The purpose of this review is to review the current state and achievements in poultry production in Serbia and worldwide, primarily the EU. Particular emphasis is placed on impacts of different rearing system, i.e. housing and fattening, on the production and the quality of the poultry meat and eggs and, simultaneously, on the welfare of poultry and environmental protection according to EU standards. According to the latest available data, total number of poultry produced in Serbia in 2015 was 17,450,000 units and production of meat amounted to around 86,000 t, while consumption was 12.12 kg per person. Egg production in 2015 was approximately 1.7 billion eggs, which is around 202 eggs per hen. A total of 13.1 million tons of poultry meat was produced in EU in 2015. It is evident from the literature that the poultry production in EU and worldwide has undergone significant changes, and clear criteria have been established to improve the quality of the products (meat and eggs), to guarantee the safety of the food, to protect the environment, and to ensure animal welfare in line with the relevant ethic norms. For these reasons, many countries within EU and worldwide, including Serbia, attach importance to housing systems for laying hens, with particular concern for animal welfare. Alternative housing systems (floor, aviary, free range and organic production) are increasingly used in the production of poultry meat and eggs instead of conventional systems. This is because it is considered that alternative housing systems may have positive effect on the productive traits of the poultry and, consequently, on the production of the quality organic meat. Furthermore, it is evident from research that pure (indigenous) breeds and strains are given growing importance in the production of organic meat and eggs in semi-intensive, semi-extensive and even in extensive rearing systems.