Investigations on oviposition behaviour of dengue vectors are critical for effective controlling of vector breeding. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the oviposition behaviour of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka. Batches of 1000 adult mosquitoes (1 : 1, male: female ratio) housed in rearing cages were used for each experimental setup from Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Oviposition responses with respect to the size of the ovitrap, colours of the ovitrap, water source, sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration and presence/absence of larvae were evaluated by enumerating the number of eggs laid in the ovitraps. The analysis of variance and cluster analysis were used to investigate the significance in the variations among oviposition. The number of eggs laid by both species were improved with the increasing size of ovitraps. Ae. albopictus indicated the highest mean number of eggs in 0.2% of NaCl than in the ovitraps filled with distilled water. However, the egg laying preference was reduced with increasing salinity in both species. Drain water with low dissolved oxygen (DO) level (0.43 ± 0.12 mg l−1) was the preferred water source for both species, while a significantly high oviposition rate was observed in ovitraps with larvae. Black colour ovitraps attracted the majority of gravid females, while white was least preferred. There were no significant variations among oviposition behaviours of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The ability of these vectors to breed in waste water with low DO levels may lead them to attain wide dissemination in the natural environment, enhancing their potential threat to human life.