More than one-third of humans and companion dogs in Western societies are overweight or obese. In people, vitamin D deficiency is widespread and associated with obesity, a now recognised inflammatory state. Low vitamin D status occurs in dogs with inflammatory conditions, but its relationship with obesity has not been investigated. In otherwise healthy privately owned adult dogs of ideal body condition (control, n 7) and dogs with overweight to obese body condition (treatment, n 8), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and body composition as inferred from 2H-labelled water dilution space were evaluated. Subsequently, the dogs were transitioned to a commercial canine therapeutic weight-loss diet; control dogs were fed to maintain body weight and treatment dogs were energy-restricted to achieve a safe weight-loss rate. Thereafter, serum 25(OH)D concentration was re-evaluated 8 weeks after diet transition, and at the study end, which was 6 months or when ideal body condition was achieved. At study end, body composition analysis was repeated. Initial body condition scores and percentage body fat were positively correlated (ρ = 0·891; P < 0·001). However, percentage body fat and serum 25(OH)D concentration were not significantly correlated. Final serum 25(OH)D concentrations were greater (P < 0·05) than initial concentrations for control and treatment groups, indicating a diet but not weight-loss effect on vitamin D status. These findings suggest that vitamin D status of dogs is not affected by obesity or loss of body fat with therapeutic weight reduction.