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Identifying risk factors of individuals in a clinical-high-risk state for psychosis are vital to prevention and early intervention efforts. Among prodromal abnormalities, cognitive functioning has shown intermediate levels of impairment in CHR relative to first-episode psychosis and healthy controls, highlighting a potential role as a risk factor for transition to psychosis and other negative clinical outcomes. The current study used the AX-CPT, a brief 15-min computerized task, to determine whether cognitive control impairments in CHR at baseline could predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up.
Baseline AX-CPT data were obtained from 117 CHR individuals participating in two studies, the Early Detection, Intervention, and Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP) and the Understanding Early Psychosis Programs (EP) and used to predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 19 individuals converted to a first episode of psychosis (CHR-C), 52 remitted (CHR-R), and 46 had persistent sub-threshold symptoms (CHR-P). Binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression were used to test prediction models.
Baseline AX-CPT performance (d-prime context) was less impaired in CHR-R compared to CHR-P and CHR-C patient groups. AX-CPT predictive validity was robust (0.723) for discriminating converters v. non-converters, and even greater (0.771) when predicting CHR three subgroups.
These longitudinal outcome data indicate that cognitive control deficits as measured by AX-CPT d-prime context are a strong predictor of clinical outcome in CHR individuals. The AX-CPT is brief, easily implemented and cost-effective measure that may be valuable for large-scale prediction efforts.
Herd immunity, a concept normally applied in vaccinated populations, is a preventative measure to determine if a significant portion of a population can protect vulnerable individuals against a certain disease. Like vaccines, tourniquet education can be a form of herd immunity to protect vulnerable individuals in a population and prevent the loss of life from a peripheral hemorrhage. The authors have identified a deficiency in simple, quick, and effective hemorrhage control education. Therefore, to maximize herd immunity, the novel educational platform evaluates the efficacy of “Just-in-Time” (JiT) tourniquet application training.
The authors hypothesize that the utilization of JiT training will be effective in promoting both competence and confidence for individuals to utilize tourniquets in response to a disaster environment.
This Institutional Review Board-approved study recruited medical students who were trained in hemorrhage control measures at a Level 1 Trauma Center. Tourniquet training sessions were held, and naïve civilians received tourniquet education. The subjects received a five- to ten-minute lesson on indications, contraindications, and application techniques of commercial and improvisational tourniquets. Participants subsequently applied a tourniquet to an instructor’s arm to demonstrate proper tourniquet application for a brachial artery hemorrhage. Pre- and post-educational surveys were completed to test participant competency and confidence.
Of the 104 subjects who completed the course, 97 had no prior training in hemorrhage control techniques, including commercial and improvisational tourniquet application. The mean pre-test score was 2.27/5.00 and the mean post-test score was 4.38/5.00, P <.001 (n = 97). When queried “How competent would you feel applying a tourniquet (commercial or improvisational) on an individual with a bleeding wound?” 92/97 felt confident (95%), one felt less confident, and four felt no difference in confidence levels (P <.001).
Just-in-Time training is an effective method in teaching naïve civilians proper tourniquet application. This platform could serve as an alternative to more extensive training programs and requires less time, costs, and resources. If a significant number of individuals in a local community can effectively apply a tourniquet in a disaster scenario, a “herd immunity” effect could be achieved to control peripheral hemorrhages.
This paper empirically tests bellicist theories of state building in the East Asian context, paying attention to the interplay between external threats and internal challenges and their implications for these states’ extractive power. How much variation in state building in the region can be attributed to war and war preparation as a result of both external threats and internal challenges? In particular, it provides more fine-grained analysis on the different types of internal challenges and their impact on state capacity building. The article argues that in the East Asia region, both external threats and internal challenges are crucial to explaining the variation in state capacity across the region. However, we also find that different types of internal challenges have different effects. Particularly, communist insurgencies seem to have both an immediate and long-term positive effect in compelling the state to respond with more extraction to engage in state-building efforts.
A common strategy for managing emergency department (ED) patients with low-risk abdominal pain is to discharge them home and arrange for next day outpatient ultrasound for further assessment. The objective was to determine the proportion of outpatient ultrasounds with findings requiring intervention within 14 days.
This was a retrospective chart review of non-pregnant patients ages 18 to 40 years, presenting to an academic ED (annual census 65,000) with an abdominal complaint for whom the emergency physician arranged an outpatient (next day) abdominal ultrasound.
Of the 299 included patients, 252 (84.3%) were female and mean (SD) age was 28.4 (6.0) years. Twenty-three (7.7%) patients had ultrasounds requiring intervention within 14 days of imaging. Of these, eight (34.8%) had appendicitis, five (21.7%) had cholecystitis, four (17.4%) had urological pathology, three (13.0%) had gynecological pathology, and three (13.0%) had gastrointestinal diagnoses. Of note, 14 (60.9%) patients requiring follow-up or intervention within 14 days had symptoms that improved or resolved at the time of the outpatient ultrasound. For the 277 (92.6%) patients not requiring intervention, 117 (42.2%) had improved, 89 (32.1%) were unchanged, 50 (18.1%) had resolved, and 5 (1.8%) had worsened symptoms at the time of the follow-up ultrasound. Of the non-intervention patients, 13 (4.7%) went on to have alternative imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and a sonohysterogram.
Next-day ultrasound imaging remains a good way of identifying patients with serious pathology not appreciated at the time of their ED visit.
The unsteady lift response of an airfoil in a sinusoidal gust has in the past been modelled by two different transfer functions: the first-order Sears function and the second-order Atassi function. Previous studies have shown that the Sears function holds in experiments, but recently Cordes et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 811, 2017) reported experimental data that corresponded to the Atassi function rather than the Sears function. In order to clarify the observed discrepancy, the specific differences between these models are isolated analytically. To this end, data and analysis are confined to unloaded airfoils. These differences are related to physical gust parameters, and gusts with these parameters are then produced in wind-tunnel experiments using an active-grid gust generator. Measurements of the unsteady gust loads on an airfoil in the wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers (
and reduced frequencies between
confirm that the Sears and Atassi functions differ only in convention: the additional gust component of the Atassi problem can be scaled so that the Atassi function collapses onto the Sears function. These experiments, complemented by numerical simulations of the set-up, validate both models across a range of gust parameters. Finally, the influence of boundary-layer turbulence and the turbulent wake of the gust generator on experimental convergence with model predictions is investigated. These results serve to clarify the conditions under which the Sears and Atassi functions can be applied, and demonstrate that the Sears function can effectively model unsteady forces even when significant fluctuations in the streamwise velocity are present.
The main risk factor for acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is antimicrobial exposure, although acquisition can occur in their absence. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of patients who acquire ARB without antimicrobial exposure.
We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library for publications between January 1, 2000, and July 24, 2017, to identify studies of ARB acquisition in endemic settings. Studies required collection of serial surveillance cultures with acquisition defined as a negative baseline culture and a subsequent positive culture for an ARB, including either multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria or antimicrobial-resistant enterococci. Intervention studies were excluded. For each study, the proportion of patients who acquired an ARB but were not exposed to antimicrobials during the study period was quantified.
A total of 4,233 citations were identified; 147 underwent full-text review. Of these, 10 studies met inclusion criteria; 7 studies were considered to be at low risk of bias; and 6 studies were conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. The overall summary estimate for the proportion of patients who were not exposed to antimicrobials among those who acquired an ARB was 16.6% (95% CI, 7.8%–31.8%; P < .001), ranging from 0% to 57.1%. We observed no heterogeneity in the ICU studies but high heterogeneity among the non-ICU studies.
In most included studies, a subset of patients acquired an ARB but were not exposed to antimicrobials. Future studies need to address transmission dynamics of ARB acquisition in the absence of antimicrobials.
We aimed to provide comprehensive estimates of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalisations. Between 2012 and 2015, active surveillance of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalisations during winter seasons was used to estimate the seasonal incidence of laboratory-confirmed RSV hospitalisations in children aged <5 years in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). Incidence rates were estimated by fine age group, ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) strata. Additionally, RSV disease estimates determined through active surveillance were compared to rates estimated from hospital discharge codes. There were 5309 ARI hospitalisations among children during the study period, of which 3923 (73.9%) were tested for RSV and 1597 (40.7%) were RSV-positive. The seasonal incidence of RSV-associated ARI hospitalisations, once corrected for non-testing, was 6.1 (95% confidence intervals 5.8–6.4) per 1000 children <5 years old. The highest incidence was among children aged <3 months. Being of indigenous Māori or Pacific ethnicity or living in a neighbourhood with low SES independently increased the risk of an RSV-associated hospitalisation. RSV hospital discharge codes had a sensitivity of 71% for identifying laboratory-confirmed RSV cases. RSV infection is a leading cause of hospitalisation among children in NZ, with significant disparities by ethnicity and SES. Our findings highlight the need for effective RSV vaccines and therapies.
Extra-care housing (ECH) has been hailed as a potential solution to some of the problems associated with traditional forms of social care, since it allows older people to live independently, while also having access to care and support if required. However, little longitudinal research has focused on the experiences of residents living in ECH, particularly in recent years. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of four ECH schemes in the United Kingdom. Older residents living in ECH were interviewed four times over a two-year period to examine how changes in their care needs were encountered and negotiated by care workers, managers and residents themselves. This paper focuses on how residents managed their own changing care needs within the context of ECH. Drawing upon theories of the third and fourth age, the paper makes two arguments. First, that transitions across the boundary between the third and fourth age are not always straightforward or irreversible and, moreover, can sometimes be resisted, planned-for and managed by older people. Second, that operational practices within ECH schemes can function to facilitate or impede residents’ attempts to manage this boundary.