Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Nutritional effects on odour emissions in broiler production

  • N.K. SHARMA (a1), M. CHOCT (a2), S. WU (a1) and R.A. SWICK (a1)
Abstract

Odour emissions are a normal part of broiler production but they potentially threaten the sustainable development of the broiler industry. There are currently no effective methods to reduce odour emissions that are practical or affordable for use in commercial farms. Diets can be formulated to more closely meet the bird's nutritional requirements to avoid overfeeding and to reduce the excretion of undigested components. This will decrease the amount of substrates that the microbes metabolise to odorous compounds. Diet can affect gut microflora, faecal microflora, litter moisture content, pH and water activity, all of which may affect the emission of odorants. This review details the role of diets on odour emission from broiler production. In the first part of this review, key odorants from broiler production, their origin, and measurement techniques have been discussed. This is followed by the role of feed ingredients, enzymes, feed additives, minerals, dietary protein levels, necrotic enteritis and litter conditions on odour emissions. It has been reported that nutritional strategies such as partial replacement of soybean meal with meat meal in the diet, use of a low sulphur diet, low protein diet, Bacillus subtilis based probiotic and saponin may reduce emissions. Additionally, drying the litter results in lower emission of odorants including the ones that contain sulphur and prevention of necrotic enteritis and wet litter condition may also reduce odour emission from broiler production.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: rswick@une.edu.au
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

U. AFTAB , M. ASHRAF and Z. JIANG (2006) Low protein diets for broilers. World's Poultry Science Journal 62: 688-701.

S.T. AHMED , G. KIM , M.M. ISLAM , H.-S. MUN , A.R. BOSTAMI and C.-J. YANG (2015) Effects of dietary chlorine dioxide on growth performance, intestinal and excreta microbiology, and odorous gas emissions from broiler excreta. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 24: 502-510.

A. AMERAH , P. PLUMSTEAD , L. BARNARD and A. KUMAR (2014) Effect of calcium level and phytase addition on ileal phytate degradation and amino acid digestibility of broilers fed corn-based diets. Poultry Science 93: 906-915.

C. ANNETT , J. VISTE , M. CHIRINO-TREJO , H. CLASSEN , D. MIDDLETON and E. SIMKO (2002) Necrotic enteritis: Effect of barley, wheat and corn diets on proliferation of Clostridium perfringens type A. Avian Pathology 31: 598-601.

W. BANWART and J. BREMMER (1975) Identification of sulphur gases evolved from animal manures. Journal of Environmental Quality 4: 363-366.

M.R BEDFORD , H. CLASSEN and G. CAMPBELL (1991) The effect of pelleting, salt, and pentosanase on the viscosity of intestinal contents and the performance of broilers fed rye. Poultry Science 70: 1571-1577.

M.E. BERRANG , R.J. MEINERSMANN , N.A. COX and P.J. FEDORKA-CRAY (2011) Application of chlorine dioxide to lessen bacterial contamination during broiler defeathering. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 20: 33-39.

K. BREGENDAHL , J. SELL and D. ZIMMERMAN (2002) Effect of low-protein diets on growth performance and body composition of broiler chicks. Poultry science 81: 1156-1167.

A.M. BUNDGAARD , R. DALGAARD , C. GILBERT and M. THRANE (2014) Assessment of the potential of digestibility-improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from broiler production. Journal of Cleaner Production 73: 218-226.

J. CAREY , R. LACEY and S. MUKHTAR (2004) A review of literature concerning odors, ammonia, and dust from broiler production facilities: 2. Flock and house management factors. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 13: 509-513.

C. CHAVEZ , C. COUFAL , J. CAREY , R. LACEY , R. BEIER and J. ZAHN (2004) The impact of supplemental dietary methionine sources on volatile compound concentrations in broiler excreta. Poultry Science 83: 901-910.

P. CHEEKE (2000) Actual and potential applications of and saponins in human and animal nutrition. Journal of Animal Science 77: 1-10.

H. CHEPETE , H. XIN , L. MENDES , H. LI and T. BAILEY (2012) Ammonia emission and performance of laying hens as affected by different dosages of Yucca schidigera in the diet. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 21: 522-530.

M. CHOCT and G. ANNISON (1992) Anti-nutritive effect of wheat pentosans in broiler chickens: Roles of viscosity and gut microflora. British Poultry Science 33: 821-834.

M. CHOCT , A. KOCHER , D. WATERS , D. PETTERSSON and G. ROSS (2004) A comparison of three xylanases on the nutritive value of two wheats for broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition 92: 53-61.

A. COWIESON , P. WILCOCK and M. BEDFORD (2011) Super-dosing effects of phytase in poultry and other monogastrics. World's Poultry Science Journal 67: 225-236.

D. DEAN , T. BIDNER and L. SOUTHERN (2006) Glycine supplementation to low protein, amino acid-supplemented diets supports optimal performance of broiler chicks. Poultry Science 85: 288-296.

J. DIBNER and J. RICHARDS (2005) Antibiotic growth promoters in agriculture: History and mode of action. Poultry Science 84: 634-643.

V. DOSKOVIĆ , S. BOGOSAVLJEVIĆ-BOSKOVIĆ , Z. PAVLOVSKI , B. MILOŠEVIĆ , Z. ŠKRBIĆ , S. RAKONJAC and V. PETRIČEVIĆ (2013) Enzymes in broiler diets with special reference to protease. World's Poultry Science Journal 69: 343-360.

M. DREW , N. SYED , B. GOLDADE , B. LAARVELD and A. VAN KESSEL (2004) Effects of dietary protein source and level on intestinal populations of clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 83: 414-420.

M. DUNLOP , E. GALLAGHER and J.H. SOHN (2010) Odour emissions from tunnel-ventilated broiler sheds: Case study of nine Queensland farms. Animal Production Science 50: 546-551.

M.W. DUNLOP , P.J. BLACKALL and R.M. STUETZ (2016a) Odour emissions from poultry litter-a review litter properties, odour formation and odorant emissions from porous materials. Journal of Environmental Management 177: 306-319.

M.W. DUNLOP , J. MCAULEY , P.J. BLACKALL and R.M. STUETZ (2016b) Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out. Journal of Environmental Management 172: 201-206.

M.W. DUNLOP , A.F. MOSS , P.J. GROVES , S.J. WILKINSON , R.M. STUETZ and P.H. SELLE (2016c) The multidimensional causal factors of ‘wet litter’ in chicken-meat production. Science of The Total Environment 562: 766-776.

G. EICHNER , S.L. VIEIRA , C.A. TORRES , J.L.B. CONEGLIAN , D.M. FREITAS and O.A. OYARZABAL (2007) Litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis as affected by diets formulated on an all-vegetable basis or having the inclusion of poultry by-product. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16: 344-350.

A. FATUFE and M. RODEHUTSCORD (2005) Growth, body composition, and marginal efficiency of methionine utilisation are affected by nonessential amino acid nitrogen supplementation in male broiler chicken. Poultry Science 84: 1584-1592.

A. FEILBERG , D. LIU , A.P. ADAMSEN , M.J. HANSEN and K.E. JONASSEN (2010) Odorant emissions from intensive pig production measured by online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology 44: 5894-5900.

N.S. FERGUSON , R.S. GATES , J.L. TARABA , A.H. CANTOR , A.J. PESCATORE , M.J. FORD and D.J. BURNHAM (1998) The effect of dietary crude protein on growth, ammonia concentration, and litter composition in broilers. Poultry Science 77: 1481-1487.

M. FRANCESCH and J. BRUFAU (2004) Nutritional factors affecting excreta/litter moisture and quality. World's Poultry Science Journal 60: 64-75.

B. GARRY , M. FOGARTY , T. CURRAN and J. O'DOHERTY (2007) Effect of cereal type and exogenous enzyme supplementation in pig diets on odour and ammonia emissions. Livestock Science 109: 212-215.

A. GRALAPP , W. POWERS , M. FAUST and D. BUNDY (2002) Effects of dietary ingredients on manure characteristics and odorous emissions from swine. Journal of Animal Science 80: 1512-1519.

M.J. HANSEN , A.P.S. ADAMSEN , P. PEDERSEN and A. FEILBERG (2012) Prediction of odor from pig production based on chemical odorants. Journal of Environmental Quality 41: 436-443.

S. HIMATHONGKHAM , S. NUANUALSUWAN and H. RIEMANN (1999) Survival of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium in chicken manure at different levels of water activity. FEMS Microbiology Letters 172: 159-163.

P. HOBBS , J. WEBB , T. MOTTRAM , B. GRANT and T. MISSELBROOK (2004) Emissions of volatile organic compounds originating from UK livestock agriculture. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84: 1414-1420.

P.J. HOBBS , B.F. PAIN , R.M. KAY and P.A. LEE (1996) Reduction of odorous compounds in fresh pig slurry by dietary control of crude protein. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 71: 508-514.

M. HOSSAIN , M. BEGUM , I. KIM 2015. Effect of Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium butyricum, Lactobacillus acidophilus endospores on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, microbial shedding and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers. Veterinarni Medicina 60 (2): 77-82.

J. JEONG and I. KIM (2014) Effect of bacillus subtilis c-3102 spores as a probiotic feed supplement on growth performance, noxious gas emission, and intestinal microflora in broilers. Poultry Science 93: 3097-3103.

R. JHA and J.F. BERROCOSO (2016) Dietary fiber and protein fermentation in the intestine of swine and their interactive effects on gut health and on the environment: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 212: 18-26.

S. JUNG , R. HOUDE , B. BAURHOO , X. ZHAO and B. LEE (2008) Effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and a bifidobacteria lactis-based probiotic strain on the growth performance and fecal microflora of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 87: 1694-1699.

M. KALDHUSDAL and M. HOFSHAGEN (1992) Barley inclusion and avoparcin supplementation in broiler diets. 2. Clinical, pathological, and bacteriological findings in a mild form of necrotic enteritis. Poultry Science 71: 1145-1153.

R. LACEY , S. MUKHTAR , J. CAREY and J. ULLMAN (2004) A review of literature concerning odors, ammonia, and dust from broiler production facilities: 1. Odor concentrations and emissions. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 13: 500-508.

P.D. LE , A.J.A. AARNINK , A.W. JONGBLOED , C.M.C. VAN DER PEET-SCHWERING , N.W.M OGINK and M.W.A. VERSTEGEN (2007a) Effects of dietary crude protein level on odour from pig manure. Animal 1: 734-744.

P. LE , A.J.A. AARNINK , A.W. JONGBLOED , C.M.C. VAN DER PEET SCHWERING , N.W.M. OGINK and M.W.A. VERSTEGEN (2007b) Effects of crystalline amino acid supplementation to the diet on odor from pig manure. Journal of Animal Science 85: 791-801.

P.D. LE , A.J.A. AARNINK , N.W. OGINK , P.M. BECKER and M.W. VERSTEGEN (2005) Odour from animal production facilities: Its relationship to diet. Nutrition Research Reviews 18: 3-30.

P.D. LE , A.J.A. AARNINK and A.W. JONGBLOED (2009) Odour and ammonia emission from pig manure as affected by dietary crude protein level. Livestock Science 121: 267-274.

H. LI , P. ZHAO , Y. LEI , M. HOSSAIN and I. KIM (2015) Phytoncide, phytogenic feed additive as an alternative to conventional antibiotics, improved growth performance and decreased excreta gas emission without adverse effect on meat quality in broiler chickens. Livestock Science 181: 1-6.

Y.-C.M. LO , J.A. KOZIEL , L. CAI , S.J. HOFF , W.S. JENKS and H. XIN (2008) Simultaneous chemical and sensory characterisation of volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from swine manure using solid phase microextraction and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. Journal of Environmental Quality 37: 521-534.

J. LOWE and S. KERSHAW (1997) The ameliorating effect of yucca schidigera extract on canine and feline faecal aroma. Research in Veterinary Science 63: 61-66.

J. LOWE , S. KERSHAW , A. TAYLOR and R. LINFORTH (1997) The effect of yucca schidigera extract on canine and feline faecal volatiles occurring concurrently with faecal aroma amelioration. Research in Veterinary Science 63: 67-71.

R.I. MACKIE , P.G. STROOT and V.H. VAREL (1998) Biochemical identification and biological origin of key odour components in livestock waste. Journal of Animal Science 76: 1331-1342.

P. McALPINE , C. O'SHEA , P. VARLEY , P. SOLAN , T. CURRAN and J. O'DOHERTY (2012) The effect of protease and nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes on manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher pigs. Journal of Animal Science 90: 369-371.

K.R. MURPHY , G. PARCSI and R.M. STUETZ (2014) Non-methane volatile organic compounds predict odor emitted from five tunnel ventilated broiler sheds. Chemosphere 95: 423-432.

M. NAGARAJ , C. WILSON , J. HESS and S. BILGILI (2007) Effect of high-protein and all-vegetable diets on the incidence and severity of pododermatitis in broiler chickens. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16: 304-312.

D. O'NEILL and V. PHILLIPS (1992) A review of the control of odour nuisance from livestock buildings: Part 3, properties of the odorous substances which have been identified in livestock wastes or in the air around them. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 53: 23-50.

C. O'SHEA , T. SWEENEY , M. LYNCH , D. GAHAN , J. CALLAN and J. O'DOHERTY (2010) Effect of β-glucans contained in barley-and oat-based diets and exogenous enzyme supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation of finisher pigs and subsequent manure odor and ammonia emissions. Journal of Animal Science 88: 1411-1420.

E.R. OTTO , M. YOKOYAMA , S. HENGEMUEHLE , R.D. VON BERMUTH , T. VAN KEMPEN and N.L. TROTTIER (2003) Ammonia, volatile fatty acids, phenolics, and odor offensiveness in manure from growing pigs fed diets reduced in protein concentration. Journal of Animal Science 81: 1754-1763.

J. PARK and I. KIM (2014) Supplemental effect of probiotic bacillus subtilis b2a on productivity, organ weight, intestinal salmonella microflora, and breast meat quality of growing broiler chicks. Poultry Science 93: 1-6.

J.B. PAYNE , J. OSBORNE , P. JENKINS and B. SHELDON (2007) Modeling the growth and death kinetics of salmonella in poultry litter as a function of pH and water activity. Poultry Science 86: 191-201.

B.J. PRINCE , D.B. MILLIGAN and M.J. MCEWAN (2010) Application of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry to real-time atmospheric monitoring. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 24: 1763-1769.

S. QAISRANI , M. VAN KRIMPEN , R. KWAKKEL , M. VERSTEGEN and W. HENDRIKS (2015) Dietary factors affecting hindgut protein fermentation in broilers: A review. World's Poultry Science Journal 71: 139-160.

S.S. SCHIFFMAN , J.L. BENNETT and J.H. RAYMER (2001) Quantification of odors and odorants from swine operations in North Carolina. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 108: 213-240.

K. SEEFELDT and B.C. WEIMER (2000) Diversity of sulphur compound production in lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science 83: 2740-2746.

S. SEN , S. INGALE , Y. KIM , J. KIM , K. KIM , J. LOHAKARE , E. KIM , H. KIM , M. RYU and I. KWON (2012) Effect of supplementation of bacillus subtilis ls 1-2 to broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbiology and small intestinal morphology. Research in Veterinary Science 93: 264-268.

N.K. SHARMA , M. CHOCT , S.-B. WU , R. SMILLIE , N. MORGAN , A.S. OMAR , N. SHARMA and R.A. SWICK (2016b) Performance, litter quality and gaseous odour emissions of broilers fed phytase supplemented diets. Animal Nutrition 2: 288-295.

N.K. SHARMA , M. CHOCT , S.-B. WU , R. SMILLIE and R.A. SWICK (2015) Dietary composition affects odour emissions from meat chickens. Animal Nutrition 1: 24-29.

S. SPOELSTRA (1980) Origin of objectionable odorous components in piggery wastes and the possibility of applying indicator components for studying odour development. Agriculture and Environment 5: 241-260.

B. SVIHUS , M. CHOCT and H. CLASSEN (2013) Function and nutritional roles of the avian caeca: A review. World's Poultry Science Journal 69: 249-264.

S. TRABUE , K. SCOGGIN , H. LI , R. BURNS and H. XIN (2008b) Field sampling method for quantifying odorants in humid environments. Environmental Science and Technology 42: 3745-3750.

S. TRABUE , K. SCOGGIN , F. MITLOEHNER , H. LI , R. BURNS and H. XIN (2008a) Field sampling method for quantifying volatile sulphur compounds from animal feeding operation. Atmospheric Environment 42: 3332-3341.

E. VAN DER HOEVEN-HANGOOR , N. PATON , I. VAN DE LINDE , M. VERSTEGEN and W. HENDRIKS (2013) Moisture content in broiler excreta is influenced by excreta nutrient contents. Journal of Animal Science 91: 5705-5713.

E. VAN DER HOEVEN-HANGOOR , C. RADEMAKER , N. PATON , M. VERSTEGEN and W. HENDRIKS (2014) Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples. Poultry Science 93: 1-11.

E. VAN HEUGTEN and T.A. VAN KEMPEN (2002) Growth performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility and fecal odorous compounds in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing hydrolysed feather meal. Journal of Animal Science 80: 171-178.

T. VAN KEMPEN , W. POWERS and A. SUTTON (2002) Technical note: Fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy as an optical nose for predicting odour sensation. Journal of Animal Science 80: 1524-1527.

T. WOYENGO and C. NYACHOTI (2013) Review: Anti-nutritional effects of phytic acid in diets for pigs and poultry-current knowledge and directions for future research. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 93: 9-21.

D.W. WRIGHT , D.K. EATON , L.T. NIELSEN , F.W. KUHRT , J.A. KOZIEL , J.P. SPINHIRNE and D.B. PARKER (2005) Multidimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry for the identification and prioritisation of malodors from confined animal feeding operations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 8663-8672.

W. WU-HAAN , W. POWERS , C. ANGEL , C. HALE and T. APPLEGATE (2007) Effect of an acidifying diet combined with zeolite and slight protein reduction on air emissions from laying hens of different ages. Poultry Science 86: 182-190.

W. WU-HAAN , W. POWERS , R. ANGEL and T. APPLEGATE (2010) The use of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a feed ingredient on air emissions and performance from laying hens. Poultry Science 89: 1355-1359.

Y. YANG , P. IJI and M. CHOCT (2009) Dietary modulation of gut microflora in broiler chickens: A review of the role of six kinds of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. World's Poultry Science Journal 65: 97-114.

Z. ZHANG , J. CHO and I. KIM (2013) Effects of Bacillus subtilis UBT-MO2 on growth performance, relative immune organ weight, gas concentration in excreta, and intestinal microbial shedding in broiler chickens. Livestock Science 155: 343-347.

J. ZHU (2000) A review of microbiology in swine manure odor control. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 78: 93-106.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 61 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 217 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 14th March 2017 - 27th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.