Skip to main content

Impact of heat stress and nutritional interventions on poultry production

  • S.P. HE (a1), M.A. AROWOLO (a1), R.F. MEDRANO (a2), S. LI (a1), Q.F. YU (a1), J.Y. CHEN (a1) and J.H. HE (a1)...

High ambient temperatures affect animal production and welfare in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Feed intake, growth rate, mortality, egg production, hatchability and other production traits related to the economic success of the poultry industry are adversely affected by severe heat stress. In general, heat stress induces the activity of the neuroendocrine system, resulting in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and elevated corticosterone (CORT) concentrations, which affects metabolism and immune responses. These include negative regulation of metabolic hormones, antibody production and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. Heat stress increases mitochondrial activity, causing reactive species overproduction which disrupts the antioxidant balance, leading to oxidative stress damage of membranes, protein and DNA. Heat stress stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), which significantly reduces daily gain, feed intake and FCR in poultry. Consequently, from an animal husbandry perspective, intervention strategies to relieve heat stress conditions have been the focus of many published studies. This review describes the effect of high temperature on production, behavioural, biochemical and immune responses, including oxidative damage that occur during heat stress in poultry, in broilers and laying hens. Moreover, nutritional interventions to alleviate the negative consequence of heat stress is discussed.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author:
Hide All
ABD EL-HACK, M.E., MAHROSE, K., ASKAR, A.A., ALAGAWANY, M., ARIF, M., SAEED, M., ABBASI, F., SOOMRO, R.N., SIYAL, F.A. and CHAUDHRY, M.T. (2017) Single and Combined Impacts of Vitamin A and Selenium in Diet on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, and Some Blood Parameters of Laying Hens During Hot Season. Biological Trace Element Research 177: 169-179.
ABDELQADER, A.M., ABUAJAMIEH, M., HAMMAD, H.M. and AL-FATAFTAH, A.A. (2017) Effects of dietary butyrate supplementation on intestinal integrity of heat-stressed cockerels. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl) 101: 1115-1121.
AGARWAL, A. and PRABAKARAN, S.A. (2005) Mechanism, measurement, and prevention of oxidative stress in male reproductive physiology. Indian Journal of Experiment Biology 43: 963-974.
AKBARIAN, A., MICHIELS, J., DEGROOTE, J., MAJDEDDIN, M., GOLIAN, A. and DESMET, S. (2016) Association between heat stress and oxidative stress in poultry; mitochondrial dysfunction and dietary interventions with phytochemicals. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 7: 37-50.
AKHAVAN-SALAMAT, H. and GHASEMI, H.A. (2016) Alleviation of chronic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of betaine and turmeric rhizome powder: dynamics of performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status. Tropical Animal Health and Production 48: 181-188.
ALHENAKY, A., ABDELQADER, A., ABUAJAMIEH, M. and AL-FATAFTAH, A.R. (2017) The effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity and Salmonella invasion in broiler birds. Journal of Thermal Biology 70: 9-14.
ALTAN, O., PABUCCUOGLU, A., ALTAN, A., KONYALIOGLU, S. and BAYRAKTAR, H. (2003) Effect of heat stress on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and some stress parameters in broilers. British Poultry Science 44: 545-550.
ATTIA, Y.A., ABD, E.A., ABEDALLA, A.A., BERIKA, M.A., AL-HARTHI, M.A., KUCUK, O., SAHIN, K. and ABOU-SHEHEMA, B.M. (2016) Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation. Springer Plus 5: 1619-1630.
ATTIA, Y.A., HASSAN, R.A. and QOTA, E.M. (2009) Recovery from adverse effects of heat stress on slow-growing chicks in the tropics 1: Effect of ascorbic acid and different levels of betaine. Tropic Animal Health and Production 41: 807-818.
AZAD, M.A., KIKUSATO, M., MAEKAWA, T., SHIRAKAWA, H. and TOYOMIZU, M. (2010) Metabolic characteristics and oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-molecular & Integrative Physiology 155: 401-406.
AZAD, M.A., KIKUSATO, M., ZULKIFLI, I. and TOYOMIZU, M. (2013) Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress. British Poultry Science 54: 503-509.
BARTLETT, J.R. and SMITH, M.O. (2003) Effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Poultry Science 82: 1580-1588.
BELHADJ SLIMEN, I., NAJAR, T., GHRAM, A., DABBEBI, H., BEN MRAD, M. and ABDRABBAH, M. (2014) Reactive oxygen species, heat stress and oxidative-induced mitochondrial damage. A review. International Journal of Hyperthermia 30: 513-523.
BELHADJ, S.I., NAJAR, T., GHRAM, A. and ABDRRABBA, M. (2016) Heat stress effects on livestock: molecular, cellular and metabolic aspects, a review. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl) 100: 401-412.
BOGIN, E., AVIDAR, Y., PECH-WAFFENSCHMIDT, V., DORON, Y., ISRAELI, B.A. and KEVKHAYEV, E. (1996) The relationship between heat stress, survivability and blood composition of the domestic chicken. European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 34: 463-469.
CAIN, D.W. and CIDLOWSKI, J.A. (2017) Immune regulation by glucocorticoids. Nature Reviews Immunology 17: 233-247.
CALDER, W.A. and SCHMIDT-NIELSEN, K. (1968) Panting and blood carbon dioxide in birds. The American Journal of Physiology 215: 477-482.
CALEFI, A.S., DE SIQUEIRA, A., NAMAZU, L.B., COSTOLA-DE-SOUZA, C., HONDA, B.B., FERREIRA, A.J., QUINTEIRO-FILHO, W.M., DA, S.F.J. and PALERMO-NETO, J. (2016) Effects of heat stress on the formation of splenic germinal centres and immunoglobulins in broilers infected by Clostridium perfringens type A. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 171: 38-46.
CAO, Y., LI, Y.S., LI, Z.J., WANG, F. and LI, C.M. (2015) Dietary zinc may attenuate heat-induced testicular oxidative stress in mice via up-regulation of Cu-Zn SOD. Genetics and Molecular Research 14: 16616-16626.
CHAND, N., NAZ, S., KHAN, A., KHAN, S. and KHAN, R.U. (2014) Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress. International Journal of Biometeorology 58: 2153-2157.
CHARLES, D.A. and WALKER, A.W. (2002) Poultry Environment Problems: a Guide to Solutions. The Veterinary Journal 166: 284.
DAVIES, K.J. (1995) Oxidative stress: the paradox of aerobic life. Biochemical Society Symposium 61: 1-31.
DROGE, W. (2002) Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiological Reviews 82: 47-95.
DELEZIE, E., SWENNEN, Q., BUYSE, J. and DECUYPERE, E. (2007) The effect of feed withdrawal and crating density in transit on metabolism and meat quality of broilers at slaughter weight. Poultry Science 86: 1414-1423.
EBEID, T.A. (2012) Vitamin E and organic selenium enhances the antioxidative status and quality of chicken semen under high ambient temperature. British Poultry Science 53: 708-714.
EBEID, T.A., SUZUKI, T. and SUGIYAMA, T. (2012) High ambient temperature influences eggshell quality and calbindin-D28k localisation of eggshell gland and all intestinal segments of laying hens. Poultry Science 91: 2282-2287.
ELNAGAR, S.A., SCHEIDELER, S.E. and BECK, M.M. (2010) Reproductive hormones, hepatic deiodinase messenger ribonucleic acid, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive cells in hypothalamus in the heat stress-induced or chemically induced hypothyroid laying hen. Poultry Science 89: 2001-2009.
ESTEVEZ, I. (2007) Density allowances for broilers: where to set the limits? Poultry Science 86: 1265-1272.
FRAISSE, F. and COCKREM, J.F. (2006) Corticosterone and fear behaviour in white and brown caged laying hens. British Poultry Science 47: 110-119.
GERAERT, P.A., PADILHA, J.C. and GUILLAUMIN, S. (1996) Metabolic and endocrine changes induced by chronic heat exposure in broiler chickens: biological and endocrinological variables. British Journal of Nutrition 75: 205-216.
GHAZI, S., HABIBIAN, M., MOEINI, M.M. and ABDOLMOHAMMADI, A.R. (2012) Effects of different levels of organic and inorganic chromium on growth performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Biological Trace Element Research 146: 309-317.
GITOEE, A., SADEGHI, G. and KARIMI, A. (2018) Combination effects of organic and inorganic chromium on production performance, reproductive response, immune status, and maternal antibody transmission in breeder quails under heat stress. Biological Trace Element Research 184: 508-516.
GOUS, R.M. and MORRIS, T.R. (2005) Nutritional interventions in alleviating the effects of high temperatures in broiler production. World's Poultry Science Journal 61: 463-466.
GREEN, D.R. and KROEMER, G. (2004) The pathophysiology of mitochondrial cell death. Science 305: 626-629.
GRIFFITHS, H.R. (2000) Antioxidants and protein oxidation. Free Radical Research 33 Supplement: 47-58.
HABIBIAN, M., GHAZI, S. and MOEINI, M.M. (2013) Lack of effect of dietary chromium supplementation on growth performance and serum insulin, glucose, and lipoprotein levels in broilers reared under heat stress condition. Biological Trace Element Research 153: 205-211.
HABIBIAN, M., GHAZI, S., MOEINI, M.M. and ABDOLMOHAMMADI, A. (2014) Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions. International Journal of Biometeorology 58: 741-752.
HABIBIAN, M., SADEGHI, G., GHAZI, S. and MOEINI, M.M. (2015) Selenium as a feed supplement for heat-stressed poultry: a review. Biological Trace Element Research 165: 183-193.
HALLIWELL, B. and WHITEMAN, M. (2004) Measuring reactive species and oxidative damage in vivo and in cell culture: how should you do it and what do the results mean? British Journal Pharmacology 142: 231-255.
HASHIZAWA, Y., KUBOTA, M., KADOWAKI, M. and FUJIMURA, S. (2013) Effect of dietary vitamin E on broiler meat qualities, color, water-holding capacity and shear force value, under heat stress conditions. Animal Science Journal 84: 732-736.
HEIDARISAFAR, Z., SADEGHI, G., KARIMI, A. and AZIZI, O. (2016) Apple peel waste as a natural antioxidant for heat-stressed broiler chickens. Tropical Animal Health and Production 48: 831-835.
HELED, Y., FLEISCHMANN, C. and EPSTEIN, Y. (2013) Cytokines and their role in hyperthermia and heat stroke. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology 24: 85-96.
HICKMAN-MILLER, H.D. and HILDEBRAND, W.H. (2004) The immune response under stress: the role of HSP-derived peptides. Trends in Immunology 25: 427-433.
HOSSEINI-VASHAN, S.J., GOLIAN, A. and YAGHOBFAR, A. (2016) Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace. International Journal of Biometeorology 60: 1183-1192.
HUNG, S.W., TU, C.Y. and WANG, W.S. (2007) In vivo effects of adding singular or combined anti-oxidative vitamins and/or minerals to diets on the immune system of tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids) peripheral blood monocyte-derived, anterior kidney-derived, and spleen-derived macrophages. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 115: 87-99.
IKEDA, M., RHEE, M. and CHIN, W.W. (1994) Thyroid hormone receptor monomer, homodimer, and heterodimer (with retinoid-X receptor) contact different nucleotide sequences in thyroid hormone response elements. Endocrinology 135: 1628-1638.
IMIK, H., ATASEVER, M.A., URCAR, S., OZLU, H., GUMUS, R. and ATASEVER, M. (2012b) Meat quality of heat stress exposed broilers and effect of protein and vitamin E. British Poultry Science 53: 689-698.
IMIK, H., OZLU, H., GUMUS, R., ATASEVER, M.A., URCAR, S. and ATASEVER, M. (2012a) Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-lipoic acid on performance and meat quality of broilers subjected to heat stress. British Poultry Science 53: 800-808.
JAHANIAN, R. and RASOULI, E. (2015) Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks. Journal of Animal Science 93: 3355-3363.
KAMEL, N.N., AHMED, A., MEHAISEN, G., MASHALY, M.M. and ABASS, A.O. (2017) Depression of leukocyte protein synthesis, immune function and growth performance induced by high environmental temperature in broiler chickens. International Journal of Biometeorology 61: 1637-1645.
KANANI, P.B., DANESHYAR, M., ALIAKBARLU, J. and HAMIAN, F. (2017) Effect of dietary turmeric and cinnamon powders on meat quality and lipid peroxidation of broiler chicken under heat stress condition. Veterinary Research Forum 8: 163-169.
KAUL, G. and THIPPESWAMY, H. (2011) Role of heat shock proteins in diseases and their therapeutic potential. Indian Journal of Microbiology 51: 124-131.
KAUR, H. and HALLIWELL, B. (1994) Evidence for nitric oxide-mediated oxidative damage in chronic inflammation. Nitrotyrosine in serum and synovial fluid from rheumatoid patients. FEBS Letters 350: 9-12.
KAWAI, T. and AKIRA, S. (2009) The roles of TLRs, RLRs and NLRs in pathogen recognition. International Immunology 21: 317-337.
KHAJAVI, M., RAHIMI, S., HASSAN, Z.M., KAMALI, M.A. and MOUSAVI, T. (2003) Effect of feed restriction early in life on humoral and cellular immunity of two commercial broiler strains under heat stress conditions. British Poultry Science 44: 490-497.
KHAN, R.U., NAZ, S., NIKOUSEFAT, Z. and TUFARELLI, V. (2011) Effect of vitamin E in heat-stressed poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal 67: 469-487.
KHAN, R.U., LAUDADIO, V. and TUFARELLI, V. (2012) Semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters in white leghorn layer breeders. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47: 190-195.
KIECOLT-GLASER, J.K., LOVING, T.J., STOWELL, J.R., MALARKEY, W.B., LEMESHOW, S., DICKINSON, S.L. and GLASER, R. (2005) Hostile marital interactions, proinflammatory cytokine production, and wound healing. Archives of General Psychiatry 62: 1377-1384.
KIKUSATO, M. and TOYOMIZU, M. (2013) Crucial role of membrane potential in heat stress-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species in avian skeletal muscle mitochondria. PLoS One 8: e64412.
KIKUSATO, M., RAMSEY, J.J., AMO, T. and TOYOMIZU, M. (2010) Application of modular kinetic analysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of birds exposed to acute heat stress. FEBS Letters 584: 3143-3148.
KIKUSATO, M., YOSHIDA, H., FURUKAWA, K. and TOYOMIZU, M. (2015) Effect of heat stress-induced production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species on NADPH oxidase and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA levels in avian muscle cells. Journal of Thermal Biology 52: 8-13.
LARA, L. and ROSTAGNO, M. (2013) Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production. Animals 3: 356-369.
LEE, Y.J., CHO, H.N., JEOUNG, D.I., SOH, J.W., CHO, C.K., BAE, S., CHUNG, H.Y., LEE, S.J. and LEE, Y.S. (2004) HSP25 overexpression attenuates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis: roles of ERK1/2 signaling and manganese superoxide dismutase. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 36: 429-444.
LIN, H., DECUYPERE, E. and BUYSE, J. (2006a) Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-Molecular & Integrative Physiology 144: 11-17.
LIN, H., JIAO, H.C., BUYSE, J. and DECUYPERE, E. (2006b) Strategies for preventing heat stress in poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal 62: 71-86.
LIN, H., WANG, L.F., SONG, J.L., XIE, Y.M. and YANG, Q.M. (2002) Effect of dietary supplemental levels of vitamin A on the egg production and immune responses of heat-stressed laying hens. Poultry Science 81: 458-465.
LIU, L.L., HE, J.H., XIE, H.B., YANG, Y.S., LI, J.C. and ZOU, Y. (2014) Resveratrol induces antioxidant and heat shock protein mRNA expression in response to heat stress in black-boned chickens. Poultry Science 93: 54-62.
LIU, L., FU, C., YAN, M., XIE, H., LI, S., YU, Q., HE, S. and HE, J. (2016) Resveratrol modulates intestinal morphology and HSP70/90, NF-kappaB and EGF expression in the jejunal mucosa of black-boned chickens on exposure to circular heat stress. Food Function 7: 1329-1338.
LU, K.C., WANG, J.Y., LIN, S.H., CHU, P. and LIN, Y.F. (2004) Role of circulating cytokines and chemokines in exertional heatstroke. Critical Care Medicine 32: 399-403.
LU, Q., WEN, J. and ZHANG, H. (2007) Effect of chronic heat exposure on fat deposition and meat quality in two genetic types of chicken. Poultry Science 86: 1059-1064.
MACK, L.A., FELVER-GANT, J.N., DENNIS, R.L. and CHENG, H.W. (2013) Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in 2 strains of laying hens. Poultry Science 92: 285-294.
MAHMOUD, K.Z. and EDENS, F.W. (2005) Influence of organic selenium on hsp70 response of heat-stressed and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-challenged broiler chickens (Gallus gallus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology & Pharmacology 141: 69-75.
MAHMOUD, K.Z., EDENS, F.W., EISEN, E.J. and HAVENSTEIN, G.B. (2004) Ascorbic acid decreases heat shock protein 70 and plasma corticosterone response in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus) subjected to cyclic heat stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 137: 35-42.
MAHMOUD, U.T., ABDEL-RAHMAN, M.A.M., DARWISH, M.H.A., APPLEGATE, T.J. and CHENG, H. (2015) Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 166: 98-105.
MARSDEN, A. and MORRIS, T.R. (1987) Quantitative review of the effects of environmental temperature on food intake, egg output and energy balance in laying pullets. British Poultry Science. 28:693-704.
MIGNON-GRASTEAU, S., MORERI, U., NARCY, A., ROUSSEAU, X., RODENBURG, T.B., TIXIER-BOICHARD, M. and ZERJAL, T. (2015) Robustness to chronic heat stress in laying hens: a meta-analysis. Poultry Science 94: 586-600.
MIOVA, B., DIMITROVSKA, M., DINEVSKA-KJOVKAROVSKA, S., ESPLUGUES, J.V. and APOSTOLOVA, N. (2016) The Heat Stress Response and Diabetes: More Room for Mitochondrial Implication. Current Pharmaceutical Design 22: 2619-2639.
MUJAHID, A., SATO, K., AKIBA, Y. and TOYOMIZU, M. (2006) Acute heat stress stimulates mitochondrial superoxide production in broiler skeletal muscle, possibly via downregulation of uncoupling protein content. Poultry Science 85: 1259-1265.
MUJAHID, A., YOSHIKI, Y., AKIBA, Y. and TOYOMIZU, M. (2005) Superoxide radical production in chicken skeletal muscle induced by acute heat stress. Poultry Science 84: 307-314.
MURALIDHARAN, S. and MANDREKAR, P. (2013) Cellular stress response and innate immune signaling: integrating pathways in host defense and inflammation. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 94: 1167-1184.
NARINÇ, D., ERDOĞAN, S., TAHTABIÇEN, E. and AKSOY, T. (2016) Effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chickens on developmental stability, hatchability and chick quality. Animal 10: 1328-1335.
NIU, Z.Y., LIU, F.Z., YAN, Q.L. and LI, W.C. (2009) Effects of different levels of vitamin E on growth performance and immune responses of broilers under heat stress. Poultry Science 88: 2101-2107.
NYBLOM, H., BERGGREN, U., BALLDIN, J. and OLSSON, R. (2004) High AST/ALT ratio may indicate advanced alcoholic liver disease rather than heavy drinking. Alcohol and Alcoholism 39: 336-339.
ORHAN, C., AKDEMIR, F., SAHIN, N., TUZCU, M., KOMOROWSKI, J.R., HAYIRLI, A. and SAHIN, K. (2012) Chromium histidinate protects against heat stress by modulating the expression of hepatic nuclear transcription factors in quail. British Poultry Science 53: 828-835.
PADGETT, D.A. and GLASER, R. (2003) How stress influences the immune response. Trends in Immunology 24: 444-448.
PAMOK, S., AENGWANICH, W. and KOMUTRIN, T. (2009) Adaptation to oxidative stress and impact of chronic oxidative stress on immunity in heat-stressed broilers. Journal of Thermal Biology 34: 353-357.
PANDA, A.K., RAMARAO, S.V., RAJU, M.V. and CHATTERJEE, R.N. (2008) Effect of dietary supplementation with vitamins E and C on production performance, immune responses and antioxidant status of White Leghorn layers under tropical summer conditions. British Poultry Science 49: 592-599.
PAYNE, C.G. (1966) Practical Aspects of Environmental Temperature for Laying Hens. World's Poultry Science Journal e22: 126-139.
PERAI, A.H., KERMANSHAHI, H., NASSIRI, M.H. and ZARBAN, A. (2014) Effects of supplemental vitamin C and chromium on metabolic and hormonal responses, antioxidant status, and tonic immobility reactions of transported broiler chickens. Biological Trace Element Research 157: 224-233.
QUINTEIRO-FILHO, W.M., CALEFI, A.S., CRUZ, D., ALOIA, T., ZAGER, A., ASTOLFI-FERREIRA, C.S., PIANTINO, F.J., SHARIF, S. and PALERMO-NETO, J. (2017) Heat stress decreases expression of the cytokines, avian beta-defensins 4 and 6 and Toll-like receptor 2 in broiler chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 186: 19-28.
QUINTEIRO-FILHO, W.M., GOMES, A.V., PINHEIRO, M.L., RIBEIRO, A., FERRAZ-DE-PAULA, V., ASTOLFI-FERREIRA, C. S., FERREIRA, A.J. and PALERMO-NETO, J. (2012a) Heat stress impairs performance and induces intestinal inflammation in broiler chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. Avian Pathology 41: 421-427.
QUINTEIRO-FILHO, W.M., RIBEIRO, A., FERRAZ-DE-PAULA, V., PINHEIRO, M.L., SAKAI, M., SA, L.R., FERREIRA, A.J. and PALERMO-NETO, J. (2010) Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 89: 1905-1914.
QUINTEIRO-FILHO, W.M., RODRIGUES, M.V., RIBEIRO, A., FERRAZ-DE-PAULA, V., PINHEIRO, M.L., SA, L.R., FERREIRA, A.J. and PALERMO-NETO, J. (2012b) Acute heat stress impairs performance parameters and induces mild intestinal enteritis in broiler chickens: role of acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Journal of Animal Science 90: 1986-1994.
RAFIEE, F., MAZHARI, M., GHOREISHI, M. and ESMAEILIPOUR, O. (2016) Effect of lemon verbena powder and vitamin C on performance and immunity of heat-stressed broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl) 100: 807-812.
RAGHEBIAN, M., SADEGHI, A.A. and AMINAFSHAR, M. (2016) Energy sources and levels influenced on performance parameters, thyroid hormones, and HSP70 gene expression of broiler chickens under heat stress. Tropical Animal Health and Production 48: 1697-1702.
RAO, S.V., PRAKASH, B., RAJU, M.V., PANDA, A.K., KUMARI, R.K. and REDDY, E.P. (2016) Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer. Biological Trace Element Research 172: 511-520.
RAO, S.V., RAJU, M.V., PANDA, A.K., POONAM, N.S., MURTHY, O.K. and SUNDER, G.S. (2012) Effect of dietary supplementation of organic chromium on performance, carcass traits, oxidative parameters, and immune responses in commercial broiler chickens. Biological Trace Element Research 147: 135-141.
REHMAN, Z.U., CHAND, N. and KHAN, R.U. (2017) The effect of vitamin E, L-carnitine, and ginger on production traits, immune response, and antioxidant status in two broiler strains exposed to chronic heat stress. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 24: 26851-26857.
RENAUDEAU, D., COLLIN, A., YAHAV, S., DE BASILIO, V., GOURDINE, J.L. and COLLIER, R.J. (2012) Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production. Animal 6: 707-728.
RICHTER, C., PARK, J.W. and AMES, B.N. (1988) Normal oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA is extensive. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America 85: 6465-6467.
RIMOLDI, S., LASAGNA, E., SARTI, F.M., MARELLI, S.P., COZZI, M.C., BERNARDINI, G. and TEROVA, G. (2015) Expression profile of six stress-related genes and productive performances of fast and slow growing broiler strains reared under heat stress conditions. Meta Gene 6: 17-25.
SAFDARI-ROSTAMABAD, M., HOSSEINI-VASHAN, S.J., PERAI, A.H. and SARIR, H. (2017) Nanoselenium supplementation of heat-stressed broilers: effects on performance, carcass characteristics, blood metabolites, immune response, antioxidant status, and jejunal morphology. Biological Trace Element Research 178: 105-116.
SAHIN, K., ORHAN, C., TUZCU, M., ALI, S., SAHIN, N. and HAYIRLI, A. (2010) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents lipid peroxidation and enhances antioxidant defense system via modulating hepatic nuclear transcription factors in heat-stressed quails. Poultry Science 89: 2251-2258.
SAHIN, N., ONDERCI, M., BALCI, T.A., CIKIM, G., SAHIN, K. and KUCUK, O. (2007) The effect of soy isoflavones on egg quality and bone mineralisation during the late laying period of quail. British Poultry Science 48: 363-369.
SCHMIDT, K.L., FURLONGER, A.A., LAPIERRE, J.M., MACDOUGALL-SHACKLETON, E.A. and MACDOUGALL-SHACKLETON, S.A. (2012) Regulation of the HPA axis is related to song complexity and measures of phenotypic quality in song sparrows. Hormones and Behavior 61: 652-659.
SINGH, H., SODHI, S. and KAUR, R. (2006) Effects of dietary supplements of selenium, vitamin E or combinations of the two on antibody responses of broilers. British Poultry Science 47: 714-719.
SONG, Z., CHENG, K., ZHANG, L. and WANG, T. (2017) Dietary supplementation of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua could alleviate the intestinal inflammatory response in heat-stressed broilers. Journal of Thermal Biology 69: 184-190.
SONG, Z., LIU, L., SHEIKHAHMADI, A., JIAO, H. and LIN, H. (2012) Effect of heat exposure on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2012: 1-8.
STAR, L., DECUYPERE, E., PARMENTIER, H.K. and KEMP, B. (2008) Effect of single or combined climatic and hygienic stress in four layer lines: 2. Endocrine and oxidative stress responses. Poultry Science 87: 1031-1038.
STARKIE, R.L., HARGREAVES, M., ROLLAND, J. and FEBBRAIO, M.A. (2005) Heat stress, cytokines, and the immune response to exercise. Brain Behavior and Immunity 19: 404-412.
STEINMANN, M., MOOSMANN, N., SCHIMMEL, M., GERHARDUS, C. and BAUER, G. (2004) Differential role of extra- and intracellular superoxide anions for nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis induction. In Vivo 18: 293-309.
ST-PIERRE, N.R., COBANOV, B. and SCHNITKEY, G. (2003) Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries. Journal of Dairy Science 86: E52-E77.
SYAFWAN, S., KWAKKEL, R.P. and VERSTEGEN, M.W.A. (2011) Heat stress and feeding strategies in meat-type chickens. World's Poultry Science Journal 67: 653-674.
TAN, G.Y., YANG, L., FU, Y.Q., FENG, J.H. and ZHANG, M.H. (2010) Effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on function of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, antioxidative enzymes, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 89: 115-122.
TANG, J. and CHEN, Z. (2016) The protective effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the development of immune function in chickens under heat stress. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl) 100: 768-777.
TANKSON, J.D., VIZZIER-THAXTON, Y., THAXTON, J.P., MAY, J.D. and CAMERON, J.A. (2001) Stress and nutritional quality of broilers. Poultry Science 80: 1384-1389.
TORKI, M., ZANGENEH, S. and HABIBIAN, M. (2014) Performance, egg quality traits, and serum metabolite concentrations of laying hens affected by dietary supplemental chromium picolinate and vitamin C under a heat-stress condition. Biological Trace Element Research 157: 120-129.
VARASTEH, S., BRABER, S., AKBARI, P., GARSSEN, J. and FINK-GREMMELS, J. (2015) Differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the chicken intestine and the protective effects of galacto-oligosaccharides. PLoS One 10: e138975.
VINCENT, J.B. (2000) The biochemistry of chromium. Journal of Nutrition 130: 715-718.
WAN, X., JIANG, L., ZHONG, H., LU, Y., ZHANG, L. and WANG, T. (2017a) Effects of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. on growth performance and some blood parameters of broilers exposed to heat stress. Animal Science Journal 88: 1239-1246.
WAN, X., ZHANG, J., HE, J., BAI, K., ZHANG, L. and WANG, T. (2017b) Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. supplementation alleviates liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under high ambient temperature. International Journal of Biometeorology 61: 1629-1636.
WANG, W.C., YAN, F.F., HU, J.Y., AMEN, O.A. and CHENG, H.W. (2018) Supplementation of Bacillus subtilis based probiotic reduces heat stress-related behaviors and inflammatory response in broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Science 96: 1654-1666.
WILLIAMS, G.R. and BASSETT, J.H. (2011) Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone: local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase. Journal of Endocrinology 209: 261-272.
WOOD, Z.A., POOLE, L.B. and KARPLUS, P.A. (2003) Peroxiredoxin evolution and the regulation of hydrogen peroxide signaling. Science 300: 650-653.
XIE XIE, J., TANG, L., TANGLI LIN LU, Z.L., LIN, X., LIU, H.C., ODLE, J. and LUO, X. (2015) Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones and oxidant status in restrictedly fed broiler breeders. Poultry Science 94: 1635-1644.
XU, D. and TIAN, Y. (2015) Selenium and Polysaccharides of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz Play Different Roles in Improving the Immune Response Induced by Heat Stress in Chickens. Biological Trace Element Research 168: 235-241.
XU, D., LI, B., CAO, N., LI, W., TIAN, Y. and HUANG, Y. (2017) The protective effects of polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (PAMK) on the chicken spleen under heat stress via antagonizing apoptosis and restoring the immune function. Oncotarget 8: 70394-70405.
XU, D., LI, W., HUANG, Y., HE, J. and TIAN, Y. (2014) The effect of selenium and polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (PAMK) on immune response in chicken spleen under heat stress. Biological Trace Element Research 160: 232-237.
YAHAV, S., COLLIN, A., SHINDER, D. and PICARD, M. (2004) Thermal manipulations during broiler chick embryogenesis: effects of timing and temperature. Poult Sci 83: 1959-1963.
YANG, Y., SHARMA, R., SHARMA, A., AWASTHI, S. and AWASTHI, Y.C. (2003) Lipid peroxidation and cell cycle signaling: 4-hydroxynonenal, a key molecule in stress mediated signaling. Acta Biochimica Polonica 50: 319-336.
ZABOLI, G.R., RAHIMI, S., SHARIATMADARI, F., TORSHIZI, M.A., BAGHBANZADEH, A. and MEHRI, M. (2017) Thermal manipulation during Pre and Post-Hatch on thermotolerance of male broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. Poultry Science 96: 478-485.
ZHANG, C., ZHAO, X., WANG, L., YANG, L., CHEN, X. and GENG, Z. (2017) Resveratrol beneficially affects meat quality of heat-stressed broilers which is associated with changes in muscle antioxidant status. Animal Science Journal 88: 1569-1574.
ZHANG, Z.Y., JIA, G.Q., ZUO, J.J., ZHANG, Y., LEI, J., REN, L. and FENG, D.Y. (2012) Effects of constant and cyclic heat stress on muscle metabolism and meat quality of broiler breast fillet and thigh meat. Poultry Science 91: 2931-2937.
ZHAO, Q.L., FUJIWARA, Y. and KONDO, T. (2006) Mechanism of cell death induction by nitroxide and hyperthermia. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 40: 1131-1143.
ZHU, W., JIANG, W. and WU, L.Y. (2014) Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl) 98: 1124-1131.
ZHU, Y.W., LI, W.X., LU, L., ZHANG, L.Y., JI, C., LIN, X., LIU, H.C., ODLE, J. and LUO, X.G. (2017) Impact of maternal heat stress in conjunction with dietary zinc supplementation on hatchability, embryonic development, and growth performance in offspring broilers. Poultry Science 96: 2351-2359.
ZUO, J., XU, M., ABDULLAHI, Y.A., MA, L., ZHANG, Z. and FENG, D. (2015) Constant heat stress reduces skeletal muscle protein deposition in broilers. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture 95: 429-436.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed