Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    NAZ, S. IDRIS, M. KHALIQUE, M.A. ZIA-UR-RAHMAN, ALHIDARY, I.A. ABDELRAHMAN, M.M. KHAN, R.U. CHAND, N. FAROOQ, U. and AHMAD, S. 2016. The activity and use of zinc in poultry diets. World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 72, Issue. 01, p. 159.

    Rengaraj, Deivendran and Hong, Yeong 2015. Effects of Dietary Vitamin E on Fertility Functions in Poultry Species. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 16, Issue. 5, p. 9910.

    Chand, Naila Naz, Shabana Khan, Ajab Khan, Sarzamin and Khan, Rifat Ullah 2014. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress. International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 58, Issue. 10, p. 2153.

    Khan, R. U. Rahman, Z. U. Javed, I. and Muhammad, F. 2014. Effect of vitamins, protein level and probiotics on immune response of moulted male broiler breeders. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Vol. 98, Issue. 4, p. 620.

    Laudadio, V. Ceci, E. Lastella, N. M. B. Introna, M. and Tufarelli, V. 2014. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: Effects on productive traits and egg quality. Poultry Science, Vol. 93, Issue. 7, p. 1868.


Zinc-induced moulting: production and physiology

  • R.U. KHAN (a1), Z. NIKOUSEFAT (a2), M. JAVDANI (a2), V. TUFARELLI (a3) and V. LAUDADIO (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 10 August 2011

Moulting is a complex process, induced by diet manipulation, which results in renewal of reproductive system and subsequent better production. Conventionally, moulting has been practised by utilising feed withdrawal in many developing countries, however, this has been associated with many drawbacks. Alternative types of moulting practices have been studied, however, these are not practised widely due to a range of undesirable effects. As a consequence of the beneficial effects on laying hens, better post-moult performance and a less criticised method according to poultry welfare advocates, Zn-induced moulting has been considered superior to forced-moulting. Different aspects of Zn-induced moulting related to physiology and production, with special reference to immunohistochemistry of pituitary gland as affected by Zn-induce moulting are included in this review.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D.D. BELL (2003) Historical and current moulting practices in the U.S. Table egg industry. Poultry Science 82: 965-970.

W.D. BERRY (2003) The physiology of induced moulting. Poultry Science 82: 971-980.

W.D. BERRY and J. BRAKE (1987) Post moult performance of laying hens moulted by high dietary zinc low dietary sodium and fasting egg production and eggshell quality. Poultry Science 66: 218-226.

S.W. BREEDING , W.D. BERRY and J. BRAKE (1992) Maintenance of duodenum weight during a moult induced by dietary zinc in a low-calcium diet. Poultry Science 71: 1408-1411.

R.M. BURNS (1983) Antibody production suppressed in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) by zinc deficiency. Avian Pathology 12: 141-146.

P.S. HOLT , N.P. MACRI and R.E. PORTER JR (1995) Microbiological analysis of the early Salmonella enteritidis infection in moulted and unmoulted hens. Avian Diseases 39: 55-63.

P.S. HOLT (2003) Moulting and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection: the problem and some solutions. Poultry Science 82: 1008-1010.

P.S. HOLT and R.E. PORTER JR (1992) Effect of induced moulting on the course of infection and transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in white Leghorn hens of different ages. Poultry Science 71: 1842-1848.

A. INNOCENTI , S. ZIMMERMAN , J.G. FERRY , A. SCOZZAFAVA and C.T. SUPURAN (2004) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Inhibition of the zinc and cobalt gamma-class enzyme from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila with anions. Bioorganic & Medical Chemistry Letter 14: 3327-3331.

M.T. KIDD , M.A. QURESHI , P.R. FERKET and L.N. THOMAS (1994) Dietary zinc-methionine enhances mononuclear–phagocytic function in young turkeys. Biological Trace Element Research 42: 217-229.

M.R. LUCK and C.G. SCANES (1980) Ionic and endocrine factors influencing the secretion of luteinizing hormone by chicken anterior pituitary cells in vitro. General and Comparative Endocrinology 41: 260-265.

R.W. MOORE , S.Y. PARK , L.F. KUBENA , J.A. BYRD , J.L. MCREYNOLDS , M.R. BURNHAM , M.E. HUME , S.G. BIRKHOLD , D.J. NISBET and S.C. RICKE (2004) Comparison of zinc acetate and propionate addition on gastrointestinal tract fermentation and susceptibility of laying hens to Salmonella enteritidis during forced moult. Poultry Science 83: 1276-1286.

E.E. ONBASILAR and H. EROL (2007) Effects of different forced moulting methods on post moult production, corticosterone level, and immune response to sheep red blood cells in laying hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16: 529-536.

A.L. PALAFOX and E. HO-A (1980) Effect of zinc toxicity in laying white leghorn pullets and hens. Poultry Science 59: 2024-2048.

S.S. PALMER and J.M. BAHR (1992) Follicle stimulating hormone increases serum oestradiol-17β concentrations, number of growing follicles and yolk deposition in aging hens (Gallus domesticus) with decreased egg production. British Poultry Science 33: 403-414.

S.Y. PARK , S.G. BIRKHOLD , L.F. KUBENA , D.J. NISBET and S.C. RICKE (2004a) Review on the Role of Dietary Zinc in Poultry Nutrition, Immunity, and Reproduction. Biology of Trace Elements 101: 147-163.

S.Y. PARK , S.G. BIRKHOLD , L.F. KUBENA , D.J. NISBET and S.C. RICKE (2004b) Effect of high zinc diet using zinc propionate on moult induction, organs and post-moult egg production and quality in laying hens. Poultry Science 83: 24-33.

E.D. PEEBLES and J. BRAKE (1987) Egg shell quality and hatchability in broiler breeder eggs. Poultry Science 66: 596-604.

R. RAMESH , R. SOLOW , J.A. PRODUMAN and W.J. KUENZEL (1996) Changes in pituitary somatotroph and lactotroph distribution in laying hens and incubating turkey hen pituitary. General and Comparative Endocrinology 104: 67-75.

K. SAHIN , N. SAHIN , O. KUCUK , A. HAYIRLI and A.S. PRASAD (2009) Role of dietary zinc in heat-stressed poultry: A review. Poultry Science 88: 2176-2183.

M.A. SANDHU , Z.U. RAHMAN and S.U. RAHMAN (2006) Dynamics of macrophages 459 during second and third production cycles after zinc induced moulting. Journal of Poultry Science 43: 286-295.

M.A. RAHMAN SANDHU , Z.U., S.U. RAHMAN and I.J. HASSAN (2007) Dynamics of innate immune response in Gallus domesticus using two methods of induced moulting. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 120: 106-114.

M.A. SANDHU , Z.U. RAHMAN , I.J. HASAN , S.U. RAHMAN and M.S. YOUSAF (2008) Changes in lutenizing hormone-containing gonadotrophs after moulting induced by fasting and zinc in laying hens (Gallus domesticus). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 92: 668-676

M.A. SANDHU , Z.U. RAHMAN , A. RIAZ , S.U. RAHMAN , I. JAVED and N. ULLAH (2010) Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult. European Journal of Histochemistry 54: 123-127.

R.L. SHIPPEE , P.E. STAKE , U. KOEHN , J.L. LAMBERT and R.W. SIMMONS (1979) High dietary zinc or magnesium as forced-resting agents for laying hens. Poultry Science 58: 949-954.

J.L. STAHL , J.L. GREGER and M.E. COOK (1989) Zinc, copper and iron utilization by chicks fed various concentrations of zinc. British Poultry Science 30: 123-134.

N.R. SUNDARESAN , D. ANISH , K.V.H. SASTRY , V.K. SAXENA , J. MOHAN and M. SAXEN (2007) Differential expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in reproductive tissues during induced moulting of white leghorn hens. Animal Reproduction Science 102: 335-342.

N.R. SUNDARESAN , D. ANISH , K.V.H. SASTRY , V.K. SAXENA , K. NAGARAJAN , J. SUBRAMANI , M.D.M. LEO , N. SHIT , J. MOHAN and M. SAXENA (2008) High doses of dietary zinc induce cytokines, chemokines, and apoptosis in reproductive tissues during regression. Cell and Tissue Research 332: 543-554.

D. THIAGARAJAN , A.M. SAEED and E.K. ASEM (1994) Mechanism of transovarian transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in laying hens. Poultry Science 73: 89-98.

C.C. WHITEHEAD and D.W.F. SHANNON (1974) The control of egg production using a sodium-deficient diet. British Poultry Science 15: 429-434.

M.S. YOUSAF , Z.U. RAHMAN , M.A. SANDHU , S.A. BUKHARI and A. YOUSAF (2008) Comparison of the fast-induced and high dietary zinc-induced moulting: trace elements dynamic in serum and eggs at different production stages in hens (Gallus domesticus). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 93: 35-43.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *