Fieldwork aimed at censusing Gumey's Pitta Pitta gumeyi in Peninsular Thailand was carried out over three field seasons. Fourteen sites were surveyed, at four of which the species was found. The main site (where it had been rediscovered in 1986) held 24–34 pairs, 12–18 of which were in the 500 ha study area. A second site held 3-6 pairs (but it is thought unlikely that this population still exists today), whilst the other two sites held only two pairs each and were thought to have negligible chances of survival. All territories were in semi-evergreen rainforest, below 150 m altitude. The current population i s probably some 20–30 pairs, with territories still being lost annually to deforestation. This is currently the total known world population; it is possible that the species may survive in southern Burma, but no recent surveys have been undertaken there. Furthermore, massive deforestation caused by Thai timber companies has been reported from Burma during 1988–1993. The interpretation of census results are discussed, particularly with reference to social organization and calling seasonality. The determined protection of the one remaining site supporting a viable population will be essential if the species is to survive into the next century.