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Mental health staff may have limited exposure to emergencies associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) during postgraduate training. The first time they encounter a person in the midst of severe obsessions, or one who has compulsively self-harmed in response to such obsessions, might be when working on call covering the emergency department. This educational article presents the lived experience of one of the authors as a clinical scenario. The scenario is then used to illustrate the severity of disability and the rates of self-harm and suicide-related mortality caused by OCD. The recognition and assessment of OCD is described, along with what helps in emergency situations. Written informed consent was obtained for the publication of clinical details.
Disasters pose a documented risk to mental health, with a range of peri- and post-disaster factors (both pre-existing and disaster-precipitated) linked to adverse outcomes. Among these, increasing empirical attention is being paid to the relation between disasters and violence.
This study examined self-reported experiences of assault or violence victimisation among communities affected by high, medium, and low disaster severity following the 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia. The association between violence, mental health outcomes and alcohol misuse was also investigated.
Participants were 1016 adults from high-, medium- and low-affected communities, 3–4 years after an Australian bushfire disaster. Rates of reported violence were compared by areas of bushfire-affectedness. Logistic regression models were applied separately to men and women to assess the experience of violence in predicting general and fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol misuse.
Reports of experiencing violence were significantly higher among high bushfire-affected compared with low bushfire-affected regions. Analyses indicated the significant relationship between disaster-affectedness and violence was observed for women only, with rates of 1.0, 0 and 7.4% in low, medium and high bushfire-affected areas, respectively. Among women living in high bushfire-affected areas, negative change to income was associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing violence (odds ratio, 4.68). For women, post-disaster violence was associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms.
Women residing within high bushfire-affected communities experienced the highest levels of violence. These post-disaster experiences of violence are associated with post-disaster changes to income and with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms among women. These findings have critical implications for the assessment of, and interventions for, women experiencing or at risk of violence post-disaster.
The preservation of genetic diversity is an important aspect of conservation biology. Low genetic diversity within a population can lead to inbreeding depression and a reduction in adaptive potential, which may increase extinction risk. Here we report changes in genetic diversity over 12 years in a declining population of the Corncrake Crex crex, a grassland bird species of high conservation concern throughout Europe. Despite a twofold demographic decline during the same period, we found no evidence for a reduction of genetic diversity. The gradual genetic differentiation observed among populations of Corncrake across Europe suggests that genetic diversity is maintained in western populations by constant gene flow from the larger and more productive populations in eastern Europe and Asia. The maintenance of genetic diversity in this species is an opportunity that may help the implementation of effective conservation actions across the Corncrake’s European range.
One important, but overlooked, risk mitigation device that facilitated the growth of the slave trade in the eighteenth century was the increasing availability of insurance for ships and their human cargoes. In this article we explore, for the first time, the relative cost of insurance for British slave traders, the underlying processes by which this key aspect of the business of slavery was conducted, and the factors behind price and other changes over time. Comparisons are also drawn with the transatlantic slave trades of other nations. As well as analyzing the business of underwriting slave voyages, we have two other objectives. First, we explore the meaning of slave insurance from the perspective of those directly involved in the trade. Was it about insuring lives or goods? Second, we provide new estimates of the importance of the slave trade to U.K. marine insurance. Did the former drive the growth of the latter, as Joseph Inikori has claimed?
Diagnosing delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) remains challenging because of a lack of specific tools, though motor dysfunction in delirium has been relatively under-explored. This study aimed to use dysfunction in balance and mobility (with the Hierarchical Assessment of Balance And Mobility: HABAM) to identify DSD. This is a cross-sectional multicenter study, recruiting consecutive patients ≥70 years admitted to five acute or rehabilitation hospitals in Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Switzerland. Delirium was diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria; dementia was determined by the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. HABAM score was recorded at admission. Out of 114 patients (mean age ± SD = 82 ± 7; 54% female), dementia alone was present in 24.6% (n = 28), delirium alone in 18.4% (n = 21) and DSD in 27.2% (n = 31). Patients with DSD had a mean HABAM score 7 points greater than those with dementia alone (19.8 ± 8.7 vs 12.5 ± 9.5; p < 0.001); 70% of participants with DSD were correctly identified using the HABAM at a cut off of 22 (sensitivity 61%, specificity 79%, AUC = 0.76). Individuals with delirium have worse motor function than those without delirium, even in the context of comorbid dementia. Measuring motor function using the HABAM in older people at admission may help to diagnose DSD.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: High-sensitivity diagnostics for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV at the point of care (POC) are not widely available. Lateral flow immunoassays (LFA) can detect HIV-p24, but are not sensitive enough in practice. With improvements, LFA are a compelling platform for POC in EID. We used functionalized magnetic beads and immunocomplex dissociation to improve sensitivity of HIV-p24 LFA. Here, we evaluate the utility for LFA to quantitatively report HIV-p24 concentration and estimate HIV viral load. Using purified p24 protein and virion constructs, we determined the limits of detection for HIV-p24 using LFA rapid tests. Using measurements from HIV-p24 ELISA, laboratory-developed RT-qPCR, droplet digital PCR, and gold standard clinical viral load, we further characterized the relationship between HIV-p24 concentration, HIV genomic RNA, and LFA test line signal. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We measured HIV-p24 concentration by ELISA (R&D Systems) and LFA (Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ag Combo). An LFA reader instrument was used to image test lines and measure test line signal on the LFA. HIV viral loads were measured using RT-qPCR and droplet digital RT-PCR protocols adapted in our lab. We obtained gold standard viral load measurements using the Roche Cobas TaqMan system at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Data analysis was performed using Prism 7 and Stata 14. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: LFA test line signal increases in a predictable, dose-dependent manner and correlates with concentration of purified HIV-p24 with a linear range between 50 and 1000 pg/mL (Spearman r=1; p=0.0004). We compared p24 concentration (ELISA). We evaluated the utility of LFA to quantify HIV-p24 from virions suspended in human plasma, which increased the limit of detection for HIV-p24 to 100 pg/mL and shifted the linear range 100–10,000 pg/mL (Spearman r=0.77; p<0.001). To evaluate the relationship between HIV-p24 concentration and concentration of HIV RNA, we employed 3 molecular techniques. The LFA is capable of detecting HIV-p24 concentrations that correspond to a range of viral loads between 653,000 and 1655 copies of viral RNA/mL. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our preliminary results are very promising, indicating that commercially available LFA can quantitatively measure HIV-p24 concentration to low levels. When coupled with our analysis of the relationship between HIV-p24 concentration and HIV RNA concentration, LFA may be a potential platform allowing us to estimate HIV viral burden at clinically relevant levels. Our next steps will be to evaluate this relationship in primary, clinical specimens in collaboration with the Tennessee Center for AIDS Research. We will incorporate technologies to improve the sensitivity of these LFA and evaluate their performance in field settings in Zambia. Our findings are broadly applicable for use in HIV care and treatment programs and early infant diagnosis programs around the world.
Detecting delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) can be challenging because assessment partly relies on cognitive tests that may be abnormal in both conditions. We hypothesized that a combined arousal and attention testing procedure would accurately detect DSD.
Patients aged ≥70 years were recruited from five hospitals across Europe. Delirium was diagnosed by physicians using DSM-5 criteria using information from nurses, carers, and medical records. Dementia was ascertained by the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. Arousal was measured using the Observational Scale of Level of Arousal (OSLA), which assesses eye opening, eye contact, posture, movement, and communication. Attention was measured by participants signaling each time an “A” was heard when “S-A-V-E-A-H-A-A-R-T” was read out.
The sample included 114 persons (mean age 82 years (SD 7); 54% women). Dementia alone was present in 25% (n = 28), delirium alone in 18% (n = 21), DSD in 27% (n = 31), and neither in 30% (n = 34). Arousal and attention was assessed in n = 109 (96%). Using OSLA, 83% participants were correctly identified as having delirium (sensitivity 85%, specificity 82%, AUROC 0.92). The attention task correctly classified 76% of participants with delirium (sensitivity 90%, specificity 64%, AUROC 0.80). Combining scores correctly classified 91% of participants with delirium (sensitivity 84%, specificity 92%, AUROC 0.94). Diagnostic accuracy remained high in the subgroup with dementia (93% correctly classified, sensitivity 94%, specificity 92%, AUROC 0.98).
This combined arousal–attention assessment to detect DSD was brief yet had high diagnostic accuracy. Such an approach could have clinical utility for diagnosing DSD.