Given two structures and on the same domain, we say that is a reduct of if all -definable relations of are -definable in . In this article the reducts of the Henson digraphs are classified. Henson digraphs are homogeneous countable digraphs that omit some set of finite tournaments. As the Henson digraphs are -categorical, determining their reducts is equivalent to determining the closed supergroups G ≤ Sym(ℕ) of their automorphism groups.

A consequence of the classification is that there are pairwise noninterdefinable Henson digraphs which have no proper nontrivial reducts. Taking their automorphisms groups gives a positive answer to a question of Macpherson that asked if there are pairwise nonconjugate maximal-closed subgroups of Sym(ℕ). By the reconstruction results of Rubin, these groups are also nonisomorphic as abstract groups.

]]>We study random relational structures that are relatively exchangeable—that is, whose distributions are invariant under the automorphisms of a reference structure . When is ultrahomogeneous and has trivial definable closure, all random structures relatively exchangeable with respect to satisfy a general Aldous–Hoover-type representation. If also satisfies the n-disjoint amalgamation property (n-DAP) for all , then relatively exchangeable structures have a more precise description whereby each component depends locally on .

]]>Using methods from computable analysis, we establish a new connection between two seemingly distant areas of logic: computable structure theory and invariant descriptive set theory. We extend several fundamental results of computable structure theory to the more general setting of topological group actions. As we will see, the usual action of on the space of structures in a given language is effective in a certain algorithmic sense that we need, and itself carries a natural computability structure (to be defined). Among other results, we give a sufficient condition for an orbit under effective -action of a computable Polish to split into infinitely many disjoint effective orbits. Our results are not only more general than the respective results in computable structure theory, but they also tend to have proofs different from (and sometimes simpler than) the previously known proofs of the respective prototype results.

]]>Supercompact extender based forcings are used to construct models with HOD cardinal structure different from those of V. In particular, a model where all regular uncountable cardinals are measurable in HOD is constructed.

]]>The shift map σ on ω* is the continuous self-map of ω* induced by the function n ↦ n + 1 on ω. Given a compact Hausdorff space X and a continuous function f : X → X, we say that (X, f) is a quotient of (ω*, σ) whenever there is a continuous surjection Q : ω*→ X such that Q ○ σ = σ ○ f.

Our main theorem states that if the weight of X is at most ℵ1, then (X, f) is a quotient of (ω*, σ), if and only if f is weakly incompressible (which means that no nontrivial open U ⊆ X has ). Under CH, this gives a complete characterization of the quotients of (ω*, σ) and implies, for example, that (ω*, σ−1) is a quotient of (ω*, σ).

In the language of topological dynamics, our theorem states that a dynamical system of weight ℵ1 is an abstract ω-limit set if and only if it is weakly incompressible.

We complement these results by proving (1) our main theorem remains true when ℵ1 is replaced by any κ < p, (2) consistently, the theorem becomes false if we replace ℵ1 by ℵ2, and (3) OCA + MA implies that (ω*, σ−1) is not a quotient of (ω*, σ).

]]>Let Msw denote the least iterable inner model with a strong cardinal above a Woodin cardinal. By [11], Msw has a fully iterable core model, , and Msw is thus the least iterable extender model which has an iterable core model with a Woodin cardinal. In V, is an iterate of Msw via its iteration strategy Σ.

We here show that Msw has a bedrock which arises from by telling a specific fragment of its own iteration strategy, which in turn is a tail of Σ. Hence Msw is a generic extension of , but the latter model is not a generic extension of any inner model properly contained in it.

These results generalize to models of the form Ms (x) for a cone of reals x, where Ms (x) denotes the least iterable inner model with a strong cardinal containing x. In particular, the least iterable inner model with a strong cardinal above two (or seven, or boundedly many) Woodin cardinals has a 2-small core model K with a Woodin cardinal and its bedrock is again of the form .

]]>This article contributes to the general program of extending techniques and ideas of effective algebra to computable metric space theory. It is well-known that relative computable categoricity (to be defined) of a computable algebraic structure is equivalent to having a c.e. Scott family with finitely many parameters (e.g., [1]). The first main result of the article extends this characterisation to computable Polish metric spaces. The second main result illustrates that just a slight change of the definitions will give us a new notion of categoricity unseen in the countable case (to be stated formally). The second result also shows that the characterisation of computably categorical closed subspaces of contained in [17] cannot be improved. The third main result extends the characterisation to not necessarily separable structures of cardinality κ using κ-computability.

]]>Ellis’ Theorem (i.e., “every compact Hausdorff right topological semigroup has an idempotent element”) is known to be proved only under the assumption of the full Axiom of Choice (AC); AC is used in the proof in the disguise of Zorn’s Lemma.

In this article, we prove that in ZF, Ellis’ Theorem follows from the Boolean Prime Ideal Theorem (BPI), and hence is strictly weaker than AC in ZF. In fact, we establish that BPI implies the formally stronger (than Ellis’ Theorem) statement “for every family of nontrivial compact Hausdorff right topological semigroups, there exists a function f with domain I such that is an idempotent of , for all ”, which in turn implies ACfin (i.e., AC for sets of nonempty finite sets).

Furthermore, we prove that in ZFA, the Axiom of Multiple Choice (MC) implies Ellis’ Theorem for abelian semigroups (i.e., “every compact Hausdorff right topological abelian semigroup has an idempotent element”) and that the strictly weaker than MC (in ZFA) principle LW (i.e., “every linearly ordered set can be well-ordered”) implies Ellis’ Theorem for linearly orderable semigroups (i.e., “every compact Hausdorff right topological linearly orderable semigroup has an idempotent element”); thus the latter formally weaker versions of Ellis’ Theorem are strictly weaker than BPI in ZFA. Yet, it is shown that no choice is required in order to prove Ellis’ Theorem for well-orderable semigroups.

We also show that each one of the (strictly weaker than AC) statements “the Tychonoff product is compact and Loeb” and (BPI for filters on ) implies “there exists a free idempotent ultrafilter on ω” (which in turn is not provable in ZF). Moreover, we prove that the latter statement does not imply (BPI for filters on ω) in ZF, hence it does not imply any of (AC for sets of nonempty sets of reals) and in ZF, either.

In addition, we prove that the statements “there exists a free ultrafilter on ω”, “there exists a free ultrafilter on ω which is not idempotent”, and “for every IP set , there exists a free ultrafilter on ω such that ” are pairwise equivalent in ZF.

]]>We prove that, in the choiceless Solovay model, every set of reals is H-Ramsey for every happy family H that also belongs to the Solovay model. This gives a new proof of Törnquist’s recent theorem that there are no infinite mad families in the Solovay model. We also investigate happy families and mad families under determinacy, applying a generic absoluteness result to prove that there are no infinite mad families under .

]]>In [G. Curi, On Tarski’s fixed point theorem. Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 143 (2015), pp. 4439–4455], a notion of abstract inductive definition is formulated to extend Aczel’s theory of inductive definitions to the setting of complete lattices. In this article, after discussing a further extension of the theory to structures of much larger size than complete lattices, as the class of all sets or the class of ordinals, a similar generalization is carried out for the theory of co-inductive definitions on a set. As a corollary, a constructive version of the general form of Tarski’s fixed point theorem is derived.

]]>In [16], the algebraico-tree-theoretic simplicity hierarchical structure of J. H. Conway’s ordered field of surreal numbers was brought to the fore and employed to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for an ordered field to be isomorphic to an initial subfield of , i.e., a subfield of that is an initial subtree of . In this sequel to [16], analogous results for ordered abelian groups and ordered domains are established which in turn are employed to characterize the convex subgroups and convex subdomains of initial subfields of that are themselves initial. It is further shown that an initial subdomain of is discrete if and only if it is a subdomain of ’s canonical integer part of omnific integers. Finally, making use of class models the results of [16] are extended by showing that the theories of nontrivial divisible ordered abelian groups and real-closed ordered fields are the sole theories of nontrivial densely ordered abelian groups and ordered fields all of whose models are isomorphic to initial subgroups and initial subfields of .

]]>We show that if there is a supercompact cardinal, then Keisler’s order is not linear. More specifically, let Tn,k be the theory of the generic n-clique free k-ary graph for any n > k ≥ 3, and let TCas be the simple nonlow theory described by Casanovas in [2]. Then we show that TCas Tn,k always, and if there is a supercompact cardinal then Tn,k TCas.

]]>Starting points of this article are fixed point axioms for set-bounded monotone Σ1 definable operators in the context of Kripke–Platek set theory . We analyze their relationship to other principles such as maximal iterations, bounded proper injections, and Σ1 subset-bounded separation. One of our main results states that in all these principles are equivalent to Σ1 separation.

]]>We show that from large cardinals it is consistent to have the tree property simultaneously at and with strong limit.

]]>We extend some recent results about bounded invariant equivalence relations and invariant subgroups of definable groups: we show that type-definability and smoothness are equivalent conditions in a wider class of relations than heretofore considered, which includes all the cases for which the equivalence was proved before.

As a by-product, we show some analogous results in purely topological context (without direct use of model theory).

]]>We prove that for every uncountable cardinal κ such that κ<κ = κ, the quasi-order of embeddability on the κ-space of κ-sized graphs Borel reduces to the embeddability on the κ-space of κ-sized torsion-free abelian groups. Then we use the same techniques to prove that the former Borel reduces to the embeddability relation on the κ-space of κ-sized R-modules, for every -cotorsion-free ring R of cardinality less than the continuum. As a consequence we get that all the previous are complete quasi-orders.

]]>Recent work of Conidis [3] shows that there is a Turing degree with nonzero effective packing dimension, but which does not contain any set of effective packing dimension 1.

This article shows the existence of such a degree below every c.e. array noncomputable degree, and hence that they occur below precisely those of the c.e. degrees which are array noncomputable.

]]>We extend the usual language of second order arithmetic to one in which we can discuss an ultrafilter over of the sets of a given model. The semantics are based on fixing a subclass of the sets in a structure for the basic language that corresponds to the intended ultrafilter. In this language we state axioms that express the notion that the subclass is an ultrafilter and additional ones that say it is idempotent or Ramsey. The axioms for idempotent ultrafilters prove, for example, Hindman’s theorem and its generalizations such as the Galvin--Glazer theorem and iterated versions of these theorems (IHT and IGG). We prove that adding these axioms to IHT produce conservative extensions of ACA0 +IHT, , ATR0, -CA0, and -CA0 for all sentences of second order arithmetic and for full Z2 for the class of sentences. We also generalize and strengthen a metamathematical result of Wang (1984) to show, for example, that any theorem ∀X∃YΘ(X,Y) provable in ACA0 or there are e,k ∈ ℕ such that ACA0 or proves that ∀X(Θ(X, Φe(J(k)(X))) where Φe is the eth Turing reduction and J(k) is the kth iterate of the Turing or Arithmetic jump, respectively. (A similar result is derived for theorems of -CA0 and the hyperjump.)

]]>We study randomness beyond -randomness and its Martin-Löf type variant, which was introduced in [16] and further studied in [3]. Here we focus on a class strictly between and that is given by the infinite time Turing machines (ITTMs) introduced by Hamkins and Kidder. The main results show that the randomness notions associated with this class have several desirable properties, which resemble those of classical random notions such as Martin-Löf randomness and randomness notions defined via effective descriptive set theory such as -randomness. For instance, mutual randoms do not share information and a version of van Lambalgen’s theorem holds.

Towards these results, we prove the following analogue to a theorem of Sacks. If a real is infinite time Turing computable relative to all reals in some given set of reals with positive Lebesgue measure, then it is already infinite time Turing computable. As a technical tool towards this result, we prove facts of independent interest about random forcing over increasing unions of admissible sets, which allow efficient proofs of some classical results about hyperarithmetic sets.

]]>Assuming three strongly compact cardinals, it is consistent that

Under the same assumption, it is consistent that

Scanlon [5] proves Ax-Kochen-Ershov type results for differential-henselian monotone valued differential fields with many constants. We show how to get rid of the condition with many constants.

]]>In a previous article, the author introduced the idea of intrinsic density—a restriction of asymptotic density to sets whose density is invariant under computable permutation. We prove that sets with well-defined intrinsic density (and particularly intrinsic density 0) exist only in Turing degrees that are either high ( ) or compute a diagonally noncomputable function. By contrast, a classic construction of an immune set in every noncomputable degree actually yields a set with intrinsic lower density 0 in every noncomputable degree.

We also show that the former result holds in the sense of reverse mathematics, in that (over RCA0) the existence of a dominating or diagonally noncomputable function is equivalent to the existence of a set with intrinsic density 0.

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