To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Daytime sleepiness is associated with multiple negative outcomes in older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS) including reduced cognitive performance, need for greater assistance with activities of daily living and decreased social engagement. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of change in subjective daytime sleepiness among older adults during their first 2 years of receiving LTSS.
Design and Setting:
Secondary analysis of data from a prospective longitudinal study of older adults who received LTSS in their homes, assisted living communities or nursing homes interviewed at baseline and every 3 months for 24 months.
470 older adults (60 years and older) newly enrolled in LTSS (mean = 81, SD = 8.7; range 60–98; 71% women).
Subjective daytime sleepiness was assessed every 3 months through 2 years using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Multiple validated measures were used to capture health-related quality of life characteristics of enrollees and their environment, including symptom status (Symptom Bother Scale), cognition (Mini Mental Status Exam), physical function (Basic Activities of Daily Living), physical and mental general health, quality of life (Dementia Quality of Life, D-QoL), depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) and social support (Medical Outcomes Survey-Social Support).
Longitudinal mixed effects modeling was used to examine the relationship between independent variables and continuous measure of daytime sleepiness. Increased feelings of belonging, subscale of the D-QoL (effect size = −0.006, 95% CI: −0.013 to −0.0001, p = 0.045) and higher number of depressive symptoms (effect size = −0.002, 95% CI: −0.004 to −0.001, p = 0.001) at baseline were associated with slower rates of increase in daytime sleepiness over time.
Comprehensive baseline and longitudinal screening for changes in daytime sleepiness along with depression and perceived quality of life should be used to inform interventions aimed at reducing daytime sleepiness among older adults receiving LTSS.
Suicides are prone to misclassification during death-ascertainment procedures. This problem has generated frequent criticism of the validity of suicide mortality statistics. The study aim was to employ an external measure of the validity of cause-of-death statistics, national autopsy rates, to examine potential misclassification of suicide across 35 countries. Data for the time period 1979–2007, were employed to analyze the association between suicide rates and autopsy rates and death rates of undetermined and ill-defined causes, respectively. Autopsy rates among nations were associated with suicide rates. These respective associations were robust with adjustment for unemployment, degree of urbanization, and the rate of undetermined or ill-defined deaths. Associations strengthened when analyses were confined to 19 EU member countries. Based on these results, we conclude that autopsy rates may impact the validity of suicide mortality statistics. Therefore, caution should be exercised in comparing international suicide rates and evaluating interventions that target suicide rate reduction.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Background: A major concern of patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) for benign tumors and other conditions is the risk of a separate secondary malignancy or malignant -transformation. The incidence of radiosurgery-associated malignancy based on long-term follow-up remains unknown. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence rate of both malignant transformation and a separate radiation-associated malignancy in patients undergoing GKS from 1987 to 2016 at 5 centers. Results: 11 527 patients underwent radiosurgery for meningioma (n=3261), arteriovenous malformation (n=2868), trigeminal neuralgia (n=1982), vestibular schwannoma (n=1957), pituitary adenoma (n=1193), other (n=266). The follow-up time ranged from 0.3 to 23.8 years. Four cases of malignant transformation and 3 new malignant brain tumors were reported, two of which were not within the irradiated field. The incidence of malignant transformation was 6.6 per 100 000 patient-years and of new malignancy, either locally or distant, was 5 in 100 000 patient-years. These risks are not higher than the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States derived annual incidence rate of all primary malignant CNS tumors of 7.15 per 100 000. Conclusions: Physicians can safely counsel patients that the risk of malignancy after stereotactic radiosurgery remains extremely low, even at long-term follow-up of greater than 10 years.
Using semi-empirical isochrones, we find the age of the Taurus star-forming region to be 3-4 Myr. Comparing the disc fraction in Taurus to young massive clusters suggests discs survive longer in this low density environment. We also present a method of photometrically de-reddening young stars using iZJH data.
Herbig Ae/Be objects, like their lower mass counterparts T Tauri stars, are seen to form a stable circumstellar disk which is initially gas-rich and could ultimately form a planetary system. We present Herschel SPIRE 460–1540 GHz spectra of five targets out of a sample of 13 young disk sources, showing line detections mainly due to warm CO gas.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
Water vapour is the principle source of opacity at infrared wavelengths in the earth's atmosphere. Measurements of atmospheric water vapour serve two primary purposes when considering operation of an observatory: long-term monitoring of precipital water vapour (PWV) is useful for characterizing potential observatory sites, and real-time monitoring of PWV is useful for optimizing use, in particular for mid-IR observations.
1. Second attacks of typhoid fever are uncommon. In the literature this has been taken to imply that an attack of typhoid fever confers a high degree of immunity which, nevertheless, may be overcome by such factors as re-infection by a large dose, an organism of a different strain, or one of high virulence.
2. Two large outbreaks of typhoid fever in the same community within 5 months produced eleven examples of second attacks. Clinical descriptions of four of these are given.
3. Details are given of the population at risk and the attack rates in various groups.
4. The evidence of these facts and figures, though inconclusive, suggests that an attack of typhoid fever does not confer more than a moderate degree of specific immunity. The influence of chloramphenicol upon immunity remains sub judice.
Associations between animal behaviour and emissions of methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) have been noted in studies of grazing cattle (Lockyer, 1997) and feedlot confined cattle (Harper et al., 1999, Flesch et al., 2007). Methane emissions have been predicted as being greatest during bouts of rumination (Harper et al., 1999) whereas the emissions of the indirect greenhouse gas ammonia tends to be low early in the morning but increasing rapidly in the early afternoon after which a rapid decline until sunset (Flesch et al., 2007). With the exception of Harper et al., (1999) there are few complete data sets that examine the interaction between animal behaviour and greenhouse gas emissions from intensive animal production systems. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and emissions of CH4 and NH3 in a beef feedlot system in northern Australia.
Feedlot management systems for beef cattle are becoming a more common practice in Australia reflecting opportunities to ensure quality of product whilst maintaining cost efficiencies within production. However, feedlot systems have been identified as point sources of greenhouse gases emissions (GGE: methane, nitrous oxide and the indirect greenhouse gas ammonia). It has been estimated that feedlot systems contribute 3.5% of total direct methane emissions (Alford et al. 2006), and 30% of total emissions from livestock wastes. Furthermore, approximately 1% of total N2O emissions from agriculture are attributed to livestock. This paper reports methane, N2O and NH3 emissions from an Australian feedlot system managed under summer climatic conditions. It compares actual measured emissions with estimated from three recognised models used by national governments to estimate total GGE per annum from livestock agriculture.
SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, is Herschel's submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It comprises a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 μm, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 194–672 μm. The design of SPIRE is described, and the expected scientific performance is summarised, based on modelling and flight instrument test results.
We present three new methods for determining the age of groups of pre-main-sequence stars. The first, creating empirical isochrones allows us to create a robust age ordering, but not to derive actual ages. The second, using the width of the gap in colour-magnitude space between the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence (the radiative convective gap) has promise as a distance and extinction independent measure of age, but is as yet uncalibrated. Finally we discuss τ2 fitting of the main sequence as the stars approach the terminus of the main sequence. This method suggests that there is a factor two difference between these “nuclear” ages, and more conventional pre-main-sequence contraction ages.
Free radicals and reactive species produced in vivo can trigger cell damage and DNA modifications resulting in carcinogenesis. Dietary antioxidants trap these species limiting their damage. The present study evaluated the role of vitamins C and E in the prevention of potentially premalignant modifications to DNA in the human stomach by supplementing patients who, because of hypochlorhydria and possible depletion of gastric antioxidants, could be at increased risk of gastric cancer. Patients undergoing surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus (n 100), on long-term proton pump inhibitors were randomized into two groups: vitamin C (500 mg twice/d) and vitamin E (100 mg twice/d) for 12 weeks (the supplemented group) or placebo. Those attending for subsequent endoscopy had gastric juice, plasma and mucosal measurements of vitamin levels and markers of DNA damage. Seventy-two patients completed the study. Plasma ascorbic acid, total vitamin C and vitamin E were elevated in the supplemented group consistent with compliance. Gastric juice ascorbic acid and total vitamin C levels were raised significantly in the supplemented group (P=0·01) but supplementation had no effect on the mucosal level of this vitamin. However, gastric juice ascorbic acid and total vitamin C were within normal ranges in the unsupplemented group. Mucosal malondialdehyde, chemiluminescence and DNA damage levels in the comet assay were unaffected by vitamin supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation does not affect DNA damage in this group of patients. This is probably because long-term inhibition of the gastric proton pump alone does not affect gastric juice ascorbate and therefore does not increase the theoretical risk of gastric cancer because of antioxidant depletion.
The results of field experiments in 1983/84 and 1984/85
used to test the hypotheses (i) that
cultivars and management systems which result in high biomass of
winter barley will also produce
high grain yield and (ii) that greater uniformity of tiller and
ear size is associated with greater yield.
In a set of cultivars, grain yield per plant was significantly
correlated with biomass per plant despite
no correlation with any individual yield component. Biomass per
shoot was significantly correlated
with grain yield per shoot. Treatments to increase shoot uniformity
(the mass of individual tillers
relative to that of the main stem) generally increased biomass per
shoot and grain yield per shoot.
The re-examination of data in the literature where yield and biomass
were available confirmed the
association of biomass and grain yield both on a per plant and per
shoot basis. It is argued that
harvest index is not a character which can be easily targeted for
manipulation by growers, whereas
crop management systems to increase biomass should be easier to specify.
This paper reports the observation of high-n lines in emission from n = 12-11, 13-12, 14-13 and 16-15 Rydberg transitions in H, Mg and Si in solar far IR spectra taken from balloon altitudes, in which the H I line intensities are found to exceed those from the heavier elements. Tentative identification is also made of the n = 8-7 hydrogen line in emission on 20 μm spectra taken from Mauna Kea. The characteristics of the hydrogen lines are compared with lower-n transitions seen in the Space Shuttle ATMOS spectra, in which Brackett, Pfund and n = 6 lines with Δn = 1, 2, 3 and 4 are seen as broad absorption features, while the n = 7-6 line shows a small emission peak within a broader absorption line and the n = 9-7, and possibly the 11-8, transitions appear as weak emission lines. These results indicate that the transformation from absorption to emission occurs at longer wavelengths for hydrogen lines than for those of heavier elements.
A two-beam Martin-Puplett polarizing interferometer has been used in the rapid-scan mode on the 15 meter JCMT in conjunction with the facility detector, UKT14, to survey the solar sub-millimeter and millimeter spectrum in the four wavebands at 7-11, 11-15, 21-24 and 27-30 cm–1 to a spectral resolution of 0.01 cm–1 and at spatial resolutions of 19″, 16″, 7″ and 6″, respectively. Overall atmospheric transmission through these windows has been evaluated by comparison with synthetic spectra generated with FASCOD/HITRAN. A search has been made for contributions to these spectra from high-n transitions of H and heavier elements by several methods, including the comparison of solar with lunar and limb with disk center spectra.
Near IR total eclipse measurements have provided clear evidence during both 2nd and 3rd contacts for a limb extension of about 125 km for wavelengths in the range containing the CO fundamental vibration-rotation bands between 4.3 and 5.5 μm, when compared to the limb at nearby shorter wavelengths. This is interpreted as a “flash” spectrum in the CO lines, with the above extension representing the outer level of the CO emission layer. This height can be compared to the τCO = 1.0 level incorporated into recent representative atmospheric models (Ayres and Wiedemann, 1989) which is 90 km above the visible limb for a semi-empirical “hot chromosphere” model (Avrett, 1985) and 220 km for a “cool” radiative equilibrium model based upon work by Anderson (1989).