The provability logic of a theory T captures the structural behavior of formalized provability in T as provable in T itself. Like provability, one can formalize the notion of relative interpretability giving rise to interpretability logics. Where provability logics are the same for all moderately sound theories of some minimal strength, interpretability logics do show variations.

The logic IL (All) is defined as the collection of modal principles that are provable in any moderately sound theory of some minimal strength. In this article we raise the previously known lower bound of IL (All) by exhibiting two series of principles which are shown to be provable in any such theory. Moreover, we compute the collection of frame conditions for both series.

]]>We answer a question of Blass, Di Nasso, and Forti [2, 7] by proving, assuming Continuum Hypothesis or Martin’s Axiom, that (1) there exists a P-point which is not interval-to-one and (2) there exists an interval-to-one P-point which is neither quasi-selective nor weakly Ramsey.

]]>Two structures A and B are n-equivalent if Player II has a winning strategy in the n-move Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game on A and B. In earlier articles we studied n-equivalence classes of ordinals and coloured ordinals. In this article we similarly treat a class of scattered order-types, focussing on monomials and sums of monomials in ω and its reverse ω*.

]]>We examine how degrees of computably enumerable equivalence relations (ceers) under computable reduction break down into isomorphism classes. Two ceers are isomorphic if there is a computable permutation of ω which reduces one to the other. As a method of focusing on nontrivial differences in isomorphism classes, we give special attention to weakly precomplete ceers. For any degree, we consider the number of isomorphism types contained in the degree and the number of isomorphism types of weakly precomplete ceers contained in the degree. We show that the number of isomorphism types must be 1 or ω, and it is 1 if and only if the ceer is self-full and has no computable classes. On the other hand, we show that the number of isomorphism types of weakly precomplete ceers contained in the degree can be any member of . In fact, for any , there is a degree d and weakly precomplete ceers in d so that any ceer R in d is isomorphic to for some and D a ceer with domain either finite or ω comprised of finitely many computable classes. Thus, up to a trivial equivalence, the degree d splits into exactly n classes.

We conclude by answering some lingering open questions from the literature: Gao and Gerdes [11] define the collection of essentially FC ceers to be those which are reducible to a ceer all of whose classes are finite. They show that the index set of essentially FC ceers is -hard, though the definition is . We close the gap by showing that the index set is -complete. They also use index sets to show that there is a ceer all of whose classes are computable, but which is not essentially FC, and they ask for an explicit construction, which we provide.

Andrews and Sorbi [4] examined strong minimal covers of downwards-closed sets of degrees of ceers. We show that if is a uniform c.e. sequence of non universal ceers, then has infinitely many incomparable strong minimal covers, which we use to answer some open questions from [4].

Lastly, we show that there exists an infinite antichain of weakly precomplete ceers.

]]>We investigate the effects of various forcings on several forms of the Halpern– Läuchli theorem. For inaccessible κ, we show they are preserved by forcings of size less than κ. Combining this with work of Zhang in [17] yields that the polarized partition relations associated with finite products of the κ-rationals are preserved by all forcings of size less than κ over models satisfying the Halpern– Läuchli theorem at κ. We also show that the Halpern–Läuchli theorem is preserved by <κ-closed forcings assuming κ is measurable, following some observed reflection properties.

]]>We simultaneously generalize Silver’s perfect set theorem for co-analytic equivalence relations and Harrington-Marker-Shelah’s Dilworth-style perfect set theorem for Borel quasi-orders, establish the analogous theorem at the next definable cardinal, and give further generalizations under weaker definability conditions.

]]>The standard topological representation of a Boolean algebra via the clopen sets of a Stone space requires a nonconstructive choice principle, equivalent to the Boolean Prime Ideal Theorem. In this article, we describe a choice-free topological representation of Boolean algebras. This representation uses a subclass of the spectral spaces that Stone used in his representation of distributive lattices via compact open sets. It also takes advantage of Tarski’s observation that the regular open sets of any topological space form a Boolean algebra. We prove without choice principles that any Boolean algebra arises from a special spectral space X via the compact regular open sets of X; these sets may also be described as those that are both compact open in X and regular open in the upset topology of the specialization order of X, allowing one to apply to an arbitrary Boolean algebra simple reasoning about regular opens of a separative poset. Our representation is therefore a mix of Stone and Tarski, with the two connected by Vietoris: the relevant spectral spaces also arise as the hyperspace of nonempty closed sets of a Stone space endowed with the upper Vietoris topology. This connection makes clear the relation between our point-set topological approach to choice-free Stone duality, which may be called the hyperspace approach, and a point-free approach to choice-free Stone duality using Stone locales. Unlike Stone’s representation of Boolean algebras via Stone spaces, our choice-free topological representation of Boolean algebras does not show that every Boolean algebra can be represented as a field of sets; but like Stone’s representation, it provides the benefit of a topological perspective on Boolean algebras, only now without choice. In addition to representation, we establish a choice-free dual equivalence between the category of Boolean algebras with Boolean homomorphisms and a subcategory of the category of spectral spaces with spectral maps. We show how this duality can be used to prove some basic facts about Boolean algebras.

]]>Let be an ideal on ω. By cov we denote the least size of a family such that for every infinite there is for which is infinite. We say that an AD family is a MAD family restricted to if for every infinite there is such that . Let a be the least size of an infinite MAD family restricted to . We prove that If {a,cov then a , and consequently, if is tall and then a {a,cov . We use these results to prove that if c then o and that as {a,non . We also analyze the problem whether it is consistent with the negation of CH that every AD family of size ω1 can be extended to a MAD family of size ω1.

]]>We define the notion of a completely determined Borel code in reverse mathematics, and consider the principle , which states that every completely determined Borel set has the property of Baire. We show that this principle is strictly weaker than . Any ω-model of must be closed under hyperarithmetic reduction, but is not a theory of hyperarithmetic analysis. We show that whenever is the second-order part of an ω-model of , then for every , there is a such that G is -generic relative to Z.

]]>We give strengthened versions of the Herwig–Lascar and Hodkinson–Otto extension theorems for partial automorphisms of finite structures. Such strengthenings yield several combinatorial and group-theoretic consequences for homogeneous structures. For instance, we establish a coherent form of the extension property for partial automorphisms for certain Fraïssé classes. We deduce from these results that the isometry group of the rational Urysohn space, the automorphism group of the Fraïssé limit of any Fraïssé class that is the class of all -free structures (in the Herwig–Lascar sense), and the automorphism group of any free homogeneous structure over a finite relational language all contain a dense locally finite subgroup. We also show that any free homogeneous structure admits ample generics.

]]>For a set x, let be the set of all permutations of x. We prove in ZF (without the axiom of choice) several results concerning this notion, among which are the following:

(1) For all sets x such that is Dedekind infinite, and there are no finite-to-one functions from into , where denotes the set of all permutations of x which move only finitely many elements.

(2) For all sets x such that is Dedekind infinite, and there are no finite-to-one functions from into seq (x), where seq (x) denotes the set of all finite sequences of elements of x.

(3) For all infinite sets x such that there exists a permutation of x without fixed points, there are no finite-to-one functions from into x.

(4) For all sets x, .

]]>For a set x, let be the set of all permutations of x. We prove by the method of permutation models that the following statements are consistent with ZF:

(1) There is an infinite set x such that , where is the power set of x, seq (x) is the set of all finite sequences of elements of x, and seq1-1 (x) is the set of all finite sequences of elements of x without repetition.

(2) There is a Dedekind infinite set x such that and such that there exists a surjection from x onto .

(3) There is an infinite set x such that there is a finite-to-one function from into x.

]]>We investigate the strength of a randomness notion as a set-existence principle in second-order arithmetic: for each Z there is an X that is -random relative to Z. We show that the equivalence between 2-randomness and being infinitely often C-incompressible is provable in . We verify that proves the basic implications among randomness notions: 2-random weakly 2-random Martin-Löf random computably random Schnorr random. Also, over the existence of computable randoms is equivalent to the existence of Schnorr randoms. We show that the existence of balanced randoms is equivalent to the existence of Martin-Löf randoms, and we describe a sense in which this result is nearly optimal.

]]>We prove that the Wadge order on the Borel subsets of the Scott domain is not a well-quasi-order, and that this feature even occurs among the sets of Borel rank at most 2. For this purpose, a specific class of countable 2-colored posets equipped with the order induced by homomorphisms is embedded into the Wadge order on the -degrees of the Scott domain. We then show that admits both infinite strictly decreasing chains and infinite antichains with respect to this notion of comparison, which therefore transfers to the Wadge order on the -degrees of the Scott domain.

]]>Let L be a computable vocabulary, let XL be the space of L-structures with universe ω and let be a hyperarithmetic function such that for all , if then . One of the following two properties must hold. (1) The Scott rank of f (0) is . (2) For all .

]]>We determine the consistency strength of determinacy for projective games of length ω2. Our main theorem is that -determinacy for games of length ω2 implies the existence of a model of set theory with ω + n Woodin cardinals. In a first step, we show that this hypothesis implies that there is a countable set of reals A such that Mn (A), the canonical inner model for n Woodin cardinals constructed over A, satisfies and the Axiom of Determinacy. Then we argue how to obtain a model with ω + n Woodin cardinal from this.

We also show how the proof can be adapted to investigate the consistency strength of determinacy for games of length ω2 with payoff in or with σ-projective payoff.

]]>Let be any of the three canonical truth theories CT− (compositional truth without extra induction), FS− (Friedman–Sheard truth without extra induction), or KF− (Kripke–Feferman truth without extra induction), where the base theory of is PA (Peano arithmetic). We establish the following theorem, which implies that has no more than polynomial speed-up over PA.

Theorem. is feasibly reducible to PA, in the sense that there is a polynomial time computable function f such that for every -proof π of an arithmetical sentence ϕ, f (π) is a PA-proof of ϕ.

]]>In this note, we construct a distal expansion for the structure , where is a dense -vector space basis of (a so-called Hamel basis). Our construction is also an expansion of the dense pair and has full quantifier elimination in a natural language.

]]>In set theory without the Axiom of Choice, we consider Ingleton’s axiom which is the ultrametric counterpart of the Hahn–Banach axiom. We show that in ZFA, i.e., in the set theory without the Axiom of Choice weakened to allow “atoms,” Ingleton’s axiom does not imply the Axiom of Choice (this solves in ZFA a question raised by van Rooij, [27]). We also prove that in ZFA, the “multiple choice” axiom implies the Krein–Milman axiom. We deduce that, in ZFA, the conjunction of the Hahn–Banach, Ingleton and Krein–Milman axioms does not imply the Axiom of Choice.

]]>Duparc introduced a two-player game for a function f between zero-dimensional Polish spaces in which Player II has a winning strategy iff f is of Baire class 1. We generalize this result by defining a game for an arbitrary function f : X → Y between arbitrary Polish spaces such that Player II has a winning strategy in this game iff f is of Baire class 1. Using the strategy of Player II, we reprove a result concerning first return recoverable functions.

]]>In the first part of the article, we show that if are cardinals, , and λ is weakly compact, then in the tree property at is indestructible under all -cc forcing notions which live in , where is the Cohen forcing for adding λ-many subsets of κ and is the standard Mitchell forcing for obtaining the tree property at . This result has direct applications to Prikry-type forcing notions and generalized cardinal invariants. In the second part, we assume that λ is supercompact and generalize the construction and obtain a model , a generic extension of V, in which the tree property at is indestructible under all -cc forcing notions living in , and in addition under all forcing notions living in which are -closed and “liftable” in a prescribed sense (such as -directed closed forcings or well-met forcings which are -closed with the greatest lower bounds).

]]>We prove that the continuous function that is defined via for all is differentiable exactly at the Martin-Löf random reals with the derivative having value 0; that it is nowhere monotonic; and that is a left-c.e. -complete real having effective Hausdorff dimension .

We further investigate the algorithmic properties of . For example, we show that the maximal value of must be random, the minimal value must be Turing complete, and that for every X. We also obtain some machine-dependent results, including that for every , there is a universal machine V such that maps every real X having effective Hausdorff dimension greater than ε to a real of effective Hausdorff dimension 0 with the property that ; and that there is a real X and a universal machine V such that is rational.

]]>We show that arithmetical transfinite recursion is equivalent to a suitable formalization of the following: For every ordinal α there exists an ordinal β such that (ordinal arithmetic) admits an almost order preserving collapse into β. Arithmetical comprehension is equivalent to a statement of the same form, with at the place of . We will also characterize the principles that any set is contained in a countable coded ω-model of arithmetical transfinite recursion and arithmetical comprehension, respectively.

]]>We show that there is a minimal pair in the nonuniform generic degrees, and hence also in the uniform generic degrees. This fact contrasts with Igusa’s result that there are no minimal pairs for relative generic computability and answers a basic structural question mentioned in several papers in the area.

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