Pollen and seed dispersal are key ecological processes, directly impacting the spatial distribution, abundance and genetic structure of plant populations; yet, pollen- and seed-dispersal distances are poorly known. We used molecular markers to identify the parental origin (n = 152 adult trees) of 177 Spondias radlkoferi (Anacardiaceae) seeds deposited by the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) in latrines located beneath 17 sleeping-trees in two continuous forest sites (CF) and two forest fragments (FF) in the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico. We estimated mean parent-offspring (PO) distances per latrine and, for those seeds (54% of seeds) with more than one candidate parent (i.e. the potential maternal and parental parents), we also estimated parent-parent (PP) distances per latrine, and tested if PO and PP distances differed between forest types. Global PO and PP distances per latrine averaged 682 m (range = 83–1741 m) and 610 m (range = 74–2339 m), respectively, and did not differ significantly between CF and FF. This suggests that pollen dispersal is extensive in both forest types and that long seed dispersal distances (>100 m) are common, thus supporting the hypothesis that the spider monkey is an effective seed disperser of S. radlkoferi in continuous and fragmented forests.