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US – Lamb: United States – Safeguard Measures on Imports of Fresh, Chilled or Frozen Lamb Meat from New Zealand and Australia: What Should be Required of a Safeguard Investigation?*


The United States (US) imposed, in July 1999, a safeguard on lamb meat, in the form of tariff rate import quotas, which were to be applied for a period of three years. The measure was based on findings by the US International Trade Commission that increased imports of lamb meat were a substantial cause of threat of serious injury to the US industry producing the like product. Following complaints by New Zealand and Australia that the measure was inconsistent with Articles I, II and XIX of GATT 1994, and several provisions of the Agreement on Safeguards, the World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Body established, in November 1999, a panel to review the consistency of the US measure with the mentioned WTO rules.

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Avinash Dixit . 1987. Trade and Insurance with Moral Hazard. Journal of International Economics, 23: 201–20.

Avinash Dixit . 1989a. Trade and Insurance with Imperfectly Observed Outcomes. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February: 195203. 1989b. Trade and Insurance with Adverse Selection. Review of Economic Studies, 56: 235–48.

Jonathan Eaton and Gene Grossman . 1985. Tariff as Insurance: Optimal Commercial Policy when Domestic Markets are Incomplete. Canadian Journal of Economics, 18: 258–72.

Kenneth Kelly . 1988. The Analysis of Causality in Escape Clause Cases. Journal of Industrial Economics, 37: 187207.

Robert Pindyck and Julio Rotemberg . 1987. Are Imports to Blame? Attribution of Injury under the 1974 Trade Act. Journal of Law and Economics, 30: 10122.

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World Trade Review
  • ISSN: 1474-7456
  • EISSN: 1475-3138
  • URL: /core/journals/world-trade-review
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