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Postel Nunatak in the Patuxent Range has been previously mapped as Nelson Limestone but there was no biostratigraphic support for that interpretation until now. We confirm that limestone exposures at Postel Nunatak are at least partly correlated with the Nelson Limestone of the Neptune Range, 160 km north-east, and are not correlative with the lower Cambrian Schneider Hills Limestone of the Argentina Range. Upper beds have yielded the trilobites Suludella? davnii Palmer & Gatehouse, 1972 and Solenopleura pruina Palmer & Gatehouse, 1972, which provide a basis for assignment to Cambrian Series 3 (late middle Cambrian), within the Drumian or lower Guzhangian stages. Limestone beds were deposited in a shallow marine setting, ranging from supratidal to lagoonal facies with rare subtidal intervals. These settings contrast with deeper water facies of the Neptune Range. Despite limitations in sampling density, isotopic analysis indicates that a greater than +2.5‰ shift in δ13C is consistent with δ13C trends documented for the Drumian Stage. Because the upper and lower contacts at Postel Nunatak are covered by snow and ice, the relationship with rocks mapped as the Patuxent Formation in the Patuxent Range remains uncertain, but part of it may belong to the Precambrian Hannah Ridge Formation.
Community treatment orders (CTOs) were introduced in Scotland in 2005, but are controversial owing to a lack of supportive randomised evidence. The non-randomised studies provide mixed results on their efficacy and utility. We aimed to examine hospital bed day usage across Scotland both before and after CTOs were initiated in a national cohort of patients, spanning 5 years.
In total, 1558 individuals who were subject to a CTO between 2007 and 2012, of whom 63% were male, were included. After CTO initiation the number of hospital bed days fell, on average, from 66 to 39 per annum per patient. Those with a longer psychiatric history appeared to benefit more from a CTO, in terms of reduced time in hospital.
Our data offer cautious support for the use of CTOs in routine practice, in terms of reducing time spent in psychiatric hospital. This finding is balanced by the more rigorous randomised studies which do not find any benefit to CTOs.
Community compulsion via community compulsory treatment orders is used routinely in Scotland. We aimed to describe the common characteristics of individuals subject to community compulsion. We collected standardised information from a national database about individuals subject to community compulsion and compared them with people subject to hospital detention.
Analysis of 499 cases revealed that the majority of individuals subject to community compulsion had a psychotic illness, had a history of non-adherence to services and treatment, and were more likely than not to be in receipt of a long-acting injection of antipsychotic medication. Patients subject to community compulsion were clinically similar to patients subject to hospital-based treatment orders and usually were considered to pose a risk to other people.
Community compulsion has been widely adopted despite a relative lack of supporting scientific evidence. Our findings are similar to those of other related studies and highlight that individuals with a psychotic illness who are ambivalent about treatment and who pose a risk to self or others are likely to be considered for community compulsion.
Field observations revealed many dead specimens of the adult syrphid Metasyrphus lapponicus Zetterstedt in a quarry in the Chicoutimi region of Quebec in the summer of 1972. All the flies lay in horizontal strips with their head towards the zenith of the sun. The presence of mycelium indicated that they succumbed to a fungal disease. A fungus representing a species of Entomophthora was isolated and found to be new. Why the syrphids chose the sandy slopes of a quarry in which to die was not determined.
Entomophthora crustosa n. sp. pathogenic for Malacosoma species (principally M. disstria Hbn.), is described. It is characterized in the conidial state by a hymenial coating which, at maturity, forms a crust-like covering, cinnamon brown, over the surface of infected insects, and by conidial size. In the resting spore (zygospore) state the distinguishing attributes are ornamentation of the zygospores and their mode of development. The pathogen grows readily on coagulated egg-yolk media.
The fungus is briefly compared with 10 other closely related Entomophthora species. Entomophthora crustosa seems to be of widespread occurrence in eastern North America.
Although hospital-acquired infections appear to be a growing threat to the survival of newborns in the developing world, the epidemiology of this problem remains poorly characterized.
During a 10-month period, we conducted prospective longitudinal surveillance for colonization and bloodstream infection caused by gram-negative rods among all infants hospitalized in the 2 largest neonatal intensive care units in Manila, the Philippines. We determined antibiotic susceptibilities and calculated adjusted odds ratios for risk factors for bacteremia by means of multivariate logistic regression.
Of 1,831 neonates enrolled during a 10-month period, 1,017 (55.5%) became newly colonized and 358 (19.6%) became bacteremic with a drug-resistant gram-negative rod, most commonly Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the invasive isolates, 20% were resistant to imipenem, 41% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 52% to amikacin, 63% to ampicillin-sulbactam, 67% to ceftazidime, and 80% to tobramycin. The factors significantly associated with an increased risk of bacteremia were mechanical ventilation and prematurity. Additionally, colonization with a drug-resistant gram-negative rod was an independent risk factor for bacteremia (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.9]).
Colonization with a drug-resistant gram-negative rod was an independent risk factor for sepsis. If our data are typical, the unusually high intensity of colonization pressure and disease caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative rods at these 2 neonatal intensive care units indicates an emerging healthcare crisis in the developing world. Improved infection control methods are therefore critically needed in developing countries.
Objective and subjective lithium compliance was investigated in 30 out-patients attending at an affective disorders clinic. Possible precursors of compliance levels were investigated; namely lithium knowledge and attitudes, patient satisfaction and dosage of lithium administered.
All patients were defined as currently compliant. Patients with a previous history of non-compliance were exclusively diagnosed with manic depression. Patient satisfaction, lithium knowledge and attitudes were not good predictors of lithium compliance.
Compliance with lithium can remain excellent in the presence of moderate lithium knowledge and poor attitudes. Poor attitude towards lithium worsens with years on medication, despite high levels of compliance. Clinicians should be aware that larger prescribed dosages of lithium may be associated with poorer compliance.