My goal is to give an accessible introduction to Martin’s work on the groupoid model and how it is related to the recent notion of univalence in Homotopy Type Theory while sharing some memories of Martin.

]]>The present paper aims at stressing the importance of the Hofmann–Streicher groupoid model for Martin Löf Type Theory as a link with the first-order equality and its semantics via adjunctions. The groupoid model was introduced by Martin Hofmann in his Ph.D. thesis and later analysed in collaboration with Thomas Streicher. In this paper, after describing an algebraic weak factorisation system on the category of -enriched groupoids, we prove that its fibration of algebras is elementary (in the sense of Lawvere) and use this fact to produce the factorisation of diagonals for needed to interpret identity types.

]]>We provide a constructive version of the notion of sheaf models of univalent type theory. We start by relativizing existing constructive models of univalent type theory to presheaves over a base category. Any Grothendieck topology of the base category then gives rise to a family of left-exact modalities, and we recover a model of type theory by localizing the presheaf model with respect to this family of left-exact modalities. We provide then some examples.

]]>I recall how Martin Hofmann and I found the groupoid model of type theory in the early 1990s.

]]>We give a syntax independent formulation of finitely presented generalized algebraic theories as initial objects in categories of categories with families (cwfs) with extra structure. To this end, we simultaneously define the notion of a presentation Σ of a generalized algebraic theory and the associated category CwFΣ of small cwfs with a Σ-structure and cwf-morphisms that preserve Σ-structure on the nose. Our definition refers to the purely semantic notion of uniform family of contexts, types, and terms in CwFΣ. Furthermore, we show how to syntactically construct an initial cwf with a Σ-structure. This result can be viewed as a generalization of Birkhoff’s completeness theorem for equational logic. It is obtained by extending Castellan, Clairambault, and Dybjer’s construction of an initial cwf. We provide examples of generalized algebraic theories for monoids, categories, categories with families, and categories with families with extra structure for some type formers of Martin-Löf type theory. The models of these are internal monoids, internal categories, and internal categories with families (with extra structure) in a small category with families. Finally, we show how to extend our definition to some generalized algebraic theories that are not finitely presented, such as the theory of contextual cwfs.

]]>In Hyland et al. (1980), Hyland, Johnstone and Pitts introduced the notion of tripos for the purpose of organizing the construction of realizability toposes in a way that generalizes the construction of localic toposes from complete Heyting algebras. In Pitts (2002), one finds a generalization of this notion eliminating an unnecessary assumption of Hyland et al. (1980). The aim of this paper is to characterize triposes over a base topos in terms of so-called constant objects functors from to some elementary topos. Our characterization is slightly different from the one in Pitts’s PhD Thesis (Pitts, 1981) and motivated by the fibered view of geometric morphisms as described in Streicher (2020). In particular, we discuss the question whether triposes over Set giving rise to equivalent toposes are already equivalent as triposes.

]]>We condense the theory of UTxO blockchains down to a simple and compact set of four type equations (Idealised EUTxO), and to an algebraic characterisation (abstract chunk systems), and exhibit an adjoint pair of functors between them. This gives a novel account of the essential mathematical structures underlying blockchain technology, such as Bitcoin.

]]>The local solver TD is a generic fixpoint engine which explores a given system of equations on demand. It has been successfully applied to the interprocedural analysis of procedural languages. The solver TD gains efficiency by detecting dependencies between unknowns on the fly. This algorithm has been recently extended to deal with widening and narrowing as well. In particular, it has been equipped with an automatic detection of widening and narrowing points. That version, however, is only guaranteed to terminate under two conditions: only finitely many unknowns are encountered, and all right-hand sides are monotonic. While the first condition is unavoidable, the second limits the applicability of the solver. Another limitation is that the solver maintains the current abstract values of all encountered unknowns instead of a minimal set sufficient for performing the iteration. By consuming unnecessarily much space, interprocedural analyses may not succeed on seemingly small programs. In the present paper, we therefore extend the top-down solver TD in three ways. First, we indicate how the restriction to monotonic right-hand sides can be lifted without compromising termination. We then show how the solver can be tuned to store abstract values only when their preservation is inevitable. Finally, we also show how the solver can be extended to side-effecting equation systems. Right-hand sides of these may not only provide values for the corresponding left-hand side unknowns but at the same time produce contributions to other unknowns. This practical extension has successfully been used for a seamless combination of context-sensitive analyses (e.g., of local states) with flow-insensitive analyses (e.g., of globals).

]]>Emerson and Halpern (1986, Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery33, 151–178) prove that the Computation Tree Logic (CTL) cannot express the existence of a path on which a proposition holds infinitely often (fairness for short).

The scope is widened from CTL to a general branching-time logic. A path quantifier is followed by a language with temporal descriptions. In this extended setting, the said inexpressiveness is strengthened in two aspects. First, universal path quantifiers are unrestricted. In this way, they are relieved of any temporal quantifiers such as of those in and from CTL. Second, existential path quantifiers are allowed with any countable language. Instances are the temporal quantifiers in and from CTL. By contrast, the fairness statement is an existential path quantifier with an uncountable language. Both aspects indicate that this inexpressiveness is optimal with respect to the polarity of path quantifiers and to the cardinality of their languages.

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