The peat bog at Homoródszentpál Kerek-tó (Round Lake), situated in Homoród Hills of the Eastern Carpathians in Romania, provides a continuous record of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes from the Early Holocene. In this study, we present a 7500-year-long high-resolution record of past climatic changes and signs of human impact recorded in a peat bog via integrating sedimentological, paleoecological and geochemical proxies. The basin of Round Lake formed around the Pleistocene–Holocene border when the permafrost thawed. Ponded water accumulated in the catchment basin from the beginning of the Holocene but ca. 7500 cal BP years ago lacustrine sedimentation was exchanged for peat accumulation. The 570-cm-long core was subsampled at 2–4 cm intervals and subjected to grain-size, loss-on-ignition (LOI), pollen, and radiocarbon (14C) analyses. Our findings were correlated with and interpreted in the light of paleobotanical records deriving from archaeological sites and the newest bioclimatological models of the nearby areas. Sedimentological analysis document erosion and accumulation events which were influenced by more complex processes like climate change. Based on environmental historical and climatic data we aimed to reconstruct the environmental changes of forested areas in the Homoródi Hills.