In an open channel flow, deviations to the lower topography can induce abrupt changes in the wave height, known as hydraulic jumps. This phenomenon occurs when the flow switches from subcritical to supercritical (or vice versa), and is commonly observed in rivers, flumes and weirs. Theoretical insight is typically sought through the study of reduced models such as the forced Korteweg–de Vries equation, in which previous work has predominantly focused on either stationary formulations or the initial transient behaviour caused by perturbations. In a joint theoretical and numerical study of the free-surface Euler equations, Keeler & Blyth (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 993, 2024, A9) have detected a new class of unsteady solutions to this problem. These emerge from an unstable steady solution, and feature large-amplitude time-periodic ripples emitted from a sudden decrease in the water depth forced by topography, known as a hydraulic fall.

The complex behaviours of supersonic turbulent boundary-layer flows interacting with combustion is explored through the use of direct numerical simulations. The chosen flow model is a non-premixed hydrogen–air flame ignited within a three-dimensional supersonic turbulent flat-plate boundary layer operating at a Mach number of 2.33 and a friction Reynolds number of approximately 1000. The simulation involves a finite-rate model for the hydrogen–air reaction including 9 species and 19 steps with adiabatic non-catalytic wall conditions. The inlet flow consists of preheated air in the main stream and a hydrogen film injected in proximity to the cold wall, inducing mixing and ignition in the outer layer. The specific inlet configuration leads to two successive transition stages of distinct mechanisms, with the first stage related to the mixing-layer instability and the second one to the boundary-layer instability. The excess Reynolds stresses resulting from the transition exhibit a downstream decrease, with values being lower than canonical adiabatic profiles, particularly in the outer layer. This difference is attributed to the reduced local friction Reynolds numbers, associated with the non-classical wall-normal distributions of density and viscosity. The effect of combustion on the recovery process and skin friction is analysed in comparison with a supplemented chemistry-frozen setting. Velocity–temperature and velocity–species correlations are further examined. The wall-normal profiles of turbulent Prandtl number tend to classical non-reacting values and the turbulent Schmidt number is only slightly affected by the reaction. The strong Reynolds analogy linking velocity and temperature fluctuations is found to be invalid in the outer layer due to the presence of large-scale temperature fluctuations and the inhomogeneity of hydrogen gas distribution, as revealed by a spectrum analysis. A statistical analysis of elementary reactions at varying wall-normal distances is provided, highlighting the dominance of hydrogen atom depletion in the inner region and the prevalence of water vapour production in the outer region, together contributing to the chemical heat release across the boundary layer. Turbulence–chemistry interaction is assessed through a comparison of mean turbulent and laminar chemical heat release rates, showing significant differences of up to an order of magnitude. Using a simple diagnostic tool, the modelling of fluctuations associated with hydrogen gas and two intermediate products is found to be crucial for turbulent chemistry closure.

In this note, we study the effect of viscosity gradients on the energy dissipated by the motion of microswimmers and the associated efficiency of that motion. Using spheroidal squirmer model swimmers in weak linearly varying viscosity fields, we find that efficiency depends on whether they generate propulsion from the back (pushers) or the front (pullers). Pushers are faster and more efficient when moving down gradients, but slower and less efficient moving up viscosity gradients, and the opposite is true for pullers. However, both pushers and pullers display negative viscotaxis, therefore pushers dynamically tend to the most efficient orientation, while pullers tend to the least. We also evaluate the effect of shape on power expenditure and efficiency when swimming in viscosity gradients, and find that in general, the change in both due to gradients decreases monotonically with increasing slenderness. This work shows how shape and gait play an important role in determining dynamics and efficiency in inhomogeneous environments, and demonstrating that both efficiency minimizing and maximizing stable dynamical states are possible.

In this study, the resolvent-based estimation (RBE) is further generalised to cases with arbitrarily sampled measurements in time, where the generalised RBE is denoted as GRBE in this study. Different from the RBE that constructs the transfer function at each frequency, the GRBE minimises the estimation error energy in the physical temporal domain by considering the forcing and noise statistics. The GRBE is validated by estimating the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation and turbulent channel flows with the friction Reynolds number , 547 and 934, where the results from the RBE are also included. When the measurements are temporally resolved, the estimation results of the two approaches are equivalent to each other, and both match well with the reference numerical results. For the temporally unresolved cases, the estimation errors from the GRBE are obviously lower than those from the RBE. After validation, the GRBE is applied to investigate the impacts of the abundance of the measured information, including the temporal information and sensor types, on the estimation accuracy. Compared with the mean square error (MSE) in the estimation with temporally resolved measurements, that with measurements at only one snapshot, i.e. without any temporal information, increases by approximately . On the other hand, it can effectively improve the estimation accuracy by increasing the number of sensor types. With temporally resolved measurements, the relative MSE decreases by when the sensor types increase from to , where , and p are the streamwise shear stress, spanwise shear stress and pressure at the wall. Finally, several existing forcing models are incorporated into the GRBE to investigate their performance in the linear estimation of flow state. The wall-distance-dependent model (W-model) results match well with the optimal linear estimations when the measurements are temporally unresolved. Meanwhile, with the increase of temporal information of the measurement, the estimation errors from the tested W-model and the scale-dependent model (-model) both increase, which contradicts the tendency observed in the optimal linear GRBE estimation results. Such a phenomenon highlights the importance of proper modelling of the forcing in the temporal domain for the accuracy of flow state estimation.

We perform simulations of an impulsively started, axisymmetric viscoelastic jet exiting a nozzle and entering a stagnant gas phase using the open-source code Basilisk. This code allows for efficient computations through an adaptively refined volume-of-fluid technique that can accurately capture the deformation of the liquid–gas interface. We use the FENE-P constitutive equation to describe the viscoelasticity of the liquid, and employ the log-conformation transformation, which provides stable solutions for the evolution of the conformation tensor as the jet thins down under the action of interfacial tension. For the first time, the entire jetting and breakup process of a viscoelastic fluid is simulated, including the pre-shearing flow through the nozzle, which results in an inhomogeneous initial radial stress distribution in the fluid thread that affects the subsequent breakup dynamics. The evolution of the velocity field and the elastic stresses in the nozzle are validated against analytical solutions where possible, and the early-stage dynamics of the jet evolution are compared favourably to the predictions of linear stability theory. We study the effect of the flow inside the nozzle on the thinning dynamics of the viscoelastic jet (which develops distinctive ‘beads-on-a-string’ structures) and on the spatio-temporal evolution of the polymeric stresses in order to systematically explore the dependence of the filament thinning and breakup characteristics on the initial axial momentum of the jet and the extensibility of the dissolved polymer chains.

Arrays of heaving buoy type wave energy converters (WECs) are a promising contender to harness the renewable power of ocean waves on a commercial scale but require strategies to achieve efficient capture of wave energy over broad frequency bands for economic viability. A WEC-array design is proposed for absorption over a target frequency range in the two-dimensional water wave context by spatially grading the resonant properties of WECs via linear spring–damper power take-off mechanisms. The design is based on theories for rainbow reflection and rainbow absorption, which incorporate analyses based on Bloch wave modes and pole–zero pairs in complex frequency space. In contrast to previous applications of these theories, the influence of a higher-order passband and associated pole–zero pairs are shown to influence absorption at the high-frequency end of the target interval. The theories are used to inform initialisations for optimisation algorithms, and an optimised array of only five WECs is shown to give near-perfect absorption (99 %) over the target interval. Broadband absorption is demonstrated when surge and pitch motions are released, for irregular sea states, and for incident wave packets in the time domain, where the time-domain responses are decomposed into Bloch modes to connect with the underlying theory.

Free surface flows driven by boundary undulations are observed in many biological phenomena, including the feeding and locomotion of water snails. To simulate the feeding strategy of apple snails, we develop a centimetric robotic undulator that drives a thin viscous film of liquid with the wave speed . Our experimental results demonstrate that the behaviour of the net fluid flux strongly depends on the Reynolds number . Specifically, in the limit of vanishing , we observe that varies non-monotonically with , which has been successfully rationalised by Pandey et al. (Nat. Commun., vol. 14, no. 1, 2023, p. 7735) with the lubrication model. By contrast, in the regime of finite inertia (), the fluid flux continues to increase with and completely deviates from the prediction of lubrication theory. To explain the inertia-enhanced pumping rate, we build a thin-film, two-dimensional model via the asymptotic expansion in which we linearise the effects of inertia. Our model results match the experimental data with no fitting parameters and also show the connection to the corresponding free surface shapes . Going beyond the experimental data, we derive analytical expressions of and , which allow us to decouple the effects of inertia, gravity, viscosity and surface tension on free surface pumping over a wide range of parameter space.

The buoyancy-driven motion of a deformable bubble rising near a vertical hydrophilic wall is studied numerically. We focus on moderately inertial regimes in which the bubble undergoes low-to-moderate deformations and would rise in a straight line in the absence of the wall. Three different types of near-wall motion are observed, depending on the buoyancy-to-viscous and buoyancy-to-capillary force ratios defining the Galilei () and Bond () numbers of the system, respectively. For low enough or large enough , bubbles consistently migrate away from the wall. Conversely, for large enough and low enough , they perform periodic near-wall bounces. At intermediate and , they are first attracted to the wall down to a certain critical distance, and then perform bounces with a decreasing amplitude before stabilising at this critical separation. Periodic bounces are accompanied by the shedding of a pair of streamwise vortices in the wake, the formation of which is governed by the near-wall shear resulting from the no-slip condition. These vortices provide a repulsive force that overcomes the viscous resistance of the fluid to the departing motion, making the bubble capable of returning to the region where it is attracted again to the wall. Although periodic, the shedding/regeneration cycle of these vortices is highly asymmetric with respect to the lateral bubble displacements, vortices being shed when the gap left between the bubble and the wall reaches its maximum, and reborn only when this gap comes back to its minimum.

Rayleigh–Bénard convection in a rotating spherical shell provides a simplified model for convective dynamics of planetary and stellar interiors. Over the past decades, the problem has been studied extensively via numerical simulations, but most previous simulations set the Prandtl number to unity. In this study we build more than 200 numerical models of rotating convection in a spherical shell over a wide range of (). By increasing the Rayleigh number , we characterise four different flow regimes, starting from the linear onset to multiple modes, then transitioning to the geostrophic turbulence and eventually approaching the weakly rotating regime. In the multiple modes regime, we show evidence of triadic resonances in numerical models with different , which may provide a generic mechanism for the transition from laminar to turbulence in rotating convection. We analyse scaling behaviours of the heat transfer and convective flow speeds in numerical simulations, paying particular attention to the dependence. We find that the so-called diffusion-free scaling for the heat transfer cannot reconcile all numerical models with different in the geostrophic turbulence regime. However, the characteristic flow speeds at different roughly follow a unified scaling that can be described by visco-Archimedean–Coriolis force balances, though the scaling tends to approach the Coriolis-inertial-Archimedean force balance at low . We also show that transition behaviours from rotating to non-rotating convection depend on . The transition criteria based on heat transfer and flow morphology would be rather different when , but the two criteria are consistent for cases with . Both scaling behaviours and transition behaviours suggest that the heat transfer is controlled by the boundary layers while the convective flow speeds are mainly determined by the force balance in the bulk for cases with , which is in line with recent experimental results with moderate to high . For cases with , both the heat transfer and convective velocities are approaching the inviscid dynamics in the bulk. We also briefly analysed the magnitude and scaling of zonal flows at different , showing that the zonal flow amplitude rapidly increases as decreases.

We experimentally and numerically characterize rapidly rotating radiatively driven thermal convection, beyond the sole heat transport measurements reported by Bouillaut et al. (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., vol. 118, 2021, e2105015118). Based on a suite of direct numerical simulations (DNS) and additional processing of the experimental data collected by Bouillaut et al. (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., vol. 118, 2021, e2105015118), we report the simultaneous validation of the scaling predictions of the ‘geostrophic turbulence’ regime – the diffusivity-free or ‘ultimate’ regime of rapidly rotating convection – for the heat transport and the temperature fluctuations. Following such cross-validation between DNS and laboratory experiments, we further process the numerical data to validate the ‘geostrophic turbulence’ scaling predictions for the flow velocity and horizontal scale. Radiatively driven convection thus appears as a versatile set-up for the laboratory observation of the diffusivity-free regimes of various convective flows of geophysical and/or astrophysical interest.

Melting and solidification in periodically time-modulated thermal convection are relevant for numerous natural and engineering systems, for example, glacial melting under periodic sun radiation and latent thermal energy storage under periodically pulsating heating. It is highly relevant for the estimation of melt rate and melt efficiency management. However, even the dynamics of a solid–liquid interface shape subjected to a simple sinusoidal heating has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper, we offer a better understanding of the modulation frequency dependence of the melting and solidification front. We numerically investigate periodic melting and solidification in turbulent convective flow with the solid above and the melted liquid below, and sinusoidal heating at the bottom plate with the mean temperature equal to the melting temperature. We investigate how the periodic heating can prevent the full solidification, and the resulting flow structures and the quasi-equilibrium interface height. We further study the dependence on the heating modulation frequency. As the frequency decreases, we found two distinct regimes, which are ‘partially solid’ and ‘fully solid’. In the fully solid regime, the liquid freezes completely, and the effect of the modulation is limited. In the partially solid regime, the solid partially melts, and a steady or unsteady solid–liquid interface forms depending on the frequency. The interface height can be derived based on the energy balance through the interface. In the partially solid regime, the interface height oscillates periodically, following the frequency of modulation. Here, we propose a perturbation approach that can predict the dependency of the oscillation amplitude on the modulation frequency.

We investigated the effects of two-dimensional sharp-edged rectangular bumps on Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) wave evolution using direct numerical simulation. The bump height, , ranged from 5 % to 40 % of the local displacement thickness, . Behind the bump, a recirculating flow region could be formed whose length increased nonlinearly with . The bump height effect on the TS wave, which was the dominant, scaled super-exponentially with . We also showed a substantial effect of the -based Reynolds number, . Firstly, the bump wake extended with , promoting larger TS wave growth rates. The second effect is related to proximity to the upper branch of the instability loop, accounting for the influence of the TS frequency, as well. It dictates the bump impact increases as it gets closer to transition, either by the bump moving downstream or the transition moving upstream. For a 40 % high bump, for example, changing the at the bump location from 1500 to 2000 increased by a factor of 2 ( represents a measure of a surface irregularity effect on the smooth plate N-factor). We also found that increases linearly with . Results in the subsonic regime showed that the bump impact attenuates with Mach number up to 0.7 but above it, stabilisation is surpassed by the destabilising effect caused by the recirculation lengthening. This is mostly associated with the bump wake that extends with the pressure gradient which increases substantially towards the sonic speed. This is enhanced if the surface is adiabatic rather than isothermal.

Microvortex generators (MVGs) are a promising solution to control shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SBLIs), especially in supersonic inlets. In this study, we examine the effects of a microramp vortex generator on an SBLI generated by an oblique shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer using direct numerical simulations (DNSs). Two cases, with and without the presence of a microramp, are compared in terms of their mean and unsteady flow features at free-stream Mach number equal to 2 and friction Reynolds number at the inviscid shock impingement equal to 600. The long integration period allows us to assess how microramps affect the typical low-frequency unsteadiness observed in SBLIs, and the data generated may serve as a reference for simulations of lower fidelity or reduced order models. The analysis shows that the three-dimensional microramp wake alters the interaction region dramatically, inducing a significant spanwise modulation and topology change of the separation. For example, tornado-like structures redistribute the flow in both the spanwise and wall-normal directions inside the recirculation region. The increase in momentum close to the wall by the ramp vortices effectively delays the onset of the separation and, thus, the separation length, but at the same time leads to a significant increase in the intensity of the wall-pressure fluctuations. We then characterise the mutual interaction between the arch-like vortices around the ramp wake and the SBLI. The specific spanwise vorticity shows that these vortices follow the edge of the separation and their intensity, apart from mean compressibility effects, is not affected by the shocks. The shocks, instead, are deformed in shape by the periodic impingement of the vortices, although the spectral analysis did not reveal any significant trace of their shedding frequency in the separation region. These Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices, however, may be relevant in the closure of the separation bubble. Fourier analysis also shows a constant increase, in both value and magnitude, in the low-frequency peak all along the span, suggesting that the motion of the separation shock remains coherent while being disturbed by the arch-like vortices and oscillating at a higher frequency in absolute terms.

The transient shear-induced particle migration of frictional non-Brownian suspensions is studied using particle-resolved simulations. The numerical method – the fictitious domain method – is well suited to heterogeneous flows thanks to a frame-invariant formulation of the subgrid (lubrication) corrections that does not involve the ambient flow (Orsi et al., J. Comput. Phys., vol. 474, 2023, 111823). The paper aims to give an accurate quantitative picture of the mass and momentum balance during the flow. The various assumptions and local constitutive laws that together form the suspension balance model (SBM) are thoroughly examined. To this purpose, the various quantities of interest are locally averaged in space and time, and their profile across the channel is extensively studied, with specific attention to the time evolution of the different contributions, either hydrodynamic in nature or from contact interactions, to the shear and normal stresses. The latter, together with the velocity gradient in the wall-normal direction and the volume fraction profile, yield the local constitutive laws, which are compared with their counterpart obtained in homogeneous shear flow. A fair agreement is observed except in a layering area at the boundaries and at the very centre of the channel. In addition, the main assumption of the SBM, i.e. the local relation between the hydrodynamic force on the particles and the particle flux, is meticulously investigated. The hydrodynamic force is found to be mainly a drag, except in the lower range of the probed volume fractions, where a non-drag contribution is observed.

In this paper, we numerically study the mechanism of the oscillatory flow dynamics associated with the tip vortex cavitation (TVC) over an elliptical hydrofoil section. Using our recently developed three-dimensional variational multiphase flow solver, we investigate the TVC phenomenon at Reynolds number via dynamic subgrid-scale modelling and the homogeneous mixture theory. To begin, we examine the grid resolution requirements and introduce a length scale considering both the tip vortex strength and the core radius. This length scale is then employed to non-dimensionalize the spatial resolution in the tip vortex region, the results of which serve as a basis for estimation of the required mesh resolution in large eddy simulations of TVC. We next perform simulations to analyse the dynamical modes of tip vortex cavity oscillation at different cavitation numbers, and compare them with the semi-analytical solution. The breathing mode of cavity surface oscillation is extracted from the spatial-temporal evolution of the cavity's effective radius. The temporally averaged effective radius demonstrates that the columnar cavity experiences a growth region followed by decay as it progresses away from the tip. Further examination of the characteristics of local breathing mode oscillations in the growth and decay regions indicates the alteration of the cavity's oscillatory behaviour as it travels from the growth region to the decay region, with the oscillations within the growth region being characterized by lower frequencies. For representative cavitation numbers , we find that pressure fluctuations exhibit a shift of the spectrum towards lower frequencies as the cavitation number decreases, similar to its influence on breathing mode oscillations. The results indicate the existence of correlations between the breathing mode oscillations and the pressure fluctuations. While the low-frequency pressure fluctuations are found to be correlated with the growth region, the breathing mode oscillations within the decay region are related to higher-frequency pressure fluctuations. The proposed mechanism can play an important role in developing mitigation strategies for TVC, which can reduce the underwater radiated noise by marine propellers.

In a horizontally heated melting system, where a solid substance is subject to melting by a warmer liquid beneath, the presence of solute in the liquid introduces a complex interplay between temperature and concentration dynamics. Employing a recently developed sharp interface method (Xue et al., J. Comput. Phys., vol. 491, 2023), we conduct direct numerical simulations to investigate the transient behaviour of the system across a broad range of Rayleigh numbers and solute concentrations. Our observations reveal distinct flow regimes: at low concentrations, the system resembles a temperature-driven melting problem, characterized by vortex rolls beneath the melting interface. As the solute concentration increases, a stably stratified layer emerges beneath the interface, leading to the transition from thermal convection to penetrative convection, which resembles those flow characteristics observed in the double-diffusive convection. This shift results from the competition between the stabilizing effect induced by solute concentration gradient and the destabilizing effect caused by temperature gradient. Otherwise in the diffusion regime, characterized by very high solute concentrations, the flow becomes static due to the complete suppression of convection by the stably stratified layer. This regime further exhibits two distinct patterns: ‘melting’ and ‘dissolution’. Beyond characterizing diverse flow patterns, our study conducts a quantitative analysis, examining heat/mass transfer, melting rates, and the evolution of temperature and concentration at the interface. These insights contribute to a better understanding of the intricate interplay between temperature and solute concentration during phase change, with implications for accurately estimating melting rates in binary fluid systems.

Structural damage in turbomachinery is a primary origin of aeronautic accidents, which is receiving increased attention. This study is thus focused on the aeroelastic analysis of damaged blades, including the onset of flutter and underlying mechanisms. First, a high-fidelity fluid–solid coupling system is established with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) technologies, via which the dynamic aeroelastic analysis is conducted based on static aeroelastic deformation. Second, a damaged rotor blade is parametrically modelled with variable damage levels, extents, and positions. Finally, the modal identification method of spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) is applied to observe flow details and provide physical insight into the flutter mechanism for damaged blades. Numerical analysis finds that there is a critical damage level below which the aeroelastic stability is positively improved with increasing damage level; otherwise, a significant loss of stability is induced. The damage location and extent further affect this critical damage level and the change rate crossing the threshold. The simulation with CFD/CSD finds that the high pressure near the trailing edge induced from boundary layer separation suppresses vibrations in stable conditions, but motivates vibrations during flutter, which is because of the high-pressure spread to nearing blades. SPOD modes reveal that high-frequency disturbances with large scale are primary factors inducing flutter, which is further stimulated by the high-order disturbances with small scale. This study provides a crucial foundation for the fatigue prediction for rotor blades in service and the optimisation design for high-performance turbomachinery in the near future.

We present a new derivation of the kinetic equation for weak, non-hydrostatic internal gravity wave turbulence. The equation is equivalent to the one obtained by Caillol & Zeitlin (Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, vol. 32, issue 2, 2000, pp. 81–112), but it takes a canonical form. We show that it conserves the energy without involving the resonance condition in frequency, and look for the isotropic part of the steady, scale-invariant solutions. We provide a parametrization of the resonant manifold of non-hydrostatic internal gravity wave triadic interactions. This allows us to simplify the collision integral, and to evaluate the transfer coefficients of all triadic interactions. In the hydrostatic limit, our equation is equivalent to the Hamiltonian description of Lvov & Tabak (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 87, issue 16, 2001, 168501).

The nonlinear evolution of free-stream vortical disturbances entrained in the entrance region of a circular pipe is investigated using asymptotic and numerical methods. Attention is focused on the low-frequency disturbances that induce streamwise elongated structures. A pair of vortical modes with opposite azimuthal wavenumbers is used to model the free-stream disturbances. Their amplitude is assumed to be intense enough for nonlinear interactions to occur inside the pipe. The formation and evolution of the perturbation flow are described by the nonlinear unsteady boundary-region equations in the cylindrical coordinate system, derived and solved herein for the first time. Matched asymptotic expansions are employed to construct appropriate initial conditions and the initial–boundary value problem is solved numerically by a marching procedure in the streamwise direction. Numerical results show the stabilising effect of nonlinearity on the intense algebraic growth of the disturbances and an increase of the wall-shear stress due to the nonlinear interactions. A parametric study is carried out to evince the effect of the Reynolds number, the streamwise and azimuthal wavelengths, and the radial length scale of the inlet disturbance on the nonlinear flow evolution. Elongated pipe-entrance nonlinear structures (EPENS) occupying the whole pipe cross-section are discovered. EPENS with -fold rotational symmetry comprise high-speed streaks positioned near the wall, and low-speed streaks centred around the pipe core. These distinct structures display a striking resemblance to nonlinear travelling waves found numerically and observed experimentally in fully developed pipe flow. Good agreement of our mean-flow and root mean square data with experimental measurements is obtained.

We report on the melting dynamics of frozen olive oil in quiescent water for Rayleigh numbers up to . The density difference results in an upward buoyancy-driven flow of liquid oil forming a thin film around the frozen oil. We experimentally investigate flat, cylindrical and spherical shapes and we derive theoretical expressions for the local film thickness, velocity and the local melt rate for these three canonical geometries. Our theoretical models predict the correct order of magnitude and the correct scaling as compared with our experimental findings.

When placed at the surface of a volatile liquid, a sphere of hot dense non-volatile material remains suspended until it cools sufficiently. The duration of this ‘inverse Leidenfrost’ phenomenon depends on the Nusselt number of the sphere, itself determined by flow in the film of vapour separating particle and liquid. It is shown that provided the Nusselt number is large, it can be calculated numerically using only the Laplace relation and the equations governing the thin film; patching to a solution for the outer thick film is not necessary. This method is demonstrated by using it to determine for a sphere sufficiently small that in the governing equations, the acceleration due to gravity is negligible except where multiplied by the density of the sphere. Numerical results giving as a function of a dimensionless measure of sphere weight are supplemented with analysis showing that, when the weight is of the order of the maximum supportable by surface tension alone, the film consists of a spherical bubble cap bounded by its contact rim. The solutions for these regions are coupled: although the apparent contact angle for the cap is determined within the rim, its value depends on the flow rate arriving from the cap as well as on the additional evaporation from the rim. The latter acts to reduce from the value it would otherwise have, thereby reducing the thickness of the entire cap. For the example treated here, the value of is doubled by this mechanism.

We investigate self-excited axisymmetric oscillations of a lean premixed methane–air V-flame in a laminar annular jet. The flame is anchored near the rim of the centrebody, forming an inverted cone, while the strongest vorticity is concentrated along the outer shear layer of the annular jet. Consequently, the reaction and vorticity dynamics are largely separated, except where they coalesce near the flame tip. The global eigenmodes corresponding to the linearised reacting flow equations around the steady base state are computed in an axisymmetric setting. We identify an arc branch of eigenmodes exhibiting strong oscillations at the flame tip. The associated eigenvalues are robust with respect to domain truncation and numerical discretisation, and they become destabilised as the Reynolds number increases. The frequency of the leading eigenmode is found to correspond to the Lagrangian disturbance advection time from the nozzle outlet to the flame tip. The essential role of this convective mechanism is also supported by resolvent analysis, which finds that the same flame-tip disturbance structure and frequency are optimally amplified when the flame is subjected to external white noise forcing. Strong non-modal effects in the form of pseudo-resonance are not found. Nonlinear time-resolved simulation further reveals notable hysteresis phenomena in the subcritical regime prior to instability. Hence, even when the flame is linearly stable, perturbations of sufficient amplitude can trigger limit-cycle oscillations and higher-dimensional dynamics sustained by nonlinear feedback. A Monte Carlo simulation of passive tracers in the unsteady flame suggests a nonlinear non-local instability mechanism. Notably, linear analysis of the subcritical time-averaged limit-cycle state yields eigenvalues that do not match the nonlinear periodic oscillation frequencies. This mismatch is attributed to the fundamentally nonlinear dynamics of the subcritical V-flame instability, where the dichromatic, non-local interaction between the heat release rate along the flame surface and the vortex dynamics in the jet shear layer cannot be approximated as a simple distortion of the mean flow.

We consider the two-dimensional Rayleigh–Bénard convection problem between Navier-slip fixed-temperature boundary conditions, and present a new upper bound for the Nusselt number (). The result, based on a localization principle for the Nusselt number and an interpolation bound, exploits the regularity of the flow. On one hand our method yields a shorter proof of the celebrated result of Whitehead & Doering (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 106, 2011, 244501) in the case of free-slip boundary conditions. On the other hand, its combination with a new, refined estimate for the pressure gives a substantial improvement of the interpolation bounds in Drivas et al. (Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, vol. 380, issue 2225, 2022, 20210025) for slippery boundaries. A rich description of the scaling behaviour arises from our result: depending on the magnitude of the Prandtl number () and slip length, our upper bounds indicate five possible scaling laws (where is the Rayleigh number): , , , and .

Recent studies of viscous dissipation mechanisms in impacting droplets have revealed distinct behaviours between the macroscale and nanoscale. However, the transition of these mechanisms from the macroscale to the nanoscale remains unexplored due to limited research at the microscale. This work addresses the gap using the many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) method. While the MDPD method omits specific atomic details, it retains crucial mesoscopic effects, making it suitable for investigating the impact dynamics at the microscale. Through the analysis of velocity contours within impacting droplets, the research identifies three primary contributors to viscous dissipation during spreading: boundary-layer viscous dissipation from shear flow; rim geometric head loss; and bulk viscous dissipation caused by droplet deformation. This prompts a re-evaluation of viscous dissipation mechanisms at both the macroscale and nanoscale. It reveals that the same three kinds of dissipation are present across all scales, differing only in their relative intensities at each scale. A model of the maximum spreading factor (βmax) incorporating all forms of viscous dissipation without adjustable parameters is developed to substantiate this insight. This model is validated against three distinct datasets representing the macroscale, microscale and nanoscale, encompassing a broad spectrum of Weber numbers, Ohnesorge numbers and contact angles. The satisfactory agreement between the model predictions and the data signifies a breakthrough in establishing a universal βmax model applicable across all scales. This model demonstrates the consistent nature of viscous dissipation mechanisms across different scales and underscores the importance of integrating microscale behaviours to understand macroscale and nanoscale phenomena.

We perform a detailed numerical study of modal and non-modal stability in oblique Couette–Poiseuille profiles, which are among the simplest examples of three-dimensional boundary layers. Through a comparison with the Orr–Sommerfeld operator for the aligned case, we show how an effective wall speed succinctly characterizes modal stability. Large-scale parameter sweeps reveal that the misalignment between the pressure gradient and wall motion is, in general, destabilizing. For flows that are sufficiently oblique, the instability is found to depend exclusively on the direction of wall motion and not on its speed, a conclusion supported, in part, by the perturbation energy budget and the evolution of the critical layers. Closed forms for the critical parameters in this regime are derived using a simple analysis. From a non-modal perspective, pseudoresonance is examined through the resolvent and the -pseudospectra. An analysis of the unforced initial value problem shows that the maximum energy gain is highly dependent on both the magnitude and direction of the wall velocity. However, the strongest amplification is always achieved for configurations that are only weakly skewed. Finally, the optimal perturbations appear to develop via a lift-up effect enhanced by an Orr-like mechanism, the latter driven by cross-flow shear.

Droplet clustering in sprays refers to the dynamic evolution of highly concentrated regions due to the preferential accumulation of the polydisperse droplets in the turbulent airflow entrained by the spray. In the current study, we aim to experimentally investigate the collective vaporization of the droplets in droplet clusters in an air-assisted acetone spray characterized by the Group number, . The magnitude of depends on the cluster length scale and interdroplet spacing, and it indicates the vaporization mode that may vary from the isolated mode () to external group mode (). The droplet measurements were obtained under atmospheric conditions at different axial and radial locations within the spray. Application of the Voronoi analysis to particle image velocimetry images of the spray droplets facilitated the identification and characterization of the droplet clusters, which allowed the measurement of for each cluster. The results highlighted that multiscale clustering of the evaporating droplets leads to multimode group evaporation of the clusters (characterized by a wide range of : 0.001–10). The trend of interdroplet spacing versus cluster area allowed the classification of the droplet clusters into small-scale clusters (which are of the order of the Kolmogorov length scale) and large-scale clusters (that scale with the large-scale turbulent eddies), that are found to exhibit distinct group evaporation behaviour. A theoretical model is invoked to correlate with the droplet evaporation rate for individual clusters, and some interesting observations are identified, which are explained in the paper.

We study the effects of Prandtl number and Rayleigh number in two-dimensional Rayleigh–Bénard convection without boundaries, i.e. with periodic boundary conditions. For Prandtl numbers in the range , the viscous dissipation scales as , which is based on the observation that enstrophy , and the Nusselt number tends to follow the ‘ultimate’ scaling for all values of considered. The inverse cascade of kinetic energy forms the power-law spectrum , which is close to proposed by the Bolgiano–Obukhov (BO) scaling. The potential energy flux is not constant, in contrast to one of the main assumptions underlying the BO phenomenology. So, the direct cascade of potential energy forms the power-law spectrum , which deviates from the expected . Finally, at and , we find that the dynamics is dominated by vertically oriented elevator modes that grow without bound, even at high Rayleigh numbers and with large-scale dissipation present.

Toroidal bubbles (TBs) represent cases of vortex rings with a gas–liquid interface where a gas vortex ring is encased within a liquid vortex ring, and can serve as effective media for mass conveyance, process mixing, noise reduction and reaction regulation. In this study, we carry out a systematic study on the interaction between a TB and a free surface. According to the high-speed photographic images from the experiments, we identify strong and weak interactions in terms of the normalized maximum free surface deformation . Then, we perform numerical simulations based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the OpenFOAM platform. Based on both the experimental and the numerical results, we conclude that the Froude number, , determines the main characteristics during the interaction process. The TB–free surface interaction is essentially the interaction between the liquid vortex ring enveloping the TB and the free surface, supplemented by the TB's complex behaviour. Next, we establish the scaling law of based on the energy balance condition. Based on this, we provide the critical and the slenderness of the TB, , for identifying the strong and weak interactions, and a parametric plot of the interactions in terms of and .

Craters form as the lander's exhaust interacts with the planetary surfaces. Understanding this phenomenon is imperative to ensuring safe landings. We investigate the crater morphology, where a turbulent air jet impinges on granular surfaces. To reveal the fundamental aspect of this phenomenon, systematic experiments are performed with various air-jet velocities, nozzle positions and grain properties. The resultant crater morphology is characterized by an aspect ratio. We find a universal scaling law in which the aspect ratio is scaled by a dimensionless variable consisting of the air velocity at the nozzle, the speed of sound in air, the nozzle diameter, the nozzle-tip distance from the surface, the grain diameter, the density of the grains and the density of air. The obtained scaling reveals the cross-over of the length scales governing the crater aspect ratio, providing a useful guideline for ensuring safe landings. Moreover, we report a novel drop-shaped sub-surface cratering phenomenon.

We examine the fluid flow forced by precession of a rotating cylindrical container using numerical simulations and experimental flow measurements with ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the flow field into contributions with distinct azimuthal symmetry or analytically known inertial modes and the corresponding calculation of their amplitudes. We show that the predominant fraction of the kinetic energy of the precession-driven fluid flow is contained only within a few large-scale modes. The most striking observation shown by simulations and experiments is the transition from a flow dominated by large-scale structures to a more turbulent behaviour with the small-scale fluctuations becoming increasingly important. At a fixed rotation frequency (parametrized by the Reynolds number, ) this transition occurs when a critical precession ratio is exceeded and consists of a two-stage collapse of the directly driven flow going along with a massive modification of the azimuthal circulation (the zonal flow) and the appearance of an axisymmetric double-roll mode limited to a narrow range of precession ratios. A similar behaviour is found in experiments which make it possible to follow the transition up to Reynolds numbers of . We find that the critical precession ratio decreases with rotation, initially showing a particular scaling but developing an asymptotic behaviour for which might be explained by the onset of turbulence in boundary layers.

We investigate effect of porous insert located upstream of the separation edge of a backward-facing step (BFS) in early transitional regime as a function of Reynolds number. This is an example of hydrodynamic system that is a combination of separated shear flow with large amplification potential and porous materials known for efficient flow destabilisation. Spectral analysis reveals that dynamics of BFS is dominated by spectral modes that remain globally coherent along the streamwise direction. We detect two branches of characteristic frequencies in the flow and with Hilbert transform we characterise their spatial support. For low Reynolds numbers, the dynamics of the flow is dominated by lower frequency, whereas for sufficiently large Reynolds numbers cross-over to higher frequencies is observed. Increasing permeability of the porous insert results in decrease in Reynolds number value, at which frequency cross-over occurs. By comparing normalised frequencies on each branch with local stability analysis, we attribute Kelvin–Helmholtz and Tollmien–Schlichting instabilities to upper and lower frequency branches, respectively. Finally, our results show that porous inserts enhance Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and promote transition to oscillator-type dynamics. Specifically, the amplitude of vortical (BFS) structures associated with higher-frequency branch follows Landau model prediction for all investigated porous inserts.

We derive a generalised asymptotic model for the flow of a thin fluid film over an arbitrarily parameterised non-axisymmetric curved substrate surface based on the lubrication approximation. In addition to surface tension, gravity and centrifugal force, our model incorporates the effects of the Coriolis force and disjoining pressure, together with a non-uniform initial condition, which have not been widely considered in existing literature. We use this model to investigate the impact of the Coriolis force and fingering instability on the spreading of a non-axisymmetric spin-coated film at a range of substrate angular velocities, first on a flat substrate, and then on parabolic cylinder- and saddle-shaped curved substrates. We show that, on flat substrates, the Coriolis force has a negligible impact at low angular velocities, and at high angular velocities results in a small deflection of fingers formed at the contact line against the direction of substrate rotation. On curved substrates, we demonstrate that, as the angular velocity is increased, spin-coated films transition from being dominated by gravitational drainage with no fingering to spreading and fingering in the direction with the greatest component of centrifugal force tangent to the substrate surface. For both curved substrates and all angular velocities considered, we show that the film thickness and total wetted substrate area remain similar over time to those on a flat substrate, with the key difference being the shape of the spreading droplet.

This study aims to quantify how turbulence in a channel flow mixes momentum in the mean sense. We applied the macroscopic forcing method (Mani & Park, Phys. Rev. Fluids, 2021, 054607) to direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent channel flow at using two different forcing strategies that are designed to separately assess the anisotropy and non-locality of momentum mixing. In the first strategy, the leading term of the Kramers–Moyal expansion of the eddy viscosity is quantified, revealing all 81 tensorial coefficients that essentially characterise the local-limit eddy viscosity. The results indicate the following: (1) the eddy viscosity has significant anisotropy, (2) Reynolds stresses are generated by both the mean strain rate and mean rotation rate tensors associated with the momentum field and (3) the local-limit eddy viscosity generates asymmetric Reynolds stress tensors. In the second strategy, the eddy viscosity is quantified as an integration kernel revealing the non-local influence of the mean momentum gradient at each wall-normal coordinate on all nine components of the Reynolds stresses over the channel width. Our results indicate that while the shear component of the Reynolds stress is reasonably reproduced by the local mean gradients, other components of the Reynolds stress are highly non-local. These results provide an understanding of anisotropy and non-locality requirements for closure modelling of momentum transport in attached wall-bounded turbulent flows.

We study the autophoretic motion of a spherical active particle interacting chemically and hydrodynamically with its fluctuating environment in the limit of rapid diffusion and slow viscous flow. Then, the chemical and hydrodynamic fields can be expressed in terms of integrals. The resulting boundary-domain integral equations provide a direct way of obtaining the traction on the particle, requiring the solution of linear integral equations. An exact solution for the chemical and hydrodynamic problems is obtained for a particle in an unbounded domain. For motion near boundaries, we provide corrections to the unbounded solutions in terms of chemical and hydrodynamic Green's functions, preserving the dissipative nature of autophoresis in a viscous fluid for all physical configurations. Using this, we give the fully stochastic update equations for the Brownian trajectory of an autophoretic particle in a complex environment. First, we analyse the Brownian dynamics of particles capable of complex motion in the bulk. We then introduce a chemically permeable planar surface of two immiscible liquids in the vicinity of the particle and provide explicit solutions to the chemo-hydrodynamics of this system. Finally, we study the case of an isotropically phoretic particle hovering above an interface as a function of interfacial solute permeability and viscosity contrast.

In this paper, we investigate a sink-driven three-layer flow in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. The three fluids are of different viscosities, with one fluid occupying an annulus-like domain, forming two interfaces with the other two fluids. Using a boundary integral method and a semi-implicit time stepping scheme, we alleviate the numerical stiffness in updating the interfaces and achieve spectral accuracy in space. The interaction between the two interfaces introduces novel dynamics leading to rich pattern formation phenomena, manifested by two typical events: either one of the two interfaces reaches the sink faster than the other (forming cusp-like morphology), or they come very close to each other (suggesting a possibility of interface merging). In particular, the inner interface can be wrapped by the other to have both scenarios. We find that multiple parameters contribute to the dynamics, including the width of the annular region, the location of the sink, and the mobilities of the fluids.

Understanding the generation of large-scale magnetic fields and flows in magnetohydro-dynamical (MHD) turbulence remains one of the most challenging problems in astrophysical fluid dynamics. Although much work has been done on the kinematic generation of large-scale magnetic fields by turbulence, relatively little attention has been paid to the much more difficult problem in which fields and flows interact on an equal footing. The aim is to find conditions for long-wavelength instabilities of stationary MHD states. Here, we first revisit the formal exposition of the long-wavelength linear instability theory, showing how long-wavelength perturbations are governed by four mean field tensors; we then show how these tensors may be calculated explicitly under the ‘short-sudden’ approximation for the turbulence. For MHD states with relatively little disorder, the linear theory works well: average quantities can be readily calculated, and stability to long-wavelength perturbations determined. However, for disordered basic states, linear perturbations can grow without bound and the purely linear theory, as formulated, cannot be applied. We then address the question of whether there is a linear response for sufficiently weak mean fields and flows in a dynamical (nonlinear) evolution, where perturbations are guaranteed to be bounded. As a preliminary study, we first address the nature of the response in a series of one-dimensional maps. For the full MHD problem, we show that in certain circumstances, there is a clear linear response; however, in others, mean quantities – and hence the nature of the response – can be difficult to calculate.

We discuss the applicability of quasilinear-type approximations for a turbulent system with a large range of spatial and temporal scales. We consider a paradigm fluid system of rotating convection with vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. In particular, the interaction of rotation with the horizontal temperature gradient drives a ‘thermal wind’ shear flow whose strength is controlled by the horizontal temperature gradient. Varying this parameter therefore systematically alters the ordering of the shearing time scale, the convective time scale and the correlation time scale. We demonstrate that quasilinear-type approximations work well when the shearing time scale or the correlation time scale is sufficiently short. In all cases, the generalised quasilinear approximation systematically outperforms the quasilinear approximation. We discuss the consequences for statistical theories of turbulence interacting with mean gradients.

Regular reflection (RR) to Mach reflection (MR) transitions () on long wedges in steady supersonic flows have been well studied and documented. However, in a short wedge where the wedge length is small, the transition prediction becomes really challenging owing to the interaction of the expansion fan emanating from the trailing edge of the wedge with the incident shock and the triple/reflection point. The extent of this interaction depends on the distance between the wedge trailing edge and the symmetry line (Ht). This distance is a geometric combination of the distance of the wedge leading edge from the symmetry line , the wedge angle () and the wedge length . In the present study, we used the method of characteristics to model the complete wave interactions which accurately predicted shock curvatures and the reflection configurations for all ranges of the incoming flow Mach number. In the case of short wedges, the transition criterion strongly depends on the wedge length, which can be so adjusted even to eliminate the transitions till the wedge angle reaches the no-reflection domain. Transition lines for both the detachment criterion and von Neumann criterion are also drawn to investigate the dual solution domain, and the reflection configurations were verified experimentally for the first time on short wedges. By using proper input configuration parameter (), various types of shifts in the dual solution domain for short wedges are studied and categorised into three types, namely Type I, Type II and Type III.

We present an experimental investigation aimed at understanding the effects of surface roughness on the time-mean drag coefficient () of finite-span cylinders (, ) freely rolling without slip on an inclined plane. While lubrication theory predicts an infinite drag force for ideally smooth cylinders in contact with a smooth surface, experiments yield finite drag coefficients. We propose that surface roughness introduces an effective gap () resulting in a finite drag force while allowing physical contact between the cylinder and the plane. This study combines measurements of surface roughness for both the cylinder and the plane panel to determine a total relative roughness () that can effectively describe at the point of contact. It is observed that the measured increases as decreases, aligning with predictions of lubrication theory. Furthermore, the measured approximately matches combined analytical and numerical predictions for a smooth cylinder and plane when the imposed gap is approximately equal to the mean peak roughness () for rough cylinders, and one standard deviation peak roughness () for relatively smooth cylinders. As the time-mean Reynolds number () increases, the influence of surface roughness on decreases, indicating that wake drag becomes dominant at higher . The cylinder aspect ratio () is found to have only a minor effect on . Flow visualisations are also conducted to identify critical flow transitions and these are compared with visualisations previously obtained numerically. Variations in have little effect on the cylinder wake. Instead, was observed to have a more pronounced effect on the flow structures observed. The Strouhal number () associated with the cylinder wake shedding was observed to increase with , while demonstrating little dependence on .

The measurement of lift on symmetrically shaped obstacles immersed in low Reynolds number flow is the quintessential way to signal odd viscosity. For flow past cylinders, such a lift force does not arise if incompressibility and no-slip boundary conditions are fulfilled, whereas for spheres, a lift force has been found in Stokes flow, which is valid for cases where the Reynolds numbers are negligible and convection can be ignored. When considering the role of convection at low but non-zero Reynolds numbers, two hurdles arise, the Whitehead paradox and the breaking of axial symmetry, which are overcome by the method of matched asymptotic expansions and the Lorentz reciprocal theorem, respectively. We also consider the case where axial symmetry is preserved because the translation of the sphere is aligned with the axis of chirality of odd viscosity. We find that while lift vanishes, the interplay between odd viscosity and convection gives rise to a stream-induced torque.

Consider the flow through a channel with grooved edges on one (or both) side(s). If heating is applied to the boundaries, thermal drift is the flow generated by the interaction of the groove and heating patterns. It is known that, if one side of a channel is smooth while the other is grooved, the application of heating forms a so-called ‘thermal drift engine’. Two thermal drift engines are activated if both surfaces are grooved, and these may reinforce or oppose each other. Carefully choosing these engines can lead to an intensification of the thermal drift. The interplay of two drift engines is explored using a horizontal slot with grooves that have a sinusoidal profile with a prescribed wavenumber . It is shown that the strength of the flow decreases proportional to as and proportional to as . We determine the value of corresponding to the strongest flow and characterize how the conclusions should be modified if a uniform heating component is added to the heating pattern.

Direct numerical simulations of oscillatory flow over a bed made of ripples have been performed. Two oscillatory flow forcing mechanisms have been compared: (i) a sinusoidal external pressure gradient (pressure-driven flow); and (ii) a sinusoidal velocity boundary conditions on the rippled bed (shear-driven flow). In the second case, the oscillations of the bed are such that when observed from a reference frame fixed with the bed, the free stream follows the same harmonic oscillation as in the pressure-driven case. While the outer layers have the same dynamics in the two cases, close to the bed differences are observed during the cycle, mostly because the large form drag across the ripples cannot be reproduced in the shear-driven case. A comparison against experimental data from an oscillating tray apparatus provides a relatively good agreement for the phase-averaged flow when the same forcing is considered (i.e. a shear-driven flow). The pressure-driven case has a comparable error to the shear-driven numerical results over the crest of the ripples, whereas the discrepancy is larger at the troughs. The discrepancies between the two cases are more limited for time-averaged flow quantities, such as the mean flow pattern and the time-averaged Reynolds stress distribution. This suggests that numerical or experimental shear-driven configurations may capture well the net effects of coastal transport processes (which occur in pressure-driven oscillatory flow), but care should be exercised in interpreting phase-dependent dynamics near the troughs. More work is needed to fully assess the sensitivity to the forcing mechanisms in different flow regimes.

The orientation dynamics of inertialess prolate and oblate spheroidal particles in a directly simulated spanwise-rotating turbulent channel flow has been investigated by means of an Eulerian–Lagrangian point-particle approach. The channel rotation and the particle shape were parameterized using a rotation number Ro and the aspect ratio λ, respectively. Eleven particle shapes 0.05 ≤ λ ≤ 20 and four rotation rates 0 ≤ Ro ≤ 10 have been examined. The spheroidal particles retained their almost isotropic orientation in the core region of the channel, despite the significant mean shear rate set up by the Coriolis force. Irrespective of channel rotation rate Ro, rod-like spheroids tend to align in the streamwise direction, while disk-like particles are oriented in the wall-normal direction. These trends were accentuated with increasing departure from sphericity λ = 1. The changeover from the isotropic orientation mode in the centre to the highly anisotropic near-wall orientation mode commenced further away from the suction-side wall with increasing Ro, whereas the particle orientations on the pressure side of the rotating channel remained essentially unaffected by Ro. We observed that the alignments of the fluid rotation vector with the Lagrangian stretching direction were similarly unaffected by the imposed system rotation, except that the de-alignment set in deeper into the core at high Ro. This contrasts with the well-known substantial impact of system rotation on the velocity and vorticity fields. Similarly, slender rods and flatter disks were aligned with the Lagrangian stretching and compression directions, respectively, for all Ro considered, except in the vicinity of the walls. The typical near-wall de-alignment extended considerably further away from the suction-side wall at high Ro. We conjecture that this phenomenon reflects a change in the relative importance of mean shear and small-scale turbulence caused by the Coriolis force. Preferential particle alignment with Lagrangian stretching and compression directions are known from isotropic and anisotropic turbulence in inertial reference systems. The present results demonstrate the validity of this principle also in a non-inertial system.

Flying insects exhibit remarkable capabilities in coordinating their olfactory sensory system and flapping wings during odour plume-tracking flights. While observations have indicated that their flapping wing motion can ‘sniff’ up the incoming plumes for better odour sampling range, how flapping motion impacts the odour concentration field around the antennae is unknown. Here, we reconstruct the body and wing kinematics of a forwards-flying butterfly based on high-speed images. Using an in-house computational fluid dynamics solver, we simulate the unsteady flow field and odourant transport process by solving the Navier–Stokes and odourant advection-diffusion equations. Our results show that, during flapping flight, the interaction between wing leading-edge vortices and antenna vortices strengthens the circulation of antenna vortices by over two-fold compared with cases without flapping motion, leading to a significant increase in odour intensity fluctuation along the antennae. Specifically, the interaction between the wings and antennae amplifies odour intensity fluctuations on the antennae by up to 8.4 fold. This enhancement is critical in preventing odour fatigue during odour-tracking flights. Further analysis reveals that this interaction is influenced by the inter-antennal angle. Adjusting this angle allows insects to balance between resistance to odour fatigue and the breadth of odour sampling. Narrower inter-antennal angles enhance fatigue resistance, while wider angles extend the sampling range but reduce resistance. Additionally, our findings suggest that while the flexibility of the wings and the thorax's pitching motion in butterflies do influence odour fluctuation, their impact is relatively secondary to that of the wing–antenna interaction.

Self-sustained thermoacoustic oscillations as observed in low-emission combustion- involved gas turbines and aero-engines involve complicated thermal fluid–acoustics interaction and rich nonlinear dynamics. Such pulsating oscillations are known as thermoacoustic instability. When it occurs, large-amplitude limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) of thermodynamic parameters are frequently observed. These LCOs could cause overheating, flame flashback, and even engine failures. Thus it is critical to understand and predict the generation mechanisms and nonlinear dynamics behaviours, and then develop corresponding control approaches to prevent or control the onset of such instabilities. In this work, we develop and extend the classical van der Pol oscillators by integrating a physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) algorithm with a modelled nonlinear Rijke-type thermoacoustic combustor. The theoretical Rijke tube system (with Galerkin expansion and modified King's law implemented) and a CFD simulation model are applied to provide ‘training/calibration data’ for the extended van der Pol (EVDP)-PINNs model. The optimized EVDP oscillators are confirmed to be capable of capturing the key nonlinear characteristics by comparing the transient growth behaviours of thermodynamic perturbations and LCO amplitude and frequency. Further investigations are conducted to obtain Hopf bifurcation and amplitude death (AD) characteristics. Comparison is then made to the coupled EVDP systems. Quite similar Hopf bifurcation features, but differences in regions of AD, are observed. In general, we demonstrate an applicable approach to intelligently ‘learn’ a nonlinear thermoacoustic system and to create reliable EVDP oscillator systems, which have great potential to contribute to the development and testing of control approaches, such as the coupling described in this work, which may replace costly experimental tests.

We use direct numerical simulations to study convection in rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection in horizontally confined geometries of a given aspect ratio, with the walls held at fixed temperatures. We show that this arrangement is unconditionally unstable to flow that takes the form of wall-adjacent convection rolls. For wall temperatures close to the temperatures of the upper or lower boundaries, we show that the base state undergoes a Hopf bifurcation to a state comprised of spatiotemporal oscillations – ‘wall modes’ – precessing in a retrograde direction. We study the saturated nonlinear state of these modes, and show that the velocity boundary conditions at the upper and lower boundaries are crucial to the formation and propagation of the wall modes: asymmetric velocity boundary conditions at the upper and lower boundaries can lead to prograde wall modes, while stress-free boundary conditions at both walls can lead to wall modes that have no preferred direction of propagation.

Turbulent shear flows driven by a combination of a pressure gradient and buoyancy forcing are investigated using direct numerical simulations. Specifically, we consider the set-up of a differentially heated vertical channel subject to a Poiseuille-like horizontal pressure gradient. We explore the response of the system to its three control parameters: the Grashof number , the Prandtl number , and the Reynolds number of the pressure-driven flow. From these input parameters, the relative strength of buoyancy driving to the pressure gradient can be quantified by the Richardson number . We compare the response of the mixed vertical convection configuration to that of mixed Rayleigh–Bénard convection, and find a nearly identical behaviour, including an increase in wall friction at higher , and a drop in the heat flux relative to natural convection for . This closely matched response is despite vastly different flow structures in the systems. No large-scale organisation is visible in visualisations of mixed vertical convection – an observation that is confirmed quantitatively by spectral analysis. This analysis, combined with a statistical description of the wall heat flux, highlights how moderate shear suppresses the growth of small-scale plumes and reduces the likelihood of extreme events in the local wall heat flux. Vice versa, starting from a pure shear flow, the addition of thermal driving enhances the drag due to the emission of thermal plumes.

The spatio-temporal scales, as well as a comprehensive self-sustained mechanism of the reattachment unsteadiness in shock wave/boundary layer interaction, are investigated in this study. Direct numerical simulations reveal that the reattachment unsteadiness of a Mach 7.7 laminar inflow causes over variation in wall friction and up to fluctuation in heat flux at the reattachment of the separation bubble. A statistical approach, based on the local reattachment upstream movement, is proposed to identify the spanwise and temporal scales of reattachment unsteadiness. It is found that two different types, i.e. self-induced and random processes, dominate different regions of reattachment. A self-sustained mechanism is proposed to comprehend the reattachment unsteadiness in the self-induced region. The intrinsic instability of the separation bubble transports vorticity downstream, resulting in an inhomogeneous reattachment line, which gives rise to baroclinic production of quasi-streamwise vortices. The pairing of these vortices initiates high-speed streaks and shifts the reattachment line upstream. Ultimately, viscosity dissipates the vortices, triggering instability and a new cycle of reattachment unsteadiness. The temporal scale and maximum vorticity are estimated with the self-sustained mechanism via order-of-magnitude analysis of the enstrophy. The advection speed of friction, derived from the assumption of coherent structures advecting with a Blasius-type boundary layer, aligns with the numerical findings.

Shock refraction in a gas–liquid interface is ubiquitous in nature and engineering. This study investigates the shock refraction phenomena in air–water interfaces for various inclination angles. The interface inclination angles are achieved using a tiltable vertical shock tube. The time-resolved schlieren images are compared with numerical simulations performed using the BlastFoam solver in the OpenFOAM software. The stiffened gas equation of state is used to model water in the simulations. The shock polar analysis using modified shock relations for a stiffened gas is used to elucidate the refraction patterns. A regular refraction pattern with a reflected shock wave and a bound precursor refraction with a regular reflection are observed experimentally for the first time in an air–water system. Further, a new free precursor refraction pattern with a Mach reflection is observed. The transition criteria and the corresponding boundaries for each refraction pattern are demarcated in the ()-plane. The refraction sequence and the range for various incident shock strength regimes are also identified.

Shear-induced self-diffusion is a fundamental mode of transport in granular flows. Yet its critical behaviour and dependence on the particle solid fraction are still unclear. Here, we rationalize these dependencies by performing two-dimensional pressure-imposed numerical simulations of dense non-Brownian frictional suspensions. Our results, combined with existing numerical data on inertial granular flows, show that the shear-induced diffusion coefficients of both systems can be captured by a single function of the distance to jamming. They further show that the grain diffusive behaviour is underpinned by a specific random walk process, having a constant elementary step length driven at a frequency that increases with the solid fraction. The proposed scaling laws pave the way for a better understanding of mixing processes in granular media.

We study liquid plugs in the pulmonary airways based on the two-phase axisymmetric weighted residual integral boundary-layer model of Dietze et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 894, 2020, A17), which was originally developed to study liquid films coating the inner surface of a cylindrical tube in interaction with a core gas flow. The augmented form of this model, which was never applied beyond a proof of concept, allows for the representation of liquid pseudo-plugs. Here, we demonstrate its predictive power vs experiments and direct numerical simulations, in terms of the dynamics of plug formation and the characteristics of developed liquid plugs, such as their shape, flow field, speed and length, as well as the associated wall stresses and their spatial derivatives. In particular, we show that the augmented model allows us to establish a direct continuation path from travelling-wave solutions (TWS) to travelling-plug solutions (TPS). We then apply the model to predict mucus plugs in the conducting zone of the tracheobronchial tree, based on the lung architecture model of Weibel. We proceed by numerical continuation of travelling-state solutions in terms of the airway generation, whereby we impose the wavelength of the linearly most-amplified convective instability (CI) mode or that of the absolute instability (AI) mode. We identify the critical airway generation for liquid-plug formation (TWS/TPS transition), maximum potential for wall-stress-induced epithelial cell damage and CI/AI transition, and investigate how these phenomena are affected by the main control parameters, i.e. airway orientation vs gravity, air flow rate, mucus properties and airway size.

This work experimentally investigates the flow structure around a rectangular cylinder with an aspect ratio of 2 under varying incidence angles to examine how acoustic perturbations modify and modulate the unsteady flow instabilities. In the absence of acoustic excitation, the angle of incidence is found to markedly influence the flow topology and the natural shedding pattern altering the vortex formation length and wake dynamics. With acoustic perturbations, it is observed that for incidence angles and , the masked impinging leading-edge vortex (ILEV)/trailing-edge vortex shedding (TEVS) instability modes of and become evident when their frequencies coincide with the frequencies of the acoustic perturbations (i.e. resonant condition). Both trailing-edge and leading-edge vortices were found to be modulated by the acoustic pressure cycle. These instability modes, which are naturally present under non-resonant conditions for significantly higher aspect ratios, highlight the role of incidence angle and self-excited acoustic resonance in virtually augmenting the streamwise length of the cylinder, thereby facilitating the emergence and sustenance of the ILEV/TEVS shedding pattern.

In the generalized quasilinear approximation (GQLA) (Marston et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 116, 2016, 214501), a threshold wavenumber () in the direction of translational symmetry segregates the total into large- () and small-scale () fields. While the governing equation for the large-scale field is fully nonlinear, that for the small scales is linearized with respect to the large-scale field. In addition, some nonlinear triad interactions are omitted in the GQLA. Herein, the GQLA is applied to two-dimensional planar Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC). A scale separation between the large-scale convection rolls and small-scale turbulent fluctuations is typical in RBC. The present work explores the efficacy of GQLA in capturing the scale-by-scale energy transfer processes in RBC. The initial condition for the GQLA simulations was either the statistically stationary state obtained in direct numerical simulation (DNS) or random fluctuations superimposed on the linear conductive temperature profile and . The GQLA simulations can capture the convection rolls for larger than or equal to the dominant wavenumber for thermal driving of the flow (). Additionally, the GQLA emulates the fully nonlinear dynamics for larger than or equal to the first harmonic of the convection-roll wavenumber (). In the intermediate regime with , the dynamics captured in GQLA simulations is different from the DNS. In DNS, two primary energy transfer processes dominate: (i) the energy transfer to/from the convection rolls and (ii) the scale-by-scale inverse kinetic energy and forward thermal energy cascades mediated by the convection rolls. The fully nonlinear dynamics is emulated by GQLA when these energy transfer processes are faithfully reproduced. Utilizing the framework of altering the triad interactions in GQLA, an additional intrusive calculation, including target triad interactions, is performed here to study their influence. This intrusive calculation shows that the convection rolls are not captured in GQLA for because of the exclusion of the and triad interactions in GQLA. The inclusion of these triad interactions in the intrusive calculation yields the convection rolls, and the reproduced dynamics is similar to that of the intermediate GQLA regime with .

Supersonic shear layers experience instabilities that generate significant adverse effects; in complex configurations, these instabilities have global impacts as they foster compounding complications with other independent flow features. We consider the flow near the exit of a dual-stream rectangular nozzle. The supersonic core and sonic bypass streams mix downstream of a splitter plate trailing edge (SPTE) just above an adjacent deck. We perform two-dimensional direct numerical simulations with laminar inflow conditions to parametrically explore the influence of active flow control, considering various actuation angles and locations. The goal is to alleviate the prominent tone associated with vortices shed at the SPTE; these vortices initiate an unsteady shock system that affects the entire flow field through a shock-induced separation and the downstream evolution of plume shear layers. Resolvent analysis is performed on the baseline flow. The identified optimal response guides the placement of steady-blowing actuators. Since the resolvent analysis fundamentally investigates the input–output dynamics of a system, it is also utilized to uncover actuation-induced changes in the forcing–response dynamics. Spectral analysis shows that the baseline flow fluctuating energy is concentrated in the shedding instability. Actuating at optimal angles based on location disperses this energy into various flow features; this affects the shedding itself, and the structure and unsteadiness of the shock system, and thus the response of the deck and nozzle wall boundary layers and the plume. The resolvent analysis indicates, and Navier–Stokes solutions confirm, that favourable control is obtained by either indirectly or directly mitigating the baseline instability.

Interface-resolved direct numerical simulations (DNS) of clustered settling suspensions in a periodic domain are performed to study the filtered drag force for clustered particle-laden flows. Our results show that, for the homogeneous system, the filtered drag is independent of the filter size, whereas for the clustered particle-laden flows, the averaged drag becomes smaller than the homogeneous drag at the filter size above 4 particle diameters. The drag reduction saturates at the filter size being comparable to the cluster size in the horizontal direction in our simulations. A new correlation is proposed to account for the mesoscale effect on the filtered drag force by using drift velocity and variance of the solid volume fraction, based on the modification of existing subgrid drag models for the inhomogeneous system. The existing models for the drift velocity and the variance of the solid volume fraction are assessed using our DNS data. A new model for the drift velocity and the variance of the solid volume fraction is proposed, based on the combination and modification of the previous models. All mesoscale models considered can predict well the filtered drag with comparable accuracy, and are superior to the homogeneous drag model for the clustered system. Our models with the same parameter values obtained from the large-scale system can also predict well the filtered drag for smaller computational domain sizes.

A hydrodynamic theory of premixed flame propagation within closed vessels is developed assuming the flame is much thinner than all other fluid dynamic lengths. In this limit, the flame is confined to a surface separating the unburned mixture from burned combustion products, and propagates at a speed determined from the analysis of its internal structure. Unlike freely propagating flames that propagate under nearly isobaric conditions, combustion in a closed vessel results in continuous increases in pressure, burning rate and flame temperature, and a progressive decrease in flame thickness. The flame speed is shown to depend on the voluminal stretch rate, which measures the deformation of a volume element of the flame zone, and on the rate of pressure rise. Both effects are modulated by pressure-dependent Markstein numbers that depend on heat release and mixture properties while capturing the effects of temperature-dependent transport and stoichiometry. The model applies to flames of arbitrary shape propagating in general flows, laminar or turbulent, within vessels of general configurations. The main limitation of hydrodynamic flame theories is the assumption that variations inside the flame zone due to chemistry or turbulence, which could potentially alter its internal structure, are physically unresolved. Nonetheless, the theory, deduced from physical first principles, identifies the various mechanisms involved in the combustion process as demonstrated in detailed discussions of planar flames propagating in rectangular channels and spherically expanding flames in spherical vessels. It also enables the construction of instructive models to numerically simulate the evolution of multi-dimensional and corrugated flames under confinement.