Skip to main content

Japan – Measures Affecting the Importation of Apples (AB-2003-4): One Bad Apple? (DS245/AB/R): A Comment

  • Damien J. Neven (a1) and Joseph H.H. Weiler (a2)

This chapter reviews the decision by the Appellate Body (AB) regarding measures affecting the importation of apples in Japan. Section 2 of the chapter presents some background facts. Section 3 considers the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement and emphasizes the fact that it imposes a discipline on risk-reducing measures even in the absence of discrimination or protectionism. Section 4 discusses how the evaluation of risk-reducing measures can be undertaken in the context of the SPS agreement. Our discussion focuses on two issues: the scope of the mandate given to the adjudicators and the standard of review that they should apply. We emphasize the difficulty of the task faced by the adjudicators, namely to distinguish between determining the level of risk that a country will find optimal to support (which cannot be challenged) and determining whether risk-reducing measures are necessary to achieve the chosen level of risk. We further observe that the common methodology used by Panels, namely to evaluate the existence of risk in the absence of risk-reducing measures, has limited applicability.

Hide All
Ellsberg D. (1961). Risk, Ambiguity and the Savage Axioms, Quarterly Journal of Economics 75(5), 643669.
Ghirardato P., Maccheroni F. and Marinacci M. (2002). Ambiguity from the differential viewpoint, Working Paper No. 17/2002 ICER.
Gilboa I. and Schmeidler D. (1989). Max-min expected utility with non unique priors, Journal of Mathematical Economics 18, 141153.
Gollier C. (2001). Should We Beware of the Precautionary Principle?, Economic Policy 33, 301328.
Henry M. (2002). Generalized entropy measures of ambiguity and their measurement, mimeo, Columbia University.
Henry C. and Henry M. (2003). Etat de la connaissance scientifique et mobilisation du principe de precaution, Revue Economique 54, 12771289.
Savage L.J. (1956). The Foundation of Statistics Wiley, New York.
Von Neumann J. and Morgenstern O. (1944). Theory ofGames and Economic Behavior, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World Trade Review
  • ISSN: 1474-7456
  • EISSN: 1475-3138
  • URL: /core/journals/world-trade-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 9 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 308 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.