Objective: To investigate the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) in twin–twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) managed with laser surgery.
Study design: We performed a prospective cohort study of all consecutive TTTS cases treated with laser surgery (TTTS group) delivered at the Leiden University Medical Center. We recorded the occurrence of EOS, defined as a positive blood culture ≤72 hours postpartum (proven sepsis) or administration of a full course of antibiotics due to risk factors or signs of sepsis, in the absence of a positive blood culture (suspected sepsis). Perinatal variables in the TTTS group were compared with uncomplicated monochorionic twins (no-TTTS group). A multivariate model was generated, examining the association between EOS and gestational age at birth, interval between laser surgery and birth, anterior placenta, laser period (first study period: 2002–2008; second study period: 2009–2015), and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).
Results: The rates of combined suspected and proven EOS in the TTTS group and no-TTTS group were 16% (68/416) and 10% (55/542), respectively (relative ratio [RR] 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–2.55). Multivariate analysis showed that EOS in the TTTS group was independently associated with lower gestational age at birth (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, 95% CI 0.63–0.88), first study period (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.08–4.67) and PPROM (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.28–4.75).
Conclusion: The rate of EOS in the TTTS group is low, but increased compared to the no-TTTS group. EOS in TTTS is independently associated with premature delivery, earlier laser period, and PPROM.