Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women undergoing cesarean section (C-section), a common procedure in North America. While risk factors for SSI are often modifiable, wide variation in clinical practice exists. With this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the results and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on interventions to reduce surgical site infections among women undergoing C-section.
We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 2000 and May 2014 on interventions to reduce the occurrence of SSIs (incisional infections and endometritis), among women undergoing C-section. We extracted data on the interventions, outcomes, and strength of evidence as determined by the original article authors, and assessed the quality of each article based on a modified Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool.
A total of 30 review articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Among these articles, 77 distinct interventions were evaluated: 29% were supported with strong evidence as assessed by the original article authors, and 83% of the reviews articles were classified as good quality based on our assessment. Ten interventions were classified as being effective in reducing SSI with strong evidence in a good-quality article, including preoperative vaginal cleansing, the use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and several surgical techniques.
Efforts to reduce SSI rates among women undergoing C-section should include interventions such as preoperative vaginal cleansing and the use of perioperative antibiotics because compelling evidence exists to support their effectiveness.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(8):915–921