The development and reproduction of 60 clones of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), collected in the Rennes Basin, were compared on a resistant Triticum monococcum (Linnaeus) line (Tm44) and a susceptible Triticum aestivum (Linnaeus) cultivar (Arminda). All clones had lower larval survival and mean fecundity when reared on Tm44 in comparison with Arminda. They all performed equally well on Arminda whereas there was a marked and continuously distributed variation in performance parameters among clones maintained on Tm44. The plant species, from which clones originated, significantly affected aphid performances on resistant Tm44. A more detailed experiment was carried out with four clones, shown to differ in their level of fitness on Tm44. Their performances were compared on resistant (Tm44 and Tm46) and susceptible (Tm47 and Arminda) wheat genotypes. On the basis of larval development time and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), two types of response were distinguished among the four clones: clones Sa1 and Sa39 appeared to be less affected by Tm44 and Tm46 resistance than Sar2 and Sa48. Moreover, Tm46 was much less resistant to clone Sal than was Tm44. These results are discussed in relation to the origins of the variation in performance of S. avenae on resistant wheat, and their implications in plant breeding for resistance to S. avenae.