a replacement for coconut oil meat in broiler diets. Poultry Science 65: 1720-1727.Google Scholar
REEDS, W.R., SATHE, S.K. and SALUNKHE, D.K. (1982) Phytates in legumes and cereals. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 28: 1-9.Google Scholar
ROGERS, D.J. and MILNER, M. (1963) Amino acid profile of manioc leaf protein in relation to nutritive value. Economic Botany 17: 211-216.Google Scholar
SAENTAWEESUK, S., KANTO, U., JUTTUPORNPONG, S. and HARINSUT, P. (2000) Substitute of cassava meal for corn in broiler diets. Proceedings of 38th Kasetsart University Annual Conference: Animal, Veterinary Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
SAHOO, S.K., NASKAR, S.K., PANDA, B.K., MOHAPATRA, C.M., PADHI, M.K., GIRI, S.C. and PANDA, S.K. (2008) Performance of the broiler on replacement of maize with different levels of whole and peeled cassava tuber meals. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology 8: 121-126.Google Scholar
SALAMI, R.I. (2000) Preliminary studies on the use of parboiled cassava peel meal as a substitute for maize in layers’ diets. Tropical Agriculture 77: 199-204.Google Scholar
SAPARATTANANAN, W., KANTO, U., JUTTUPORNPONG, S. and ENGKAGUL, A. (2005) Utilization of cassava meal and cassava leaf in layer diets on egg quality and protein content in egg: Animals. Proceedings of 43rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
SILVA, H.O., DA FONSECA, R.A. and GUEDES, R.D. (2000) Productive traits and digestibility of cassava leaf meal in broiler diets with or without addition of enzymes. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia-Brazilian Journal of Animal Science 29: 823-829.Google Scholar
STEVENSON, M.H. and JACKSON, N. (1983) The nutritional-value of dried cassava root meal in broiler diets. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 34: 1361-1367.Google Scholar
SUPRIYATI, and KOMPIANG, I.P. (2002) The chemical changing during fermentation of cassava tuber skin and its utilization in broiler chicken ration. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner 7: 150-154.Google Scholar
TADA, O., MUTUNGAMIRI, A., RUKUNI, T. and MAPHOSA, T. (2004) Evaluation of performance of broiler chicken fed on cassava flour as a direct substitute of maize. African Crop Science Journal 12: 267-273.Google Scholar
TATHAWAN, S., MOONCHAISUK, S., TANASRISUTARAT, N., KANTO, U. and JUTTAPORNPONG, S. (2002) A comparative study of corn and cassava diets both supplemented and unsupplemented with antibiotic on performance and mortality rate of broilers. Proceeding of. 40th Kasetsart University Conference, Kasetsart University, Thailand. (in Thai).Google Scholar
TEJADA, H.L. and BRAMBILLA, S. (1969) Investigation of nutritional value of cassava for the chick. Técnica Pecuaria en México 3: 329-333.Google Scholar
TEWE, O.O. and EGBUNIKE, G.N. (1992) Utilization of cassava in nonruminant livestock feeds. Cassava as livestock feed in Africa. Proceedings of the IITA/ILCA/University of Ibadan workshop on the potential utilization of cassava as livestock feed in Africa. Nigeria. 28-38.Google Scholar
TEWE, O.O. and IYAYI, E.A. (1989) Cyanogenic glycosides, in: CHEEKE, P.R. (Ed) Toxicants of plant origin, Vol. II, Glycosides, p. 43-60 (CRS Press).Google Scholar
TEWE, O.O., JOB. T.A., and OYENUGA, V.A. (1976) Composition of two local varieties of cassava and the effect of processing on their hydrocyanic acid content and nutrient digestibility by rat. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 3: 60-66.Google Scholar
TOBAYAYONG, T.T. (1935) The value of cassava refuse meal in the ration for growing chicks. Philippine Agriculture 24: 509-511.Google Scholar
UDEDIBIE, A.B.I., ANYAEGBU, B.C., ONYECHEKWA, G.C. and EGBUOKPORO, O.R. (2004) Effect of feeding level of fermented and unfermented cassava tuber meals on performance of broilers. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 31: 211-219.Google Scholar
USDA, (2007) Corn—Indexed Income Protection North Carolina. from: www.rma.usda.gov/fields/nc_rso/2007/2007nccorniip.pdf.Google Scholar
VOGT, H. (1966) The use of tapioca meal in poultry rations. World's Poultry Science Journal 22: 113-126.Google Scholar
WALDROUP, P.W., RITCHIE, S.J., REESE, G.L. and RAMSEY, B.E. (1984) The use of blends of cassava flour and extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for broiler-chickens. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion 34: 550-563.Google Scholar
YEOH, H. and YRUONG, V. (1993) Quantitative analysis of linamarin in cassava using a β-glucosidase electrode. Food Chemistry 47: 295-298.Google Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The potential of cassava products in diets for poultry
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The potential of cassava products in diets for poultry
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The potential of cassava products in diets for poultry
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *