We consider Minkowski spacetime, the set of all point-events of spacetime under the relation of causal accessibility. That is, x can access y if an electromagnetic or (slower than light) mechanical signal could be sent from x to y. We use Prior’s tense language of F and P representing causal accessibility and its converse relation. We consider two versions, one where the accessibility relation is reflexive and one where it is irreflexive. In either case it has been an open problem, for decades, whether the logic is decidable or axiomatisable. We make a small step forward by proving, in each case, that the set of valid formulas over two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime is decidable and that the complexity of each problem is PSPACE-complete.

A consequence is that the temporal logic of intervals with real endpoints under either the containment relation or the strict containment relation is PSPACE-complete, the same is true if the interval accessibility relation is “each endpoint is not earlier”, or its irreflexive restriction.

We provide a temporal formula that distinguishes between three-dimensional and two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and another temporal formula that distinguishes the two-dimensional case where the underlying field is the real numbers from the case where instead we use the rational numbers.

]]>In this article we study the systems KF and VF of truth over set theory as well as related systems and compare them with the corresponding systems over arithmetic.

]]>We present a logical and algebraic description of right adjoint functors between generalized quasi-varieties, inspired by the work of McKenzie on category equivalence. This result is achieved by developing a correspondence between the concept of adjunction and a new notion of translation between relative equational consequences.

]]>It is shown that need not be solid in the sense previously introduced by the authors: it is consistent that there is no inner model with a Woodin cardinal yet there is an inner model W and a Cohen real x over W such that . However, if does not exist and is a cardinal, then is solid. We draw the conclusion that solidity is not forcing absolute in general, and that under the assumption of , the core model is contained in the solid core, previously introduced by the authors.

It is also shown, assuming does not exist, that if there is a forcing that preserves , forces that every real has a sharp, and increases , then is measurable in K.

]]>We use quasi-orders to describe the structure of C-groups. We do this by associating a quasi-order to each compatible C-relation of a group, and then give the structure of such quasi-ordered groups. We also reformulate in terms of quasi-orders some results concerning C-minimal groups given in [5].

]]>BON+ is an applicative theory and closely related to the first order parts of the standard systems of explicit mathematics. As such it is also a natural framework for abstract computations. In this article we analyze this aspect of BON+ more closely. First a point is made for introducing a new operation τN, called truncation, to obtain a natural formalization of partial recursive functions in our applicative framework. Then we introduce the operational versions of a series of notions that are all equivalent to semi-decidability in ordinary recursion theory on the natural numbers, and study their mutual relationships over BON+ with τN.

]]>We investigate two weak fragments of the double negation shift schema, which are motivated, respectively, from Spector’s consistency proof of ACA0 and from the negative translation of RCA0, as well as double negated variants of logical principles. Their interrelations over both intuitionistic arithmetic and analysis are completely solved.

]]>We investigate which filters on ω can contain towers, that is, a modulo finite descending sequence without any pseudointersection (in ). We prove the following results:

- (1)Many classical examples of nice tall filters contain no towers (in ZFC).
- (2)It is consistent that tall analytic P-filters contain towers of arbitrary regular height (simultaneously for many regular cardinals as well).
- (3)It is consistent that all towers generate nonmeager filters (this answers a question of P. Borodulin-Nadzieja and D. Chodounský), in particular (consistently) Borel filters do not contain towers.
- (4)The statement “Every ultrafilter contains towers.” is independent of ZFC (this improves an older result of K. Kunen, J. van Mill, and C. F. Mills).

Furthermore, we study many possible logical (non)implications between the existence of towers in filters, inequalities between cardinal invariants of filters ( , , , and ), and the existence of Luzin type families (of size ), that is, if is a filter then is an -Luzin family if is countable for every .

]]>This article presents a proof that Buss’s can prove the consistency of a fragment of Cook and Urquhart’s PV from which induction has been removed but substitution has been retained. This result improves Beckmann’s result, which proves the consistency of such a system without substitution in bounded arithmetic .

Our proof relies on the notion of “computation” of the terms of PV. In our work, we first prove that, in the system under consideration, if an equation is proved and either its left- or right-hand side is computed, then there is a corresponding computation for its right- or left-hand side, respectively. By carefully computing the bound of the size of the computation, the proof of this theorem inside a bounded arithmetic is obtained, from which the consistency of the system is readily proven.

This result apparently implies the separation of bounded arithmetic because Buss and Ignjatović stated that it is not possible to prove the consistency of a fragment of PV without induction but with substitution in Buss’s . However, their proof actually shows that it is not possible to prove the consistency of the system, which is obtained by the addition of propositional logic and other axioms to a system such as ours. On the other hand, the system that we have considered is strictly equational, which is a property on which our proof relies.

]]>In this article the lightface -Comprehension axiom is shown to be proof-theoretically strong even over , and we calibrate the proof-theoretic ordinals of weak fragments of the theory of positive inductive definitions over natural numbers. Conjunctions of negative and positive formulas in the transfinite induction axiom of are shown to be weak, and disjunctions are strong. Thus we draw a boundary line between predicatively reducible and impredicative fragments of .

]]>The hierarchies of C(n)-cardinals were introduced by Bagaria in [1] and were further studied and extended by the author in [18] and in [20]. The case of C(n)-extendible cardinals, and of their C(n)+-extendibility variant, is of particular interest since such cardinals have found applications in the areas of category theory, of homotopy theory, and of model theory (see [2], [3], and [4], respectively). However, the exact relation between these two notions had been left unclarified. Moreover, the question of whether the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis (GCH) can be forced while preserving C(n)-extendible cardinals (for n1) also remained open. In this note, we first establish results in the direction of exactly controlling the targets of C(n)-extendibility embeddings. As a corollary, we show that every C(n)-extendible cardinal is in fact C(n)+-extendible; this, in turn, clarifies the assumption needed in some applications obtained in [3]. At the same time, we underline the applicability of our arguments in the context of C(n)-ultrahuge cardinals as well, as these were introduced in [20]. Subsequently, we show that C(n)-extendible cardinals carry their own Laver functions, making them the first known example of C(n)-cardinals that have this desirable feature. Finally, we obtain an alternative characterization of C(n)-extendibility, which we use to answer the question regarding forcing the GCH affirmatively.

]]>We give a model of set theory based on multisets in homotopy type theory. The equality of the model is the identity type. The underlying type of iterative sets can be formulated in Martin-Löf type theory, without Higher Inductive Types (HITs), and is a sub-type of the underlying type of Aczel’s 1978 model of set theory in type theory. The Voevodsky Univalence Axiom and mere set quotients (a mild kind of HITs) are used to prove the axioms of constructive set theory for the model. We give an equivalence to the model provided in Chapter 10 of “Homotopy Type Theory” by the Univalent Foundations Program.

]]>We develop an algebraic notion of recognizability for languages of words indexed by countable linear orderings. We prove that this notion is effectively equivalent to definability in monadic second-order (MSO) logic. We also provide three logical applications. First, we establish the first known collapse result for the quantifier alternation of MSO logic over countable linear orderings. Second, we solve an open problem posed by Gurevich and Rabinovich, concerning the MSO-definability of sets of rational numbers using the reals in the background. Third, we establish the MSO-definability of the set of yields induced by an MSO-definable set of trees, confirming a conjecture posed by Bruyère, Carton, and Sénizergues.

]]>We study the complexity of the topological isomorphism relation for various classes of closed subgroups of the group of permutations of the natural numbers. We use the setting of Borel reducibility between equivalence relations on Borel spaces. For profinite, locally compact, and Roelcke precompact groups, we show that the complexity is the same as the one of countable graph isomorphism. For oligomorphic groups, we merely establish this as an upper bound.

]]>Let R be a commutative integral unital domain and L a free noncommutative Lie algebra over R. In this article we show that the ring R and its action on L are 0-interpretable in L, viewed as a ring with the standard ring language . Furthermore, if R has characteristic zero then we prove that the elementary theory of L in the standard ring language is undecidable. To do so we show that the arithmetic is 0-interpretable in L. This implies that the theory of has the independence property. These results answer some old questions on model theory of free Lie algebras.

]]>We show that any simple group of Morley rank 5 is a bad group all of whose proper definable connected subgroups are nilpotent of rank at most 2. The main result is then used to catalog the nonsoluble connected groups of Morley rank 5.

]]>Let T and U be any consistent theories of arithmetic. If T is computably enumerable, then the provability predicate of T is naturally obtained from each definition of T. The provability logic of τ relative to U is the set of all modal formulas which are provable in U under all arithmetical interpretations where □ is interpreted by . It was proved by Beklemishev based on the previous studies by Artemov, Visser, and Japaridze that every coincides with one of the logics , , , and , where α and β are subsets of ω and β is cofinite.

We prove that if U is a computably enumerable consistent extension of Peano Arithmetic and L is one of , , , and , where α is computably enumerable and β is cofinite, then there exists a definition of some extension of such that is exactly L.

]]>We explore a general method based on trees of elementary submodels in order to present highly simplified proofs to numerous results in infinite combinatorics. While countable elementary submodels have been employed in such settings already, we significantly broaden this framework by developing the corresponding technique for countably closed models of size continuum. The applications range from various theorems on paradoxical decompositions of the plane, to coloring sparse set systems, results on graph chromatic number and constructions from point-set topology. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the ease and wide applicability of this method in a form accessible to anyone with a basic background in set theory and logic.

]]>We investigate properties of trees of height ω1 and their preservation under subcomplete forcing. We show that subcomplete forcing cannot add a new branch to an ω1-tree. We introduce fragments of subcompleteness which are preserved by subcomplete forcing, and use these in order to show that certain strong forms of rigidity of Suslin trees are preserved by subcomplete forcing. Finally, we explore under what circumstances subcomplete forcing preserves Aronszajn trees of height and width ω1. We show that this is the case if CH fails, and if CH holds, then this is the case iff the bounded subcomplete forcing axiom holds. Finally, we explore the relationships between bounded forcing axioms, preservation of Aronszajn trees of height and width ω1 and generic absoluteness of -statements over first order structures of size ω1, also for other canonical classes of forcing.

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