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The propagation of wave disturbances in water of varying depth bounded above by ice sheets is discussed, accounting for gravity, compressibility and elasticity effects. Considering the more realistic scenario of elastic ice sheets reveals a continuous spectrum of acoustic–gravity modes that propagate even below the cutoff frequency of the rigid surface solution where surface (gravity) waves cannot exist. The balance between gravitational forces and oscillations in the ice sheet defines a new dimensionless quantity
. When the ice sheet is relatively thin and the prescribed frequency is relatively low (
), the free-surface bottom-pressure solution is retrieved in full. However, thicker ice sheets or propagation of relatively higher frequency modes (
) alter the solution fundamentally, which is reflected in an amplified asymmetric signature and different characteristics of the eigenvalues, such that the bottom pressure is amplified when acoustic–gravity waves are transmitted to shallower waters. To analyse these scenarios, an analytical solution and a depth-integrated equation are derived for the cases of constant and varying depths, respectively. Together, these are capable of modelling realistic ocean geometries and an inhomogeneous distribution of ice sheets.
Specifications of the substrates are among the most important and problematic parameters that still do not have proper models in the design procedures of metasurfaces. In this paper, a new fast and exact algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented, which makes it possible to design frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs) on various kinds of standard substrates. Also for the first time, designing FSSs on uniaxial anisotropic substrates can be easily done in short time and without any optimization algorithms. During this paper, first equivalent geometry approach (EGA) is demonstrated as a new method of preparation the ANNs. Then EGA is used to train geometry transformation ANNs. The advantage of this approach is to reduce the size of training datasets by about 98% and prevent from superfluous simulations. Hence, the time needed for training of the networks is much less than before. Numerical results are used to show that the required time for developing FSSs is <200 ms on average, and errors are <2%. For the final validation, a prototype sample of FSS is fabricated on the RO4003 substrate with 20 mil thickness. Both analytical and experimental results confirm the correctness of the predicted values.
Use of frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs) is proposed to shield rooms against electromagnetic fields in order to achieve secure indoor communications and reduce human exposure to external fields. The secure room is designed using two-layer FSSs with an FR4 substrate to cover 10–12 GHz frequency band. Different elements in each layer and shift in the position of elements are the reasons for more than 3 GHz bandwidths in X band. The performance of the structure is also stable versus the misaligned position of layers. An equivalent circuit model is proposed for the structure and results show −20 dB isolation between inside and outside of the room in the desired frequency band. Bio tissue is located inside the cubic structure with FSS walls and the results of the specific absorption rate are demonstrated and compared in two rooms with FSS cover on concrete walls and a room with concrete walls. The 17 × 17 cm2 two-layer FSS is fabricated for the measurement and the results are presented. The designed FSS can be used in the construction of wave-isolated room for any application.
We present a depth-integrated equation for the mechanics of generation, propagation and dissipation of low-frequency hydro-acoustic waves due to sudden bottom displacement in a weakly compressible ocean overlying a weakly compressible viscous sediment layer. The model is validated against a full 3D computational model. Physical properties of these waves are studied and compared with those for waves over a rigid sea bed, revealing changes in the frequency spectrum and modal peaks. The resulting model equation can be used for numerical prediction in large-scale domains, overcoming the computational difficulties of 3D models while taking into account the role of bottom dissipation on hydro-acoustic wave generation and propagation.
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