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This paper investigates the contribution of lexical spreads (or type counts) of English comparative more and -er constructions to an understanding of comparative alternation in the
-adjectives, that is adjectives ending in an orthographic
and an /i/ sound, e.g. lazy. Comparative
-adjective constructions from seven corpora of stage plays spanning from the 17th to the 20th century were analysed with mixed-effects modelling and correlations drawn between the comparatives of
-adjectives and those of other adjectives. The findings indicate that while morphological complexity in
-adjectives biases them towards more, more occurrences with
-adjectives may also be related to the lexical spread of more in disyllabic adjectives that are not
-ones. The findings suggest moreover that predictions of comparative forms based on the syntactic positioning of
-adjectives and the [±voiced] nature of their penultimate segments may make sense only with respect to the lexical spread of more in other English adjectives. To understand why
-adjectives seem divided between -er regularisation and adherence to the trend in English comparisons of a more bias, this paper proposes a need to supplement accounts of comparative alternation focused on the characteristics of
-adjectives with considerations related to the lexical spread of comparative constructions.
Medical response to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) requires specialized training and preparation. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) is a course designed to prepare health care workers for a MCI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the confidence of health care professionals in Thailand to face a MCI after participating in a BDLS course.
Basic Disaster Life Support was taught to health care professionals in Thailand in July 2008. Demographics and medical experience were recorded, and participants rated their confidence before and after the course using a five-point Likert scale in 11 pertinent MCI categories. Survey results were compiled and compared with P<.05 statistically significant.
A total of 162 health care professionals completed the BDLS course and surveys, including 78 physicians, 70 nurses, and 14 other health care professionals. Combined confidence increased among all participants (2.1 to 3.8; +1.7; P<.001). Each occupation scored confidence increases in each measured area (P<.001). Nurses had significantly lower pre-course confidence but greater confidence increase, while physicians had higher pre-course confidence but lower confidence increase. Active duty military also had lower pre-course confidence with significantly greater confidence increases, while previous disaster courses or experience increased pre-course confidence but lower increase in confidence. Age and work experience did not influence confidence.
Basic Disaster Life Support significantly improves confidence to respond to MCI situations, but nurses and active duty military benefit the most from the course. Future courses should focus on these groups to prepare for MCIs.
KuhlsDA, ChestovichPJ, Coule P, CarrisonDM, ChuaCM, Wora-UraiN, KanchanarinT. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) Training Improves First Responder Confidence to Face Mass-Casualty Incidents in Thailand. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):492–500.