We report on the phenomenon of detonation synchronization and demonstrate the existence of the Arnold tongues and devil's staircases in the problem of gaseous detonation in a periodically inhomogeneous reactive medium. Universal properties of these dynamical structures – the Farey tree, fractal dimension and period-doubling bifurcations – are revealed.

Turbulent convection at low Prandtl numbers is in many aspects still terra incognita on the parameter map. One reason for this fact is that laboratory experiments on turbulent convection in this parameter regime are notoriously challenging as they require the use of opaque liquid metals. These working fluids prevent the application of typical optical imaging techniques such as particle image velocimetry. Recent experiments by Grannan et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 939, 2022, R1) shed new light on the variety of regimes in liquid metal flows which include rotating convection, magnetoconvection and rotating magnetoconvection next to the classical Rayleigh–Bénard case. More importantly, the authors manage the seamless crossover from one regime into another. They were thus able to study low-Prandtl-number convection at different levels of complexity in a single experimental set-up. Their work provides new insights into the tight connections between characteristic large-scale flow behaviours and the resulting global heat transfer magnitudes. This has implications for convection in planetary cores and stellar convection zones and connected dynamo action.

The influence of nucleation on cavitation about a sphere from inception through to supercavitation at a transcritical Reynolds number of is investigated experimentally. Two extreme free-stream nuclei populations, deplete and abundant, were investigated. Unsteady surface pressures from two sensors on opposing sides of the sphere were acquired simultaneous with high-resolution high-speed photography at cavitation numbers between 1.0 and 0.3. High-resolution spectrograms derived from these measurements reveal principally bi-modal shedding in attached and detached regimes. Correlations between unsteady pressure measurements show the high modes to be axisymmetric and low modes asymmetric. Modal topology is also discerned from the high-speed imaging. The bi-modal shedding for lower cavitation numbers is driven by coupled re-entrant jet formation and upstream shockwave propagation. The attached regime is shown to have two sub-regimes. For the abundant case, the continuous supply of activated nuclei around the sphere periphery in the first bi-modal regime has the effect of driving the high symmetric mode preferentially over the asymmetric low mode compared with the deplete case. For the first bi-modal regime, frequencies were unaffected by nucleation changes although peak responses were centred at a cavitation number of about 0.8 for the deplete and 0.825 for the abundant. For the second attached regime, where cavity lengths are of the order of the sphere size, changes in nucleation altered frequencies and amplitudes of peak unsteady pressures. For the abundant case, the continuous nuclei supply significantly reduced coherence with modal peak amplitudes reduced by an order compared with the deplete case. Continuous nuclei activation increased the probability of the high mode over the low compared with the deplete case but to a lesser extent than the first regime. Nuclei activations also significantly reduced inter-cavity and cavity durations, but not growth and collapse phases, which increased modal frequencies compared with the deplete case. The second regime asymmetric low mode topology, for both nucleation cases, is shown to be alternate shedding of oblique vortices from diametrically opposing sides of the sphere similar to low Reynolds number shedding about spheres and other axisymmetric bluff bodies in single-phase flows.

We demonstrate dynamic stabilisation of axisymmetric Fourier modes susceptible to the classical Rayleigh–Plateau (RP) instability on a liquid cylinder by subjecting it to a radial oscillatory body force. Viscosity is found to play a crucial role in this stabilisation. Linear stability predictions are obtained via Floquet analysis demonstrating that RP unstable modes can be stabilised using radial forcing. We also solve the linearised, viscous initial-value problem for free-surface deformation obtaining an equation governing the amplitude of a three-dimensional Fourier mode. This equation generalizes the Mathieu equation governing Faraday waves on a cylinder derived earlier in Patankar et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 857, 2018, pp. 80–110), is non-local in time and represents the cylindrical analogue of its Cartesian counterpart (Beyer & Friedrich, Phys. Rev. E, vol. 51, issue 2, 1995, p. 1162). The memory term in this equation is physically interpreted and it is shown that, for highly viscous fluids, its contribution can be sizeable. Predictions from the numerical solution to this equation demonstrate the predicted RP mode stabilisation and are in excellent agreement with simulations of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations (up to the simulation time of several hundred forcing cycles).

Ion and water are transported by electroconvection near permselective membranes, resulting in complex phenomena associated with the flow–fines interaction. Sheltering the flow chaos by the shear flow is a common strategy in plasma fluids and has recently been successfully applied to control ionic fluids. The paper herein reveals the critical selection of shear velocity regarding the fluid from a chaotic to a steady state through numerical and theoretical analyses. For the shear sheltering, the dimensionless Debye length with varying channel height is introduced to achieve a comprehensive discussion of the factors and laws affecting the shear vortex state. Based on an analysis of the vortex driving mechanism, the scaling of the slip velocity is recommended as the critical selection factor for the steady and chaotic state under a fixed shear flow velocity, which involves the dimensionless Debye length and voltage difference . Furthermore, for ionic fluid control by shear flow, a critical shear velocity is proposed to distinguish the electroconvective flow from a chaotic state to a steady state. When the shear flow velocity , the shear flow shelters chaos, and the scaling law is also recommended for the regulation of the critical shear flow velocity jointly by and . The analysis is confirmed by direct numerical simulation and existing experimental data (J. Fluid Mech, vol. 813, 2017, pp. 799–823). This work provides a more comprehensive physical insight for shear sheltering and affects the design of electromembrane microfluidics.

We study the dynamics of atomization of a liquid column by a coaxial gas flow with varying gas pressures. Specifically, we analyse how the gas density increase associated with elevated gas pressures in the ambient and co-flowing gas jet influences the liquid destabilization and breakup process, as well as the resulting droplet formation and dispersion. We present new experimental results for a coaxial liquid–gas atomizer operating in a high-pressure environment, with gas–liquid momentum ratio in the range and pressurized gas densities , where is the ambient gas density at standard conditions. High-speed shadowgraphy images are used to quantify the spatially and temporally varying liquid–gas interface in the spray near-field. Liquid core lengths, spreading angles and other spray metrics are presented, and the influence of gas density is identified from the comparison with atomization at atmospheric conditions. In the spray mid-field, phase Doppler interferometry is used in conjunction with laser Doppler velocimetry to quantify the droplet size and velocities, as well as their radial variations across the spray. Results show an increase in droplet size at elevated ambient pressures, when keeping the gas–liquid momentum ratio constant. Finally, we show that these observations are in line with predictions from the Kelvin–Helmholtz and Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities, both of which are relevant to the gas–liquid atomization process.

The hydrodynamic mechanism of drag reduction by a flexible hairy coating was explored using the penalty immersed boundary method. A two-dimensional flexible hairy coating is constituted by multiple flexible filaments. A simulation of a cylinder without a hairy coating at a Reynolds number of 100 was also performed for comparison. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental data by Niu & Hu (Phys. Fluids, vol. 23, 2011, 101701), where maximum drag reduction of 22% was attained at a particular length, bending rigidity, coating density and coating angle of the hairy coating. The hydrodynamic mechanism of drag reduction was characterized in terms of the wake pattern, shape deformation and kinetic energy of the hairy coating. The effect of a non-uniform bending rigidity of the hairy coating on drag reduction was explored. A stable streamline shape of the hairy coating was found to delay the vortex formation and stabilize the recirculation zone, resulting in decreased form drag. Active flapping of the hairy coating with enhanced vortex shedding is adverse to drag reduction. A hairy coating with a stiff base and flexible trailing edge is beneficial to maintaining a stable shape.

Budgets of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulent potential energy (TPE) at different scales in sheared, stably stratified turbulence are analysed using a filtering approach. Competing effects in the flow are considered, along with the physical mechanisms governing the energy fluxes between scales, and the budgets are used to analyse data from direct numerical simulation at buoyancy Reynolds number . The mean TKE exceeds the TPE by an order of magnitude at the large scales, with the difference reducing as is decreased. At larger scales, buoyancy is never observed to be positive, with buoyancy always converting TKE to TPE. As is decreased, the probability of locally convecting regions increases, though it remains small at scales down to the Ozmidov scale. The TKE and TPE fluxes between scales are both downscale on average, and their instantaneous values are correlated positively, but not strongly so, and this occurs due to the different physical mechanisms that govern these fluxes. Moreover, the contributions to these fluxes arising from the sub-grid fields are shown to be significant, in addition to the filtered scale contributions associated with the processes of strain self-amplification, vortex stretching and density gradient amplification. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the invariants of the filtered velocity gradient are considered and show that as increases, the sheared-drop shape of the PDF becomes less pronounced and the PDF becomes more symmetric about .

This paper theoretically studies the effect of eccentricity on the conditions of capillary emptying (determined by critical Bond number) in a horizontal annular tube in a downward gravity field. Experiments are conducted to compare with theoretical results. We find that non-horizontal eccentricity can lead to the occurrence of a re-entrant liquid-state transition (from liquid non-occlusion to liquid plug to liquid non-occlusion) with increasing Bond number, when the eccentricity (e) or inner-to-outer radius ratio (χ) is large enough, and the two liquid non-occlusion states correspond to different emptying mechanisms dominated by the gravity effect and the ‘wedge’ effect, respectively. Existence of the re-entrant transition is accompanied by occurrence of unconditional liquid non-occlusion at large enough or small enough contact angles regardless of Bond numbers. The critical Bond numbers at a contact angle γ for vertical upward eccentricity are equal to those at a contact angle 180° − γ for vertical downward eccentricity. In a parameter space (γ, e/(1 − χ)), the region with the re-entrant transition becomes larger with the eccentric angle varying from 0° (horizontal) to 90° (vertical). Optimization of geometrical parameters and inner and outer contact angles can lead to better effect of capillary emptying. This paper provides a very effective scheme for removing a liquid blockage from a capillary in optofluidics/microfluidics.

Wind gustiness in the marine atmospheric boundary layer affects significantly the dynamics of air–sea interaction. To understand the impacts of wind gust events, we perform large-eddy simulation of wind turbulence over a travelling wave to investigate the response of the wind field to an impulsive wind speed increase or decrease. It is found that the turbulence fluctuations and the terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget equation have a delayed response to the change in the mean flow, while the response of the wave-coherent motions is quasi-stationary. The wave-coherent motions are investigated quantitatively through comparison with a viscous curvilinear model developed by Cao et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 901, 2020, A27) and Cao & Shen (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 919, 2021, A38). We observe an asymmetric hysteresis between the growing wind and the decaying wind in the evolution of the form drag and the viscous drag. We find further that the variation of the wave growth rate during the wind gust is related closely to the contribution from the out-of-phase component of the vertical velocity. Our discoveries provide evidence for the necessity of improving non-equilibrium turbulence and wind input modelling to account for the wind gustiness effect in future studies.

This paper demonstrates experimentally that imposed periodic forcing can significantly alter the global flow characteristics of the flow over a double backward-facing step. The geometry consists of two equal height steps spaced up to eight step heights apart. A periodic zero-mass flux jet located at the first step's top corner was issued at frequencies ranging from below the step-mode instability frequency up to approximately five times the shear-layer instability frequency. Reattachment of the flow onto the first step was achieved for step separations as low as three single-step heights with imposed forcing; significantly shorter than the five single-step heights that occurred without forcing. A significant reduction in mean base pressure on the first step, and increase on the second step, occurred for low forcing frequencies. Even for large step separations, the effect of forcing on the flow persisted sufficiently far downstream to appreciably influence the development of the second recirculation zone. Importantly, previous forced single and unforced double backward-facing step flows provide reference cases to examine and discuss similarities and differences. This study offers insight into possibilities and potential outcomes of flow control for applications ranging from the drag reduction of ground vehicles such as pickup trucks, to enhanced mixing in industrial processes.

We consider as base flow the stationary vortex filament solution obtained by Castillo-Castellanos et al. (Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol. 6, 2021, 114701) in the far wake of a rotor with tip-splitting blades. The cases of a single blade and of two blades with a hub vortex are studied. In these solutions, each blade generates two closely spaced co-rotating tip vortices that form a braided helical pattern in the far wake. The long-wave stability of these solutions is analysed using the same vortex filament framework. Both the linear spectrum and the linear impulse response are considered. We demonstrate the existence of different types of instability modes. A first type corresponds to the local pairing of consecutive turns of the helical pattern, which is well described by the instability of a uniform helical vortex with a core size given by the mean separation distance of the vortices in the pair. A second type corresponds to the pairing of consecutive turns of the vortex pair and is observed only for densely braided patterns, which is well described by the instability of two interlaced helical vortices by straightening out the baseline helix. A third type of unstable modes modifies the separation distance between the vortices in each pair and amplifies specific (linear) wavelengths. These unstable modes also spread spatially with a weaker rate.

The turbulent kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate in the wake of a circular cylinder are examined at a Reynolds number of 1000. The turbulence characteristics are quantified using direct numerical simulation, which provides a comprehensive dataset that is almost impossible to acquire from physical experiments. The energy dissipation rate is decomposed into the components due to the mean flow, the coherent primary vortices and the remainder. It is found that the remainder component, which develops only in a three-dimensional turbulent wake and resides mainly in the regions of vortices, accounts for 95 % and 97 % of the total dissipation rate for 10 and 20 cylinder diameters downstream of the cylinder, respectively (while the remainder accounts for 62 % and 83 % of the total turbulent kinetic energy). Based on the remainder component, the validity of local isotropy, local axisymmetry, local homogeneity and homogeneity in the y–z plane for the turbulent dissipation in the wake is examined. The analysis reveals that the turbulent dissipation is largely locally homogeneous, but not locally isotropic or axisymmetric, even after the annihilation of the primary vortex street. In addition, the performances of the four corresponding surrogates to the true dissipation rate are evaluated. Owing to the general validity of local homogeneity, the surrogates of local homogeneity and homogeneity in the y–z plane perform well. Although local axisymmetry does not hold, the corresponding surrogate performs well, because errors from different terms largely cancel out. However, the surrogate of local isotropy generally underestimates the true dissipation rate.

The effect of a chordwise flexible aft-tail of a rigid heaving aerofoil on the dynamical transitions of the trailing-wake is studied here. The two-way coupled fluid–solid dynamics is simulated using an in-house fluid–structure interaction (FSI) platform, comprising a discrete forcing immersed boundary method based incompressible Navier–Stokes solver, weakly coupled with a finite difference method based structural solver. The FSI dynamics is studied in comparison to the corresponding rigid tail configuration. For the latter, mild jet-switching due to quasi-periodic movement of the wake vortices gives way to vigorous jet-switching as the dynamics transitions to a state of intermittency, where the quasi-periodic behaviour gets interspersed with chaotic windows. Introduction of a moderately flexible tail regularises this intermittent dynamics, eliminating jet-switching. The wake exhibits a deflected reverse Kármán pattern with fluctuating angles, governed by quasi-periodicity. With a highly flexible tail (very low rigidity), the wake shows almost a symmetric reverse Kármán street as periodicity is restored. Flexibility of the aft-tail is next controlled by changing its length, and flow is regularised and periodicity retained for moderate rigidity for increased length. Different dynamical states are established through robust nonlinear dynamical tools. The underlying flow-field behaviour, instrumental in suppressing the jet-switching phenomenon, is identified through a detailed investigation of the near-field vortex interactions dictated by the dynamics. A suite of measures has also been derived from the unsteady flow field to quantify the interactions of the key near-field vortices with a view to understanding the mechanism of switching and its subsequent suppression through flexibility.

For the Stokes number based on the Kolmogorov time scale up to , the particle subgrid stress (particle stress) in the volume-average framework is studied by comparing the fluid residual stress, the particle Smagorinsky model and the particle scale-similarity model. To obtain the numerical database of the particle-laden turbulence, two-way coupling direct numerical simulation is carried out with isotropic and anisotropic forcing conditions. As the particle stress is related to the local flow structure, which is not reflected by , a new Stokes number is introduced to extract the effect of the intensity of the fluid velocity fluctuation in the averaging volume. The degrees of agreement of the principal axes (eigenvectors) of the particle stress models to those of the fully resolved particle stress are regarded as functions of regardless of the averaging volume size. The fluid residual stress model shows the highest degree of agreement over a small range for both of the forcing cases, and similar predominance is also observed for the correlation coefficient reflecting the magnitude of the particle stress. The effects of , , the averaging volume size and the Reynolds number on the model coefficients are investigated based on the intensities of the deviatoric and isotropic parts of the fully resolved particle stress and its models. The Stokes number is found to be an essential factor to determine the model coefficients, as each effect is extracted reasonably by fixing .

Pressure fluctuations play an essential role in the transport of turbulent kinetic energy and vibrational loading. This study focuses on examining the effect of wall cooling on pressure fluctuations in compressible turbulent boundary layers by high-fidelity direct numerical simulations. Pressure fluctuations result from the vorticity mode and the acoustic mode that are both closely dependent on compressibility. To demonstrate the effects of wall cooling at various compressibility intensities, three free-stream Mach numbers are investigated, i.e. , 2.0 and 8.0, with real gas effects being absent for due to a low enthalpy inflow. Overall, opposite effects of wall cooling on pressure fluctuations are found between the subsonic/supersonic cases and the hypersonic case. Specifically, the pressure fluctuations normalized by wall shear stress are suppressed in the subsonic and supersonic cases, while enhanced in the hypersonic case near the wall. Importantly, travelling-wave-like alternating positive and negative structures (APNS), which greatly contribute to pressure fluctuations, are identified within the viscous sublayer and buffer layer in the hypersonic cases. Furthermore, generating mechanisms of pressure fluctuations are explored by extending the decomposition based on the fluctuating pressure equation to compressible turbulent boundary layers. Pressure fluctuations are decomposed into five components, in which rapid pressure, slow pressure and compressible pressure are dominant. The suppression of pressure fluctuations in the subsonic and supersonic cases is due to both rapid pressure and slow pressure being suppressed by wall cooling. In contrast, wall cooling strengthens compressible pressure for all Mach numbers, especially in the hypersonic case, resulting in increased wall pressure fluctuations. Compressible pressure plays a leading role in the hypersonic case, mainly due to the APNS. Essentially, the main effects of wall cooling can be interpreted by the suppression of the vorticity mode and the enhancement of the acoustic mode.

We report analytical solutions of a problem involving a visco-elastic solid material layer sandwiched between two fluid layers, in turn confined by two long planar walls that undergo oscillatory motion. The resulting system dynamics is rationalized, based on fluid viscosity and solid elasticity, via wave and boundary layer theory. This allows for physical interpretation of elasto-hydrodynamic coupling, potentially connecting to a broad set of biophysical phenomena and applications, from synovial joint mechanics to elastometry. Further, obtained solutions are demonstrated to be rigorous benchmarks for testing coupled incompressible fluid–hyperelastic solid and multi-phase numerical solvers, towards which we highlight challenging parameter sets. Finally, we provide an interactive online sandbox to build physical intuition, and open-source our code-base.

The fluid–structure interaction problem composed of an elongated, finite-length, flexible cylinder falling in a fluid at rest is investigated experimentally. Tomographic reconstruction of the cylinder and three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry of the surrounding fluid, based on the Shake-The-Box algorithm, are used jointly to capture both solid and fluid motions. Starting from the rectilinear vertical fall characterized by a steady wake, focus is placed on subsequent regimes involving, mainly in the horizontal direction, periodic rigid-body motions (RBM) of weak amplitude or periodic large-amplitude bending oscillations (BO). Two RBM regimes are explored: the TRA regime where the cylinder exhibits translational oscillations in a plane perpendicular to its axis, and the AZI regime in which the body displays an azimuthal oscillation around its centre. The associated unsteady wakes are composed of counter-rotating vortices bending near the body ends to connect with the adjacent vortex rows. Specific organizations of the vortical structures are uncovered, depending on the regime. In particular, in the AZI regime, they present an antisymmetrical distribution relative to the midspan point. For a sufficiently long cylinder, BO regimes emerge, resembling the structural modes of an unsupported beam. The associated wakes exhibit a cellular organization. Within each cell delimited by two deformation nodes, two counter-rotating vortex rows are shed per oscillation cycle. Flow velocity fluctuations are in phase opposition on each side of a deformation node. For both RBM and BO regimes, frequency and phase analyses of cylinder and wake behaviours, along the span, highlight the spatio-temporal synchronization of the unsteady flow and moving body.

A numerical investigation and reduced-order modelling of natural convection in a cavity with differentially heated sidewalls is discussed. The effect of conjugate boundary conditions on the cavity's heat transfer and natural flow circulation with varying aspect ratios and Rayleigh numbers is examined. Validation of the canonical differentially heated cavity reveals that a modification to the definition of the Rayleigh number (Ra) is required to reconcile the scaling (where Nu is the Nusselt number) and validity of previously proposed correlations for the heat transfer in vertical enclosures. Dynamic mode decomposition is used to uncover the underlying time-dependent flow structures and the results are compared with stability bifurcation studies in the literature. A flow mode previously associated with smaller aspect ratio cavities is identified as the unstable mode for a larger aspect ratio of 4. The effect of conjugate boundary conditions is scaled based on the ratio of the internal and external boundary layers, wherein higher external Reynolds numbers aid in the heat transfer as the Nusselt number approaches the isothermal limit. A reduced-order theoretical model is proposed to predict the Nusselt number for the conjugate boundary conditions. The performance of conjugate boundary conditions is connected to the flow stability, with the parallel-flow configuration acting in a destabilizing manner while the counterflow configuration has a stabilizing effect and results in the highest heat transfer. We also found that relatively large heat transfer can be achieved with substantially lower external actuation with intermediate aspect ratios, translating to less power in practice.

Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instability in convergent geometries (such as cylinders and spheres) plays a fundamental role in natural phenomena and engineering applications, e.g. supernova explosion and inertial confinement fusion. Convergent geometry refers to a system in which the interface converges and the fluids are compressed correspondingly. By applying a decomposition formula, the stretching or compression (S(C)) effect is separated from the perturbation growth as one of the main contributions, which is defined as the averaged velocity difference between two ends of the mixing zone. Starting from linear theories, the S(C) effect in planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries is derived as a function of geometrical convergence ratio, compression ratio and mixing width. Specifically, geometrical convergence stretches the mixing zone, while fluid compression compresses the mixing zone. Moreover, the contribution of geometrical convergence in the spherical geometry is more important than that in the cylindrical geometry. A series of cylindrical cases with high convergence ratio is simulated, and the growth of perturbations is compared with that of the corresponding planar cases. As a result, the theoretical results of the S(C) effect agree well with the numerical results. Furthermore, results show that the S(C) effect is a significant feature in convergent geometries. Therefore, the S(C) effect is an important part of the Bell–Plesset effect. The present work on the S(C) effect is important for further modelling of the mixing width of convergent RM instabilities.

Helical rotating turbulence is a chiral and anisotropic flow. The energy and helicity transfers of helical rotating turbulence are studied in this paper. First, we discuss the antisymmetry and conservation of energy and helicity transfers. There are three expressions for helicity transfers due to the commutability of differential operators. The first expression is derived here. The second expression violates antisymmetry, and the third one introduces non-physical effects. The relations of these expressions are discussed in detail, including those about the sum of all triads and partial triads, as well as those about helical wave decomposition. Through direct numerical simulations, we find that helicity can reduce inverse energy cascades. The inhibition is mainly associated with transhelical energy fluxes and the interactions of two-dimensional modes. The inverse cascades of decomposed energy fluxes are related to the two-dimensionalization. For helicity, rotation does not affect the total helicity flux but generally suppresses the decomposed helicity fluxes. Positive homochiral and negative heterochiral helicity fluxes are associated with corresponding positive anisotropic transfers. Notably, the transhelical helicity fluxes increase the amplitudes of both positive and negative helicity, which is related to the chirality polarization.

Laminar natural convection is investigated in an infinite vertical slot which has one wall with a corrugated profile, and which is subject to either a uniform or periodic heating profile. This configuration has the attractive feature that it enables a study of the effects that may be produced via the interaction of heating and topography patterns. It is found that the addition of the grooves to an isothermal plate leads to a reduction in the vertical fluid flow and an increase of the transverse heat flow. In contrast, imposing sinusoidal heating on a flat surface generates convection that appears as counter-rotating rolls but there is no net vertical flow. The combination of the two effects of corrugation together with periodic heating leads to a plethora of flow patterns involving a combination of rolls and stream tubes that carry the fluid along the slot. The details of this vertical flow are governed by a pattern interaction effect dictated by the relative positions of the heating and corrugation patterns; when hot spots of the imposed heating overlap the peaks in the grooves the net flow is upward; in contrast, when they lie over the troughs the resultant flow is downward. The interplay between the thermal and geometrical effects weakens as the wavelength of the structure is reduced. The inclusion of a sufficiently strong uniform heating also seems to wash away the pattern interaction effect.

When a charge neutral drop impacts on a flat solid substrate, a small air bubble is always trapped underneath due to the lubrication pressure coming from the viscous stress in the squeezed air film. Herein we find experimentally and numerically that the process of the air entrapment and the initial contact state of the drop with the substrate can be profoundly altered via an external electric field. In an electric field, the induced electric stresses at the bottom of the drop increase drastically right before the drop contacts the substrate, which acts against the lubrication pressure, resulting in reduced initial contact radius and air bubble size. When the external electric field reaches a critical value, the electrical stress accelerates the flow near the bottom of the drop and generates a conical tip quickly instead of a dimple, resulting in a centre contact and eliminating the air bubble entrapment. Based on the dipole mirror charge model, we find the dimensionless strength of critical electric field scales with the square root of capillary number based on the air viscosity. This scaling law of the critical electric field for eliminating the air bubble entrapment is verified experimentally and numerically. This work may offer a new way to mitigate defects caused by air bubble entrapment for inkjet printing and droplet-based additive manufacturing.

The cell cytoskeleton is a dynamic assembly of semi-flexible filaments and motor proteins. The cytoskeleton mechanics is a determining factor in many cellular processes, including cell division, cell motility and migration, mechanotransduction and intracellular transport. Mechanical properties of the cell, which are determined partly by its cytoskeleton, are also used as biomarkers for disease diagnosis and cell sorting. Experimental studies suggest that in whole cell scale, the cell cytoskeleton and its permeating cytosol may be modelled as a two-phase poro-viscoelastic (PVE) material composed of a viscoelastic (VE) network permeated by a viscous cytosol. We present the first general solution to this two-phase system in spherical coordinates, where we assume that both the fluid and network phases are in their linear response regime. Specifically, we use generalized linear incompressible and compressible VE constitutive equations to describe the stress in the fluid and network phases, respectively. We assume a constant permeability that couples the fluid and network displacements. We use these general solutions to study the motion of a rigid sphere moving under a constant force inside a two-phase system, composed of a linear elastic network and a Newtonian fluid. It is shown that the network compressibility introduces a slow relaxation of the sphere and non-monotonic network displacements with time along the direction of the applied force. Our results can be applied to particle-tracking microrheology to differentiate between PVE and VE materials, and to measure the fluid permeability as well as VE properties of the fluid and the network phases.

The structural design of the rudder, traditionally based on quasisteady loads generated during worst manoeuvres, should account for load fluctuations associated with the interaction with the wake of the propeller in order to comply with the more stringent requirements on ship vibration and noise pollution. In this context, the present work analyses the dynamic response of a marine rudder located in the wake of the INSEAN E779A propeller by the one-way fluid–structure interaction approach. The time-dependent pressure distribution on the rudder, obtained through detached eddy simulation, is used to evaluate the pressure field that is the input for a structural solver to determine the resulting deformations and stresses. The computations consider the propeller at moderate loading, and rudder deflection angles at neutral and . The analysis discusses the different contribution of the tip and hub vortex of the propeller on the static and vibratory response of the rudder in the two configurations.

In this study, we perform boundary-integral simulations to investigate the role of interfacial viscosity in the deformation and breakup of a single droplet suspended in an axisymmetric extensional flow under the Stokes flow regime. We model the insoluble surfactant monolayer using the Boussinesq–Scriven constitutive relationship for a Newtonian interface. We compare the deformation and breakup results from our boundary-element simulations with results from small deformation perturbation theories. We observe that the surface shear/dilational viscosity increases/decreases the critical capillary number beyond which the droplet becomes unstable and breaks apart by reducing/increasing the droplet deformation at a given capillary number compared with a clean droplet. We present the relative importance of surface shear and dilational viscosity on droplet stability based on their measured values reported in experimental studies on surfactants, lipid bilayers and proteins. In the second half of the paper, we incorporate the effect of surfactant transport by solving the time-dependent convection–diffusion equation and consider a nonlinear equation of state (Langmuir adsorption isotherm) to correlate the interfacial tension with the changes in surfactant concentration. We explore the coupled influence of pressure-dependent surface viscosity and Marangoni stresses on droplet deformation and breakup. In the case of a droplet with pressure-dependent surface shear viscosity, we find that a droplet with pressure-thinning/thickening surfactant is less/more deformed than a droplet with pressure-independent surfactant. We conclude by discussing the combined impact of surface viscosity and surfactant transport on the relaxation of an initially extended droplet in a quiescent external fluid.

Bragg scattering of nonlinear surface waves over a wavy bottom is studied using two-dimensional fully nonlinear numerical wave tanks (NWTs). In particular, we consider cases of high nonlinearity which lead to complex wave generation and transformations, hence possible multiple Bragg resonances. The performance of the NWTs is well verified by benchmarking experiments. Classic Bragg resonances associated with second-order triad interactions among two surface (linear incident and reflected waves) and one bottom wave components (class I), and third-order quartet interactions among three surface (linear incident and reflected waves, and second-order reflected/transmitted waves) and one bottom wave components (class III) are observed. In addition, class I Bragg resonance occurring for the second-order (rather than linear) transmitted waves, and Bragg resonance arising from quintet interactions among three surface and two bottom wave components, are newly captured. The latter is denoted class IV Bragg resonance which magnifies bottom nonlinearity. It is also found that wave reflection and transmission at class III Bragg resonance have a quadratic rather than a linear relation with the bottom slope if the bottom size increases to a certain level. The surface wave and bottom nonlinearities are found to play opposite roles in shifting the Bragg resonance conditions. Finally, the results indicate that Bragg resonances are responsible for the phenomena of beating and parasitic beating, leading to a significantly large local free surface motion in front of the depth transition.

Direct numerical simulations employing the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic constitutive model closed with Peterlin's approximation (FENE-P) are used to investigate the far-field region of turbulent planar wakes of viscoelastic fluids and to develop the theory describing these flows. The theoretical results display excellent agreement with the simulations and provide new scaling laws for the evolution of the shear layer thickness , mean velocity deficit and, for very high Deborah numbers, of the maximum polymer shear stresses and averaged polymer chain extension , where is the streamwise distance from the solid body generating the wake. The theory is able to show the existence of self-similarity for the profiles of mean velocity, mean polymer shear stress, averaged polymer chain extension and the conditions for similarity of the turbulent shear stress, and is very well supported by the numerical simulations. Similarly to the case of viscoelastic turbulent planar jets (Guimarães et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 899, 2020, p. A11), when the inlet Weissenberg and Deborah numbers are sufficiently large, turbulent viscoelastic wakes exhibit a considerable reduction of the spreading rate and of the normalised Reynolds stresses. However, for very large downstream locations the turbulent viscoelastic wake recovers the classical evolution laws observed for Newtonian turbulent planar wakes.

Recent experiments have reported a novel transition to elasto-inertial turbulence in the Taylor–Couette flow of a dilute polymer solution. Unlike previously reported transitions, this newly discovered scenario, dubbed vortex merging and splitting (VMS) transition, occurs in the centrifugally unstable regime and the mechanisms underlying it are two-dimensional: the flow becomes chaotic due to the proliferation of events where axisymmetric vortex pairs may be either created (vortex splitting) or annihilated (vortex merging). In this paper, we present direct numerical simulations, using the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin (FENE-P) constitutive equation to model the polymer dynamics, which reproduce the experimental observations with great accuracy and elucidate the reasons for the onset of this surprising dynamics. Starting from the Newtonian limit and increasing progressively the fluid's elasticity, we demonstrate that the VMS dynamics is not associated with the well-known Taylor vortices, but with a steady pattern of elastically induced axisymmetric vortex pairs known as diwhirls. The amount of angular momentum carried by these elastic vortices becomes increasingly small as the fluid's elasticity increases and it eventually reaches a marginal level. When this occurs, the diwhirls become dynamically disconnected from the rest of the system and move independently from each other in the axial direction. It is shown that vortex merging and splitting events, along with local transient chaotic dynamics, result from the interactions among diwhirls, and that this complex spatio-temporal dynamics persists even at elasticity levels twice as large as those investigated experimentally.

Large-eddy simulation was used to model turbulent atmospheric surface layer (ASL) flow over canopies composed of streamwise-aligned rows of synthetic trees of height, , and systematically arranged to quantify the response to variable streamwise spacing, , and spanwise spacing, , between adjacent trees. The response to spanwise and streamwise heterogeneity has, indeed, been the topic of a sustained research effort: the former resulting in formation of Reynolds-averaged counter-rotating secondary cells, the latter associated with the - and -type response. No study has addressed the confluence of both, and results herein show secondary flow polarity reversal across ‘critical’ values of and . For and , where is the flow depth, the counter-rotating secondary cells are aligned such that upwelling and downwelling, respectively, occurs above the elements. The streamwise spacing regulates this transition, with secondary cell reversal occurring first for the largest -type cases, as elevated turbulence production within the canopy necessitates entrainment of fluid from aloft. The results are interpreted through the lens of a benchmark prognostic closure for effective aerodynamic roughness, , where is a proportionality constant and is height root mean square. We report , the value reported over many decades for a broad range of rough surfaces, for -type cases at small , whereas the transition to -type arrangements necessitates larger . Though preliminary, results highlight the non-trivial response to variation of streamwise and spanwise spacing.

The decay of stably stratified turbulence generated by a towed rake of vertical plates is investigated by direct numerical simulations (DNS) of temporally evolving grid turbulence in a linearly stratified fluid. The Reynolds number is 5000 or 10 000 while the Froude number is between 0.1 and 6 (: towing speed; : mesh size; : kinematic viscosity; : Brunt–Väisälä frequency). The DNS results are compared with the theory of stably stratified axisymmetric Saffman turbulence. Here, the theory is extended to a viscosity-affected stratified flow regime with low buoyancy Reynolds number , and power laws are derived for the temporal variations of the horizontal velocity scale () and the horizontal and vertical integral length scales ( and ). Temporal grid turbulence initialized with the mean velocity deficit of wakes exhibits a energy spectrum at a low-wavenumber range and invariance of , which are the signatures of axisymmetric Saffman turbulence. The decay of various quantities follows the power laws predicted for low- Saffman turbulence when is sufficiently small. However, the decay of at is no longer expressed by a power law with a constant exponent. This behaviour is related to the scaling of kinetic energy dissipation rate , for which is constant during the decay for while it varies with time for . We also examine the experimental data of towed-grid experiments by Praud et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 522, 2005, pp. 1–33), which is shown to agree with the theory of low- Saffman turbulence.

Microorganisms can efficiently navigate in anisotropic complex fluids, but the precise swimming mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Their dynamics is determined by the interplay between multiple effects, including the fluid's orientation order, swimmer's undulatory gait and the finite length. Here, we extend the numerical study of the two-dimensional undulatory motions of a flexible swimmer in lyotropic liquid-crystalline polymers (LCPs) by Lin et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 921, 2021, p. A25) to the scenario of arbitrary swimming directions with respect to the nematic director. The swimmer is modelled as a nearly inextensible yet flexible fibre with imposed travelling-wave-like actuation. We investigate the orientation-dependent swimming behaviours in nematic LCPs for an infinitely long sheet (i.e. Taylor's swimming sheet model) and finite-length swimmers. We demonstrate that the swimmer must be sufficiently stiff to produce undulatory deformations to gain net motions. Moreover, a motile finite-length swimmer can reorient itself to swim parallel with the nematic director, due to a net body torque arising from the asymmetric distribution of the polymer force along the body.

When a droplet impacts a solid with a heterogeneous wettability surface, the generated asymmetric forces can manipulate the droplet, and its counterforces can also actuate the solid in theory. In this study, a water droplet impacting a movable hydrophobic substrate, which is decorated with a hydrophilic stripe and restrained by two linear dampers, is studied numerically. After preliminarily checking the effects of the solid mass and damping coefficient of linear dampers, the dynamic mechanisms of solid motion are explored by analysing the variations in the lateral force and instantaneous displacement distance of the solid. After that, the effects of the impact parameters on the solid lateral motion are mainly investigated, including the initial droplet diameter, impact velocity and offset distance between the impact point and hydrophilic stripe. On this basis, the reciprocating solid motion under successive droplet impacts is studied, and periodic motion with different amplitudes can be realized under appropriate impact conditions. The obtained results can shed some fresh insight into the potential applications of droplet–solid interactions, which are valuable for the collection and utilization of energy from natural environments.

Recent progress in the direct measurement of turbulent dissipation in the Arctic Ocean has highlighted the need for an improved parametrization of the turbulent diapycnal diffusivities of heat and salt that is suitable for application in the turbulent environment characteristic of this polar region. In support of this goal we describe herein a series of direct numerical simulations of the turbulence generated in the process of growth and breaking of Kelvin–Helmholtz billows. These simulations provide the data sets needed to serve as basis for a study of the stratified turbulent mixing processes that are expected to exist in the Arctic Ocean environment. The mixing properties of the turbulence are studied using a previously formulated procedure in which the temperature and salinity fields are sorted separately in order to enable the separation of irreversible Arctic mixing from reversible stirring processes and thus the definition of turbulent diffusivities for both heat and salt that depend solely upon irreversible mixing. These analyses allow us to demonstrate that the irreversible diapycnal diffusivities for heat and salt are both solely dependent on the buoyancy Reynolds number in the Arctic Ocean environment. These are found to be in close agreement with the functional forms inferred for these turbulent diffusivities in the previous work of Bouffard & Boegman (Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, vol. 61, 2013, pp. 14–34). Based on a detailed comparison of our simulation data with this previous empirical work, we propose an algorithm that can be used for inferring the diapycnal diffusivities from turbulent dissipation measurements in the Arctic Ocean.

Understanding flow and transport of bacteria in porous media is crucial to technologies such as bioremediation, biomineralization and enhanced oil recovery. While physicochemical bacteria filtration is well documented, recent studies showed that bacterial motility plays a key role in the transport process. Flow and transport experiments performed in microfluidic chips containing randomly placed obstacles confirmed that the distributions of non-motile bacteria stays compact, whereas for the motile strains, the distributions are characterized by both significant retention as well as fast downstream motion. For motile bacteria, the detailed microscopic study of individual bacteria trajectories reveals two salient features: (i) the emergence of an active retention process triggered by motility, (ii) enhancement of dispersion due to the exchange between fast flow channels and low flow regions in the vicinity of the solid grains. We propose a physical model based on a continuous time random walk approach. This approach accounts for bacteria dispersion via variable pore-scale flow velocities through a Markov model for equidistant particle speeds. Motility of bacteria is modelled by a two-rate trapping process that accounts for the motion towards and active trapping at the obstacles. This approach captures the forward tails observed for the distribution of bacteria displacements, and quantifies an enhanced hydrodynamic dispersion effect that originates in the combined effect of pore-scale flow variability and bacterial motility. The model reproduces the experimental observations, and predicts bacteria dispersion and transport at the macroscale.

The present work investigates the mechanical behaviour of finite-size, elastic and inertial fibres freely moving in a homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow at moderate Reynolds number. Four-way coupled, direct numerical simulations, based on a finite difference discretisation and the immersed boundary method, are performed to mutually couple the dynamics of fibres and fluid turbulence, allowing us to account for the backreaction of the dispersed phase to the carrier flow. An extensive parametric study is carried out in zero-gravity condition over the characteristic properties of the suspension, i.e. fibre's linear density (from iso-dense to denser-than-the-fluid fibres), length (from short fibres comparable with the dissipative scale to long fibres comparable with the integral scale) and bending stiffness (from highly flexible to almost rigid fibres), as well as the concentration (from dilute to non-dilute suspensions). Results reveal the existence of a robust turbulence modulation mechanism that is primarily controlled by the mass fraction of the suspension (with only a minor influence of the fibre's bending stiffness), which is characterised in detail by means of a scale-by-scale analysis in Fourier space. Despite such alteration with respect to the single-phase case due to the non-negligible backreaction, fibres experience only two possible flapping states (previously identified in the very dilute condition) while being transported and deformed by the flow. In addition, we show that the maximum curvature obeys different scaling laws that can be derived from the fibre dynamical equation. Finally, we explore the clustering and preferential alignment of fibres within the flow, highlighting the peculiar role of inertia and elasticity.