Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health guidelines for poultry production in Grenada

  • L. GLASGOW (a1), M. FORDE (a1), S. FLETCHER (a2) and E. KEKU (a1)
Abstract

The tri-island state of Grenada, Carriacou, and Petit Martinique's legislative and institutional compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health's (OIE) guidelines on antimicrobial utilisation in poultry production is reviewed in this paper. This includes legislative and other institutional documents, coupled with interviews with veterinary officers, health officers and managers of the veterinary drug distribution centres were conducted to evaluate the extent of Grenada's compliance with the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code in the use of antimicrobials in poultry production. Five thematic areas were evaluated: 1) legislative and institutional arrangements; 2) surveillance and reporting; 3) risks associated with the importation of poultry meat products; 4) ante- and post-mortem inspection; and 5) procurement and use of antimicrobials. The information revealed that the current legislative framework in Grenada does not adequately address poultry food safety and that there is a need to strengthen the synergies between the agricultural and health sectors to enable a more thorough monitoring of antimicrobials use in poultry production. There is a need to strengthen epidemiology of zoonotic diseases, provisioning of education and information for key stakeholders about the use of antibiotics and the development of a system to monitor antibiotic procurement, distribution and use in Grenada. These findings have implications for other small island states in the Caribbean that have similar limitations in institutional capacity and knowledge deficits in the prudent use of antibiotics.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: martinforde@mac.com
References
Hide All
AMADI V., WATSON N. and ONYEGBULE O. (2015) Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli recovered from feces of healthy free-range chickens in Grenada, West Indies. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 4: 168-175.
CARIBBEAN PUBLIC HEALTH AGENCY (2014) Combatting antimicrobial resistance in the Caribbean. A report on the workshop delivered as part of the Commonwealth laboratory twinning initiative to combat antimicrobial resistance, Port of Spain, pp 1-31.
D'COSTA V.M., KING C.E., KALAN L., MORAR M., SUNG W.W.L., SCHWARZ C., FROESE D., ZAZULA G., CALMELS F., DEBRUYNE R., GOLDING G.B., POINAR H.N. and WRIGHT G.D. (2011) Antibiotic resistance is ancient. Nature 477: 457-461.
EID S., NASEF S.A. and ERFAN A.M. (2015) Multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in eggs collected from backyard chickens. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 61: 87-103.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANISATION, WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH and WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (2010) FAO-OIE-WHO collaboration: a tripartite concept note. Available from http://www.who.int/foodsafety/zoonoses/final_concept_note_Hanoi.pdf?ua=1
GEBREYES S.W.A., DUPOUY-CAMET J., NEWPORT M.J., OLIVEIRA C.J.B., SCHLESINGER L.S., SAIF Y.M., KARIUKI S., SAIF L.J., SAVILLE W., WITTUM T., HOET A., QUESSY S., KAZWALA R., TEKOLA B., SHRYOCK T., BISESI M., PATCHANEE P., BOONMAR S. and KING L.J. (2014) The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8: e3257.
GILBERT N. (2012) Cost of human-animal disease greatest for world's poor. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature.2012.10953.
GITHEKO A., LINDSAY S.W., CONFALONIERI U.E. and PATZ J.A. (2000) Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 78:1136-1144.
GRENADA BUREAU OF STANDARDS (1999) Grenada National Standards Code of Hygienic Practice for Poultry Processing.
GRENADA MINISTRY OF HEALTH (2012) Grenada Integrated Surveillance Manual.
HOWARD C.R. and FLETCHER N.F. (2012) Emerging virus diseases: can we ever expect the unexpected? Emerging Microbes & Infections 1: e46. DOI:10.1038/emi.2012.47.
INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE (2012) Mapping of poverty and likely zoonoses hotspots. Zoonoses Report 4. Report to Department for International Development, UK, Kenya, pp 1-82.
KING L. (2011) Neglected zoonotic diseases, in: Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies,A13 (Washington (DC) National Academies Press).
PUBLIC HEALTH ACT OF GRENADA (1958) .
REVISED EDITION FOOD AND DRUG ACT OF 1986 (2011) Chapter 110, No. 14.
REVISED EDITION MEDICAL PRODUCTS (REGULATIONS) ACT OF 1995 (2011) .
REVISED EDITION PHARMACY ACT OF 1958 (2011) .
SNEERINGER S., MACDONALD J., KEY N., MCBRIDE W. and MATHEWS K. (2015) Economics of antibiotic use in U.S. livestock production, ERR-200. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, pp. 8-93.
STONE D., DAVIS M., BAKER K., BESSER T., ROOPNARINE R. and SHARMA R. (2013) MLST Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in Grenada. BioMed Research International: 794643.
TAMBUR Z., MILJKOVIĆ-SELIMOVIĆ B., RADAKOVIĆ S., KULIŠIĆ Z. and MARKOVIĆ M. (2013) Frequency of antimicrobial resistance in thermophilic Campylobacter strains from humans, poultry and pigs. Vojnosanitetski Pregled 70: 200-206.
UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES (n.d.) One health Caribbean Love. Retrieved from http://www.onehealthcaribbean.org/images/one_caribbean_brochure_v4NPKNovember2016.pdf.
VENTOLA C.L. (2015) The antibiotic resistance crisis. Pharmacy and Therapeutics 40: 277-283.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (2014) Antimicrobial resistance. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 61: 383-94.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (2016) Veterinary public health (VPH). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/zoonoses/vph/en/.
WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH (n.d.) Responsible prudent use of antibiotics in animals. Available from http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/home/eng/Media_Center/docs/pdf/PortailAMR/EN_InfographieAMRLR.pdf.
WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH (2016) Terrestrial animal health code. Available from http://www.oie.int/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: