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Electronic voting technology is often proposed as translating voter intent to vote totals better than alternative systems such as paper ballots. We suggest that electronic voting machines (EVMs) can also alter vote choice, and, in particular, the way in which voters register anti-system sentiment. This paper examines the effects of the introduction of EVMs in India, the world's largest democracy, using a difference-in-differences methodology that takes advantage of the technology's gradual introduction. We find that EVMs are associated with dramatic declines in the incidence of invalid votes, and corresponding increases in vote for minor candidates. There is ambiguous evidence for EVMs decreasing turnout, no evidence for increases in rough proxies of voter error or fraud, and no evidence that machines with an auditable paper trail perform differently from other EVMs. The results highlight the interaction between voter technology and voter protest, and the substitutability of different types of protest voting.
Caste and ethnicity have been crucial in shaping the discourse around identity politics in modern South Asia. This book critically discusses two important trends in twentieth-century Indian politics - the rise in the political salience of caste identities, and a shift in the way caste identity was conceptualized; from a hierarchical system based on the adoption of specific behaviours to a system based on bounded and autonomous groups not dissimilar to ethnic groups as conceived of in other parts of the world. It traces these changes to the evolving incentives of the elites of poorer ethnic groups, which are themselves a product of the gradual rise of literacy in colonial South Asia, and the democratization of the political system. This theory challenges accounts that emphasize the role of the colonial state in the evolution of caste. It presents a wide range of novel historical evidence to support these claims, both qualitative and quantitative, and covering both the colonial and post-independence periods.
The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) measures three aspects of catastrophic cognitions about pain—rumination, magnification, and helplessness. To facilitate assessment and clinical application, we aimed to (a) develop a short version on the basis of its factorial structure and the items’ correlations with key pain-related outcomes, and (b) identify the threshold on the short form indicative of risk for depression.
Social centers for older people.
664 Chinese older adults with chronic pain.
Besides the PCS, pain intensity, pain disability, and depressive symptoms were assessed.
For the full scale, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the hypothesized 3-factor model fit the data moderately well. On the basis of the factor loadings, two items were selected from each of the three dimensions. An additional item significantly associated with pain disability and depressive symptoms, over and above these six items, was identified through regression analyses. A short-PCS composed of seven items was formed, which correlated at r=0.97 with the full scale. Subsequently, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted against clinically significant depressive symptoms, defined as a score of ≥12 on a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. This analysis showed a score of ≥7 to be the optimal cutoff for the short-PCS, with sensitivity = 81.6% and specificity = 78.3% when predicting clinically significant depressive symptoms.
The short-PCS may be used in lieu of the full scale and as a brief screen to identify individuals with serious catastrophizing.
Identifying routes of transmission among hospitalized patients during a healthcare-associated outbreak can be tedious, particularly among patients with complex hospital stays and multiple exposures. Data mining of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential to rapidly identify common exposures among patients suspected of being part of an outbreak.
We retrospectively analyzed 9 hospital outbreaks that occurred during 2011–2016 and that had previously been characterized both according to transmission route and by molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates. We determined (1) the ability of data mining of the EHR to identify the correct route of transmission, (2) how early the correct route was identified during the timeline of the outbreak, and (3) how many cases in the outbreaks could have been prevented had the system been running in real time.
Correct routes were identified for all outbreaks at the second patient, except for one outbreak involving >1 transmission route that was detected at the eighth patient. Up to 40 or 34 infections (78% or 66% of possible preventable infections, respectively) could have been prevented if data mining had been implemented in real time, assuming the initiation of an effective intervention within 7 or 14 days of identification of the transmission route, respectively.
Data mining of the EHR was accurate for identifying routes of transmission among patients who were part of the outbreak. Prospective validation of this approach using routine whole-genome sequencing and data mining of the EHR for both outbreak detection and route attribution is ongoing.
Existing accounts of ethnic mobilization have focused on the role of group size or state policy. This paper suggests that narrow identity activism was also non-linearly related to education since poorly-educated groups are unlikely to have an educated elite to participate in activism, while in very educated groups this elite existed but participated in the colonial state or anti-colonial nationalism. This theory is tested using a historical panel dataset of Indian caste groups, with petitions to the colonial census authorities being used as an index of caste activism.
Fossil tree resins preserve a wide range of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms in microscopic fidelity. Fossil organisms preserved in an individual piece of amber lived at the same time in Earth history and mostly even in the same habitat, but they were not necessarily parts of the same interacting community. Here, we report on an in situ preserved corticolous community from a piece of Miocene Dominican amber which is composed of a lichen, a moss and three species of leafy liverworts. The lichen is assigned to the extant genus Phyllopsora (Ramalinaceae, Lecanoromycetes) and is described as P.magna Kaasalainen, Rikkinen & A. R. Schmidt sp. nov. The moss, Aptychellites fossilis Schäf.-Verw., Hedenäs, Ignatov & Heinrichs gen. & sp. nov., closely resembles the extant genus Aptychella of the family Pylaisiadelphaceae. The three leafy liverworts comprise the extinct Lejeuneaceae species Cheilolejeunea antiqua (Grolle) Ye & Zhu, 2010 and Lejeunea miocenica Heinrichs, Schäf.-Verw., M. A. M. Renner & G. E. Lee sp. nov. and the extinct Radulaceae species Radula intecta M. A. M. Renner, Schäf.-Verw. & Heinrichs sp. nov. The presence of five associated extinct cryptogam species, four of which belong to extant genera, further substantiates the notion of a stasis in morphotype diversity, but a certain turnover of species, in the Caribbean since the early Miocene.
Mass loss from mountain glaciers contributes to sea-level rise and reduces freshwater availability in glacier-fed river basins, with negative effects on hydropower generation, agriculture and the health of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we determine the volume of lower Peyto Glacier, Alberta, Canada, from ground-penetrating radar surveys in 2008–10, and compare our volume estimate with previous estimates from 1966 and 1984. The long-term record of mass-balance estimates on Peyto Glacier highlights Peyto’s importance as an ‘index’ glacier for the region. We calculate a mean volume of (3.39 ± 0.30) × 107 m3 for the glacier snout for the period 2008–10. Glacier volume decreased linearly from 1966 to 2010. If this trend persists, the glacier snout will disappear by ~2019 and Peyto Glacier will have retreated by ~1 km. Our results agree with modelling studies, which suggest that Peyto Glacier and other nearby glaciers along the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains will likely lose 80–90% of their present-day volume by 2100.
Disks of commercial Al-1050 and ZK60A alloys were stacked together and then processed by conventional high-pressure torsion (HPT) through 1 and 5 turns at room temperature to investigate the synthesis of an Al–Mg alloy system. Measurements of microhardness and observations of the microstructures and local compositions after processing through 5 turns revealed the formation of an ultrafine multi-layered structure in the central region of the disk but with an intermetallic β-Al3Mg2 phase in the form of nano-layers in the nanostructured Al matrix near the edge of the disk. The activation energy for diffusion bonding of the Al and Mg phases was estimated and it is shown that this value is low and consistent with surface diffusion due to the very high density of vacancy-type defects introduced by HPT processing. The results demonstrate a significant potential for making use of HPT processing in the preparation of new alloy systems.
The Mesoproterozoic Gardar Province in South Greenland developed in a continental rift-related environment. Several alkaline intrusions and associated dyke swarms were emplaced in Archaean and Ketilidian basement rocks during two main magmatic periods at 1300–1250 Ma and 1180–1140 Ma. The present investigation focuses on mafic dykes from the early magmatic period ('Older Gardar') and the identification of their possible mantle sources.
The rocks are typically fine- to coarse-grained dolerites, transitional between tholeiitic and alkaline compositions with a general predominance of Na over K. They crystallized from relatively evolved, mantle-derived melts and commonly show minor degrees of crustal contamination. Selective enrichment of the large ion lithophile elements Cs, Ba and K and the light rare-earth elements when compared to high field-strength elements indicate significant involvement of a sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) component in the generation of the magmas. This component was affected by fluid-dominated supra-subduction zone metasomatism, possibly related to the Ketilidian orogeny ∼500 Ma years prior to the onset of Gardar magmatism. Melt generation in the SCLM is further documented by the inferential presence of amphibole in the source region, negative calculated εNd(i) values (–0.47 to –4.40) and slightly elevated 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.702987 to 0.706472) ratios when compared to bulk silicate earth as well as relatively flat heavy rare-earth element (HREE) patterns ((Gd/Yb)N = 1.4 –1.9) indicating melt generation above the garnet stability field.
The dyke rocks investigated show strong geochemical and geochronological similarities to penecontemporaneous mafic dyke swarms in North America and Central Scandinavia and a petrogenetic link is hypothesized. Considering recent plate reconstructions, it is further suggested that magmatism was formed behind a long-lived orogenic belt in response to back-arc basin formation in the time interval between 1290–1235 Ma.
In this study the authors aimed to examine the differentiability of 5 factors that preschool teachers may perceive as essential for successful implementation of inclusive education in regular classrooms. The 5 hypothetically influential factors were teamwork, curriculum, school support, government support, and stakeholders’ attitudes. Teachers from half-day kindergarten and full-day childcare centre settings in Hong Kong with varying teaching experience were surveyed (N = 461). Confirmatory factor analysis defined the 5 distinct factors, all of which displayed high scores (Ms > 4 on a 5-point scale). A 2 (experience: low; high) x 2 (school type: half-day kindergarten; full-day childcare centre settings) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) found some subtle group differences. Less experienced teachers found stakeholders’ attitudes to be important, and more so than more experienced teachers, whereas full-day childcare centre teachers found teamwork, curriculum, and stakeholders’ attitudes more important than did half-day kindergarten teachers. The findings imply that whereas all 5 factors are perceived by teachers as important for the success of inclusive education, some factors are of greater concern to teachers working in full-day childcare centres than teachers working in half-day kindergartens. The findings provide advice on how best to allocate limited resources across settings with the intention of promoting inclusive education.